Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is designed to introduce freshmen and sophomores to the development of western civilization from the rise of Christianity to the Reformation. It is an "introductory" course not only because it treats over fifteen hundred years of European history, but also because it introduces you to some of the techniques of studying and writing history, the most comprehensive and variegated of all the academic disciplines. The focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created our world. The reading will concentrate on sources works written by those who made our history and those readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce students to ways of posing historical questions. Examinations will emphasize understanding, not rote-memorization; there are also short, three-page papers based on the assigned readings. (Lindner)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course is designed as a general introduction to modern European history since 1700 for those without previous college-level work in history. It is designed to meet the needs both of those looking for a general survey course to broaden their education and of those thinking of concentrating in history. While History 110 provides an excellent background for History 111, it is not a required prerequisite. Some of the themes emphasized in History 111 are: the breakdown of traditional monarchial, aristocratic, and church domination in the age of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; the intensification of nationalism and the reunification of Germany and Italy; the industrial revolution and the changing quality of European life (urbanization) and politics (the emergence of socialist and working-class parties); the middle-class domination of politics and its disintegration; the impact on popular thought of the new scientific advances of the nineteenth century; the expansion of the rival European powers overseas in the age of imperialism; the intensification of international rivalries and the First World War; the Russian Revolution and the emergence of the Communist challenge; the rise and fall of Fascism; the place of Europe in the post-imperialist world. The course is conducted in lectures and discussions, with readings in both textbooks and contemporary writings. One or two short papers are usually required. (Price)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 121. (Tonomura)

151/Asian Studies 111. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

See Asian Studies 111. (Trautmann)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This course traces continuities and changes in the dynamic interplay of demographic, ecological, social, political, economic, and cultural forces that give shape to the development of the American Republic from the earliest British colonization to the end of the Civil War. As the nation observes the 200th anniversary of the drafting of its Constitution, we will pay special attention to the genius of the Founding Fathers but we shall not ignore their failings nor overlook the fact that the realities did not always live up to the rhetoric. Through lectures, recitations and essays, we will expose you to ways of thinking historically and of communicating effectively that you can apply throughout your undergraduate education. (Achenbaum)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course examines selected aspects of the history of the United States since the Civil War. While the reading assignments a textbook and collateral reading cover the full spectrum of that history, the lectures will pay particular attention to three themes the growth, maturation and weakening of an industrial society; the Black experience from Reconstruction to Reagan; and the triumphant and troubled role of the United States in international politics in the Twentieth Century. There will be two lectures and two section meetings each week. (Perkins)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Near East and Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from the Bronze Age through 200 B.C. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material, together with selected readings from Greek sources in translation. There is a midterm hour examination plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading. (Humphreys)

212/MARC 212. The Renaissance. (4). (HU).

This course will begin with a discussion of social and political life in communal Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. The rise of cities, the formation of city-states, establishment of communal governments, and the emergence of commerce and banking will be treated. Consideration will be given to literary and artistic developments in the age of Dante and Giotto. Education and the spread of literacy in cities will be examined. Next, the rise of humanism will be investigated and the writings of Boccaccio, Petrarch, and Salutati analyzed. Civic humanism, with its concern for the organization of state and society will be investigated in political writings from Bruni to Machiavelli. The theme of the "diginity of men" will be explicated in literature and the fine arts. Social changes of the 15th century and their impact on cultural and political life will be discussed. The effects of the crisis of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when Italy was subject to foreign invasions, will be dealt with. The course will then conclude with an examination of the effects of the Protestant and Catholic reformations on Italian social life and thought in the 16th century. (Becker)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to study the main features of the American war in Vietnam and its background. We will be concerned with Vietnam's modern history and the development of its revolution as well as with emerging American policy and its fate. There will be two 80-minute lecture periods and one 50-minute discussion each week. Grades will be based on a midterm, a final, and participation in sections. (Young)

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (4). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of early Chinese history, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, and lectures on literature and society in premodern China and Classical Opera (historical significance, intellectual and social themes and roles, and demonstrations). (Chang)

265. A History of the University of Michigan. (3). (Excl).

The University of Michigan has a proud and important heritage. Since 1817 it has been a leader in shaping the modern American university. The course will relate the university's history from the perspectives of students, faculty, fields of study, administration, politics, etc. It will also explore the factors that have shaped one modern American university. The only prerequisite are a desire to know more about your own university and its place in history. The main mode of presentation will be lectures, often illustrated with slides. Grading will be based on exams, one or two short papers, and a class project. Tours, mostly self-guided, will familiarize students with buildings, manuscripts, and other aspects of our past. Readings will be from a course pack and required texts. (Margaret L. Steneck, Nicholas H. Steneck)

283. Survey of the History of Science. (4). (HU).

Mention of the history of science usually brings to mind the names of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and the like. These are the persons who are thought to have been responsible for the rise of modern science. But there is more to the history of science than great names. Present society not only has had its ideas but also its social institutions, its culture, its economic foundation, and its values shaped by the growing wave of scientism that began in antiquity and has crested in the twentieth century. In this course we will survey the history of science, looking at all the factors involved in the shaping of modern society, and with the ultimate objective of understanding our origins. The course is introductory. No background is expected, although some familiarity with Western Civilization would be helpful. (Steneck)

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (4). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. This course will study a variety of historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision-making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Indians, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. The readings will focus on the English speaking world since 1492, although comparisons with other societies will be introduced. This course is a basic introduction. No background in medicine or history is assumed or required. Classes will be taught in lecture format, using a variety of audio and visual source materials. Reading assignments will emphasize primary source documents, such as old newspapers, magazines, and vintage medical journals. Modern historical articles will also be assigned. There will be a midterm and final exam, and periodic short quizzes. (Pernick)

286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (4). (HU).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all majors, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantine's conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic & Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the 11th century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Considerable attention is given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam (which can be taken orally or as a written) and a final are required. (J. Fine)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

307/GNE 363/Rel. 359. History of Ancient Israel II: The Formation of Classical Judaism. May be elected independently of NES 362. (3). (Excl).

See GNE 363. (Machinist)

332/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/REES 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See Russian and East European Studies 395.

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

History 366 will examine via talks, books, films and discussion sections - -America's wars of the past 90 years, with emphasis on those that have engaged this society since 1940. The stress will fall on individual perceptions of war's purposes and meanings as they are revealed in autobiography and fiction and on the patterns of personal experience in combat as they alter from war to war. In larger historical perspective, the following themes will receive attention: American society's patterns of response to situations of conflict; methods of mobilizing the nation for war; the experience of the homefront; American images of ally and enemy; and the role of technology in altering the nature of war. There will be little discussion of tactics or the technical processes of war-making. Students are asked to select one of the lecture sections, and to register as well for one of the discussion sections scheduled to meet an additional hour each week. There are no history-course prerequisites for History 366. (Linderman)

383. Modern Jewish History to 1880. (4). (SS).

This lecture course offers a survey of Jewish history in western and eastern Europe, America, and the Middle East from the mid-seventeenth century to the 1870's. It begins with the emergence of western European Jews from cultural and social isolation, discusses their acquisition of the full rights of citizenship, and traces their efforts to modernize Jewish ritual and belief to make them more compatible with their new situation. The focus then shifts to eastern Europe, where traditional values and patterns of behavior persisted until the end of the nineteenth century. The lectures on eastern Europe will focus on the religious and social character of Jewish life in Poland and Russia, the development of Hasidism, and the first glimmerings of enlightenment (Haskalah) in the mid-nineteenth century. The course will conclude with a look at the growth of the Jewish community in America before the mass migration from eastern Europe and, turning elsewhere in the diaspora, with a brief survey of the Jewish communities of North Africa and the Middle East. There will be an essay-type midterm, a ten-page paper, and a comprehensive final. (Endelman)

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

SECTION 001 MYTHS AND MODELS IN AMERICAN HISTORY. This colloquium examines the close connections among myths, models, morals, methodologies, and metahistories in the production of historical knowledge and understanding. It postulates that history-as-actual-past and history-as-written-text interpenetrate in such important essentials that history, historiography, and philosophy of history are often the same thing. The medium of the course will be United States history by way of example. Recent, well-received books in the field that exemplify clear models, morals, etc., in-and of-American history will be the subject of the weekly discussions and brief papers: Lockridge, A NEW ENGLAND TOWN; Boyer and Nissenbaum, SALEM POSSESSED; Trachtenberg, INCORPORATION OF AMERICA; Smith, VIRGIN LAND; and others. The student will learn to read American histories in a new, more complex and active way and understand better the multiple perspectives and epistemologies fused in the narrative syntheses of the United States past. (Berkhofer)

SECTION 003 SOCIALISM and NATIONALISM. This course will explore select topics in the history of socialism and nationalism in Central and Eastern Europe including Russia/USSR from 1848 to the middle of the 20th century. There will be readings in primary texts (in English translation) and in secondary literature. One of the main themes of the course is the interaction between Marxism and nationalism in the multi-ethnic societies of the Habsburg Monarchy and tsarist Russia and their post-World-War-One successor states. Students will be evaluated for their participation in discussion and for their written work (major paper or several brief essays). Secondary authors will include Leszek Kolakowski, Andrzej Walicki, John Breuilly, Alfred G. Meyer and Anthony D. Smith. Introductory college coursework in modern European history or political science expected. (Szporluk)

SECTION 004 "SOCIAL and ECONOMIC ISSUES of the FORD ADMINISTRATION." For this upper division writing and research seminar, students will focus on the history of the 1970's and specifically upon Gerald R. Ford and his presidential administration. The seminar will meet as class for lecture/discussion during the first four weeks at the Gerald R. Ford Library on North Campus. Students will then meet individually with the instructor as they research and write a report on selected topics utilizing the resources of the Ford Library. Students should have a survey knowledge of recent American History. Evaluation will be based on discussion, an exam over assigned readings, and a research paper, with the emphasis being on the latter-objectives: (1) provide an overview of the office of the president; (2) examine the White House and have it functions in the creation of the documentary record; (3) provide a summary review of the presidency of Gerald R. Ford; and (4) learn how to conduct research and write a seminar paper. Research topics will focus on economic and social issues. (Wilson)

Section 005 AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM. This course will attempt to provide an improved understanding of contemporary problems and controversies confronting the United States by considering them in relation to the national historical experience and the processes of change and development which the nation has undergone. The underlying argument is that political institutions, practices and values are formed in particular historical circumstances but persist long after those circumstances have changed. One consequence is political stability and the avoidance of radical and potentially disruptive change. A second consequence is that persistent practices, institutions and values can become problems themselves, and constraints on the capacity of the nation to respond to new needs and challenges. Thus a central goal of the course will be to assess for the contemporary period, the consequences of these patterns of persistence. To do so will require examination of aspects of the political development of the United States from the founding of the nation to the present. Grades will be based on several papers and class participation. (Clubb)

Section 006 NATURE and SOCIETY in EUROPEAN THOUGHT. This course will investigate the origins and consequences of European social thinkers' fascination with nature as a model for society since the seventeenth century. It will be based on a reading, discussion and analysis of original texts by such writers as Bacon, Descartes, Locke, Rousseau, Diderot, Conderot, Burke, Darwin, Marx, and Freud. Students will write, discuss, and thoroughly revise two five-page papers based on readings for the course and one ten to fifteen-page research paper. (Sewell)

Section 007 COMPARATIVE REVOLUTIONARY ELITES. The course will study and compare the personalities and the writings of selected leaders of opposition movements advocating radical social change. The focus of the comparison will be a contrast between several violent and non-violent trends. The examples of violent movements to be studied are: (1) Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism; (2) Anarchism; and (3) Fascism. The non-violent movements are those associated with (1) Gandhi, Tolstoy, and related "non-violent" resistance groups; (2) communal movements in India, Israel, the U.S. and elsewhere; and (3) the recent wave of "narcissism" with its emphasis on an "inward" voyage as the route to follow towards solving individual and social problems. The course will be especially interested in relating the ideals and ideas to the personalities of their authors and in evaluating the social consequences of those ideas and ideals, judging, that is, their success or failure and their social costs. The course will involve, mainly discussions of the assigned readings. In addition to active participation in those discussions, the requirements are one term paper and a final exam. (Mendel)

Section 009 THE ORIGINS of JEWISH MODERNITY. The undergraduate colloquium will study the passage of western European Jewry from tradition to modernity in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. We will discuss how and why Jews acquired civil and political equality, abandoned traditional forms of ritual and belief, adopted non-Jewish values and modes of behavior, and entered new spheres of activity in state and society. We will examine, in particular, why this transformation proceeded more rapidly and smoothly in some countries in western Europe than in others. Students will read both primary sources, such as Moses Mendelssohn's JERUSALEM, and Solomon Maimon's AUTOBIOGRAPHY, and secondary accounts, such as Jacob Katz's, OUT of the GHETTO and Raphael Mahler's, HISTORY OF MODERN JEWRY. Students will be expected to do a considerable amount of reading, some of it quite difficult, and to discuss the assigned texts in class. They will be evaluated on the basis of their classroom participation and the four analytical essays they will be asked to write. While there are no formal prerequisites, students who have not taken classes in either modern European history or modern Jewish history may find they lack the background to do well in the course. (Endelman)

SECTION 010 THE WEST in ASIA 1498-1941. "Colloquium" means "talking together," and this is mainly a discussion course, but based on a wide range of readings. Given the scope of the topic, these can be only samples but will include enough basic materials to provide the context of modern Asian history (Indian, Southeast Asia, China, Japan, and Korea), into which we will try to fit the westerners, in their varied and changing roles from Vasco da Gama and Magellan to the end of full-scale colonialism with the Pacific War. What were their goals, and how did they differ over time and between each group and each major Asian area? How and why were they able to win positions of power and influence in Asia, and with what consequences? Reading and discussion are emphasized, but there are also four required essays, each of 5-10 pages, to be based on the readings, in lieu of examinations. Grades are based entirely on these essays but each student will also be responsible for one or more oral presentations on selected topics. No prior knowledge of Asia is required, but interest and willingness to read and talk about it are assumed. (Murphey)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

SECTION 002 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY GENERATION. The colloquium focuses on the American Revolutionary experience, less in the political, military, and economic history of the Revolution than on the life histories of people, groups, and communities caught up by the Revolution and presumably affected by it. There is a vast amount of material for this kind of inquiry, but historians have made little use of it because "ordinary" people and communities have not seemed interesting. But to ask what difference the Revolution made is interesting, and that is the question posed by the colloquium. It begins with some general reading and discussion of historical writing about the Revolutionary period (including works of Charles Beard and Bernard Bailyn, and a collection edited by Jack Greene), during which each student will do a brief report on a historian. Next, several models for the kind of inquiry being done by the colloquium are considered (works by Robert Gross, Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum, and Kenneth Lynn), during which each student will re-examine one of the figures in Lynn's book. The rest of the colloquium is devoted to individual research projects. These may take a variety of forms, depending on the interest of the student: biography, group biography, community study, the study of military or political organizations tracing their members from their origins to their death. The sources are plentiful, and a great deal of them may be found in the libraries of the University. The final result is a research paper or its equivalent. The Colloquium meets once each week for two hours, but additional meetings on an individual basis are a regular part of the course. (Shy)

Section 003 HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY. The course will start by looking at a few topics on which good work combining historical and anthropological approaches has been done: slavery, madness, death, childhood. In the latter part of the course students will give presentations on topics of their own choice, worked out in consultation with the instructor. Each presentation will then form the basis for a term paper. Grading based on contributions to class discussion, presentation and term paper. No required text. There may be a course pack. (Humphreys)

SECTION 004 EMERGENGE of MODERN MEDICINE: HEALTH CARE in AMERICA, from PASTEUR to PENICILLIN, 1870-1950. The period from the discovery of bacteria as a causes of disease, to the commercial introduction of antibiotic cures, produced both unprecedented medical advances, and a revolution in the image, power, and philosophy of the healing professions. Course topics include: the role of medical discoveries and social changes in controlling previously devastating diseases; the changing public image and social role of the healing professions; the ethical, economic, and political dimensions of medical decisionmaking; women healers and women patients; genetics and racism; immigrants, industrial workers, and health; and the growth of hospitals and medical schools. No background in history or medicine is required, although a previous introduction to either would be helpful. Class will be a discussion format, with occasional brief lectures. Students will be expected to read and discuss thoughtfully about 200 pages per week, drawn from a variety of different sources. A 15 page paper based on original historical research, a weekly journal, and a five page book review paper are required of each student. No written exams. This is a rewarding but very demanding course intended only for those who are able to sustain high levels of individual effort on a weekly basis. Those absent from the first class without advance permission WILL NOT be allowed to remain in the course. (Pernick)

Section 005 EARLY COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA: CONTACT, CONQUEST, and ADAPTATION. This course analyzes the early period of interaction between Europeans and Indians in Latin America, examining pre-Columbian societies, the roots of European expansion, the process of conquest, patterns of Indian response to European domination, and the evolution of a range of colonial societies. We shall pay special attention to the evolving systems of exploitation of land and labor, and to processes of cultural transformation. We will explore the concept of "colonial heritage," and ask in what ways this early history shaped the subsequent evolution of Latin America. Readings will be drawn from both primary and secondary sources, including selections from Christopher Columbus, Guaman Poma, Bartolome de las Casas, and Bernardino Sahagun, as well as interpretive works by Charles Gibson, Nancy Farriss, Karen Spalding, John Murra, James Lockhart, and William Taylor. The course format will be discussion, and full participation by all students is required. Background either in history or in Latin American Studies will be helpful, but it is not essential. Course requirements include a reading journal, two short papers, oral presentations, and a longer paper. (Scott)

Section 007 THE FLOATING WORLD in FEUDAL JAPAN. The Tokugawa Shounate (1600-1868), Japan's last warrior government, organized the society into a rigid hierarchy and placed severe requirements on individuals to conform to Confucian rules of behavior. But within this society, there evolved a culture of tremendous vitality centered around the pleasure quarters of major cities. More than just brothels and bath houses, "the floating world" fostered exuberant popular art in the forms of theatre, painting, and prose fiction. The course studies the historical phenomenon of contrast - official rigidity and popular laxity by first investigating the institutional arrangements established by this feudal government and then turning to the "floating world" itself. Official documents, popular literature, plays, and woodblock art are some of the sources studied in the course. There is no prerequisite for enrollment; requirements will include two papers. (Tonomura)

Section 008 Facing Death. Philosophical and religious thinking about death from the Old Testament and the Greeks to early-modern (or possibly modern) times. The readings will almost certainly include the Old and New Testaments, Plato, Stoicism, Augustine, Erasmus, Luther, and Montaigne, and may possibly include à Kempis, the ARS MORIENDI, Calvin, John Voltaire, or Freud. Weekly meetings are for discussion attendance and participation are part of the course. Students will be graded on four essays, based on the readings, possibly a final, with rewards for active and intelligent participation in weekly discussions. (Tentler)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. (J.Fine)

403. Problems in Roman History II. (4). (HU).

An investigation through lectures and discussion of ancient evidence and modern syntheses of the major political, social, and economic developments within the Roman Empire, 44 B.C.-A.D. 193. Students will be expected to participate in the discussions and to complete midterm and final examinations. (Van Dam)

416. Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (4). (HU).

This is a lecture course which discusses and attempts to account for changes in the configuration of European thought from the advent of Romanticism (1750) to the "anti-positivist revolt" in the 1870's. This course considers the content of the determinative ideas in culture and society, and an attempt is made to provide an explanation for the process of ideological change. There is heavy emphasis on the transition from the enlightenment to romanticism and the emergence of realism and naturalism. Roland N. Stromberg's EUROPEAN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY SINCE 1789 (third ed.) will serve as the text. The student will be expected to read Ernst Cassirer's THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT, M.H. Abrams' NATURAL SUPERNATURALISM, Hegel's PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY, J.S. Mill's ON LIBERTY, Marx-Engels' THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO and J. Barzun, DARWIN, MARX AND WAGNER. There will be regular class discussions of these texts and participation will constitute 1/4 of the grade. There will be a midterm examination and a final examination. There will be no term paper. (Tonsor)

423. Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (4). (SS).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French Revolution to the 1930's, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure and role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write three essays on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided); there will be a final examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: modern European history, the social sciences, the literature of art or the nineteenth century. (Grew)

425. French Revolution. (4). (SS).

This course provides a close-up view of a dramatic sequence of events which have been carefully studied by revolutionary theorists and activists, such as Marx, Lenin and Mao. It focuses on developments within France, while making room for comparisons with other revolutions and for the reactions of the rest of Europe to the unprecedented upheaval. Given its impact on later revolutions and its relevance to current political conflicts, it is impossible to present the French Revolution as a neutral observer. Accordingly, reading and discussion will be concerned with varying, often conflicting interpretations of certain key episodes, involving the first phases of the Revolution, popular uprisings in town and country, the outbreak of foreign and civil war, the establishment of the First Republic, regicide, dechristianization and the Reign of Terror, the Fall of Robespierre and the Thermidorean Reaction. Students will be asked to hand in notes on their reading and also to prepare a short paper on a single controversial episode such as the March on Versailles or the Massacres of September. There will be a midterm quiz and a final examination. (Eisenstein)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (SS).

A history of Russia from Peter the Great to World War I, with emphasis on the problems of modernization, political institutions, economic development, and the revolutionary movement. Lectures, supplemented by optional discussion section. Requirements include a course project (written or non-written), midterm exam (with a choice of take home or in-class, and a graded-ungraded option), and a final exam (choice of take home or in-class.) (Rosenberg)

451. Japan Since 1800. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is Arikiso Hane, MODERN JAPAN: A HISTORICAL SURVEY, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1986). Other reading assignments will be organized in a course pack. (Hackett)

460. American Colonial History to 1776. (4). (SS).

A casual exploration of colonial America from New England down to Virginia, always asking how this seemingly contented collection of colonies could so suddenly, from 1763 to 1776, reject the ties that bound them to England and declare independence. An exploration of the colonial origins of an American consciousness and character. Two textbooks and six other books, some fairly entertaining, alternate lectures and discussions. Two very short papers, an 8-10 page paper, and a final examination. In sum, a look at a society which was going nowhere, yet in fact was going somewhere without knowing it, toward independence and self-awareness. (Lockridge)

462. The United States in the Early National Period, 1789-1830. (4). (SS).

This course is an intensive examination of the major political currents in the period 1789-1830. Examples of these topics are the formation of a national government under the Constitution, the gradual and increasingly bitter party division during the 1790's, the foreign policy issues leading to the War of 1812 and the uneasy experiment with one-party politics after the War. The reading consists of major monographs on these topics. There is no text. The one midterm examination will be a "take-home" and for the final examination there will be a choice between the "take-home" and standard two-hour forms. (Livermore)

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

470. Irish American History. (4). (SS).

This is a course in the history of the Irish people in America, particularly the United States. We will survey the literature on this subject and develop from readings in several texts a knowledge of the main features of that history as presently construed. Following that, lectures and discussions will focus upon selected topics in Irish American history and historiography. Three instances of writing will be required each of about 3000 words - and on these the grade will be based (with a fourth component being an evaluation of contribution on the on-going work of the course). First, a journal of commentary/or annotated bibliography of assigned readings will be made. Second, a term paper on a particular topic worked up by the student will be written. Third, a report of original research into family, local, or regional history (relative to Irish American history) will be drawn up. There will be no examinations set in the course. Regular attendance and participation in the meetings of the course will be expected, to contribute to the success of the course. (McNamara)

477. Latin America: The National Period. (4). (SS).

This course examines the history of Latin America from the early nineteenth century until the present. The approach is thematic, focusing on a series of topics: (1) the colonial heritage and political independence, (2) political systems and the search for order, (3) economic dependency and development, (4) labor systems (including slavery, sharecropping, wage labor, peasant cultivation and peonage), (5) class and ethnicity, and (6) revolution and reaction. Selected countries will be discussed under each topic, with particular emphasis on Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, the Andes, and Central America. The method of instruction will be lecture/discussion, with strong encouragement of student participation. Requirements include a short book review, a longer paper, a midterm, and a final. There will be readings in primary and secondary historical and anthropological sources, including Gibson, SPAIN IN AMERICA, Stein and Stein, THE COLONIAL HERITAGE OF LATIN AMERICA, Keen and Wasserman, A SHORT HISTORY OF LATIN AMERICA, Reed, THE CASTE WAR OF YUCATAN, Stein, VASSOURAS, Mintz, WORKER IN THE CANE, Fredrich, AGRARIAN REVOLT IN A MEXICAN VILLAGE, Knight, SLAVE SOCIETY IN CUBA, Castro, HISTORY WILL ABSOLVE ME, as well as selected fiction by Arguedas, Asturias, Fuentes and Garcia Marquez. (Scott)

491/Econ. 491. The History of the American Economy. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (SS).

See Economics 491. (Whatley)

512. From Oligarchy to Reform: Georgian Britain, 1714-1832. Hist. 111 or 221; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

British political, social and economic history from the accession of the House of Hanover to the Reform Bill of 1832: the Domination of the landed interest and the Augustan stability; destabilizing factors in the reign of George III; the challenges of the American and French Revolutions; the agricultural and industrial revolutions; new religious currents; the emergence of a successful reform movement and a new political synthesis. (Price)

523. France, 1661-1789. (4). (SS).

A study of the French Old Regime and the causes of the first great revolution of the modern era. The course undertakes a selective examination through lectures of certain problems and themes the feudal background, state-building and its social consequences, the corporatist society, the aristocratic resurgence or reaction, the Enlightenment, and the meaning and limits of reform. In these lectures several questions are posed: what did the revolution change? why did large scale revolution take place in France rather then elsewhere in Europe? why did revolution come when it did? in what senses was revolution inevitable? accidental? Comprehensive coverage and narrative treatment of the period are obtained through the readings. These include Tocqueville, OLD REGINE AND REVOLUTION; Pierre Goubert, LOUIS XIV AND THE TWENTY MILLION FRENCHMEN; Alfred Cobban, A HISTORY OF MODERN FRANCE; George Lefebvre, THE COMING OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION; R.R. Palmer, THE AGE OF DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION; Elinor Barber, THE BOURGEOISIE IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY FRANCE; and various other brief selections and articles. Parts of Descartes, Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau are read. There is an hour exam, a final exam, and one essay of 8 or 10 pages on a topic and problem to be arranged consistent with the student's particular interest. (Bien)

530. History of the Balkans from the Sixth Century to 1800. (4). (SS).

A general survey of the Balkans (including Medieval Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and the relations of these states with Byzantium and Hungary) from the arrival of the Slavs in the 6th and 7th century through the Turkish period. The reading list consists of monographs, articles and a few translated sources. The reading list can be altered (with permission of the instructor) and to accommodate special interests. There will be an hour exam (written or oral as the student chooses), a paper (topic to be chosen by student with permission of the instructor) of about 15 pages and a final examination. Students who prefer to write a major paper (ca. 25 pages) can skip the hour exam. (J. Fine)

543/GNE 472. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (4). (HU).

See GNE 472. (Luther)

558. U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (4). (SS).

An examination of American foreign policy to 1914, with special emphasis on the formative years (1775-1823) and America's entry into world politics (1898-1914). Hour exam, term paper, final. (Perkins)

563. Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (4). (HU).

This course explores the intellectual discourse of educated Americans since the Civil War. Its focus will be on ideas about human nature, politics, society, knowledge, gender, morality, the physical world, and American national destiny as these ideas surface in the writings of leading thinkers. Attention will be given to the scientific and literary cultures of the Victorian era, and to the legacies of these two, often conflicting cultures in the twentieth century. Attention will also be devoted to: (a) the shifting social foundations for American intellectual life, (b) the emergence of cultural modernism, (c) the political arguments of American intellectuals in relation to Stalinism, the Cold War, McCarthyism, and the crisis of the 1960's, and (d) the reconsideration of "positivistic" social science. Readings are likely to include works by William James, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dewey, Robert Penn Warren, Reinhold Niebuhr, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Josiah Royce, Margaret Mead, Sinclair Lewis, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lionel Trilling, Thomas S. Kuhn, Edmund Wilson, and Randolph Bourne; while some attention will be given to prominent Europeans whose work was widely discussed in the States (e.g., Charles Darwin, W.K. Clifford, James Joyce, and Leon Trotsky). Students will be asked to complete one midterm, one paper, and one final examination. (Hollinger)

571/Amer. Inst. 471. American Institutions and the Development of the Family. (4). (SS).

See American Institutions 471. (Vinovskis)

582. History of Criminal Law in England and America. (4). (SS).

This course traces the history of the criminal law in England and America from the medieval period to modern times. It deals with political and social theories regarding the institutions and ideas of the criminal law and with the relationship between society and legal norms. Among the subjects included in the scheme of the course are: the history of the criminal trial jury, its relationship to other institutions of the criminal law and its role with respect to the interaction of social attitudes and the formal processes of the criminal law; for counteracting disintegration of basic social institutions; political trials; theories of punishment; the development in the United States of constitutionally protected rights of defendants in criminal cases. This course is intended for students interested in Anglo-American history, for those interested in government and law, for those interested in the history of the relationship between social institutions and theories of criminal sanctions and for those interested in the origins and development of the central ideas and institutions of American constitutional and legal history. Course requirements: a midterm (in the form of a take-home essay based on the readings and documents in the course) and a final examination. (Green)

587. History of History I. (4). (HU).

This lecture course traces the development of historical study from the world of myth to the rise of historicism to the 18th century. It attempts to account for changing historical conceptions and to relate these changes to developments in methodology and the choice historical matter. The course is the first of a two term sequence. There is no text, but students will be advised to read from classical historical accounts and standard historiographical works. The student will be required to consider one historian at length and write a term paper 2,500 words in length dealing with the historian or some aspect of his method. The term paper will constitute 1/4 of the course grade. A midterm examination will constitute 1/4 of the course grade and the final examination will constitute the remaining half. (Tonsor)

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