Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 190 or 192. Psychology 190 is offered as a natural science course and stresses experimental psychology. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This course is intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles, motivation, anxiety; learning in groups; and self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if the students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about biological and cognitive areas of psychology. It does NOT emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It DOES cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week. Sections are taught by graduate teaching fellows who have responsibility for their own sections.

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a Time Slot ONLY (sections 001-009). Students should check the Final Edition of the TIME SCHEDULE for day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-009). At this meeting, instructors will explain their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. The students will then "apply" to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to their first choice instructor. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. STUDENTS SHOULD READ ALL NOTATIONS IN THE TIME SCHEDULE REGARDING PSYCH 171. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-009) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR TO THE MEETING TO RETAIN THEIR SPACE IN THE COURSE OR ON THE WAIT LIST. Wait List (section 099) students MUST attend the Wait List Meeting listed in the Time Schedule to be placed in an open section.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170 or 171 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171 or 192. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one-term survey which integrates material from Psychology 170 and 171. The course serves as a basic preparation for most advanced level courses in psychology. The aim of the course is to acquaint students with the major approaches psychologists use to understand people and the aspects of human thought, feeling, and action that psychologists have studied. Lectures and readings first present the major ways of thinking about psychological issues (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and biological) and then address the nature of thought, emotion, development from infancy through death, and interactions of individuals with family, social, and cultural forces. Discussion sections offer students the opportunity to discuss and critically examine what they are learning, to analyze case studies, and to participate in more experiential forms of learning. Students must keep Wednesday evenings open for course-wide examinations and occasional films from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. The final course grade is based on two course-wide examinations and additional work (group presentations, research papers, etc.) assigned in section. (Westen)

190. Honors Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. (4). (NS).

The focus of this section will be coverage of various topics in psychology that have a history of research using experimental methodology. Some of these topics are: neural mechanisms underlying behavior, perception, memory, and language functions. There will be only scant coverage of other topics such as psychopathology, development, and social interactions. Course requirements are extensive, and are designed to promote thorough understanding of the material. There will probably be frequent quizzes, two examinations, two research projects, and in-class experiments and demonstrations. Each class session will be devoted to lectures, extensive discussions and projects. (Jonides)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, or 172. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

SECTION 001. This section is taught on a "mastery system." Students therefore will be expected to demonstrate that they have mastered the material covered in the text and in class in order to earn a grade. Any student who fails to demonstrate mastery (at an "A" performance level) will have to retake an exam or rewrite a paper until such materials meet the performance criteria specified in advance by the instructor. (McConnell)

SECTION 002. This course provides an even-handed treatment of the subject matter of psychology (psychoanalytic personality theory, social interaction, child development, learning, thinking, perceiving, statistical reasoning, nervous system and behavior). The emphasis is on the scientific aspects of psychology; What do we know what is the evidence for what we know. Format: lecture, discussion, some films. (Relatively hard-nosed text, no papers). Exams require knowledge of subject matter plus reasoning. (Weintraub)

Section 004 This course is designed to explore contemporary psychology. It will cover a broad area of topics: Part 1 presents a general introduction to psychology (definitions, history, methods). Part 2 is designed to give an overview of four different levels on which psychological phenomenon can be studied. First, the biological perspective will be discussed (evolution, genetics, nervous system). Second, some basic processes, namely perception, learning, information processing and motivation/emotion are studied. Third, the individual is in the center of attention (development, personality, clinical approaches). Finally, individuals in their social context will be considered (attitudes and attitude change; attitude and behavior; intra- and intergroup processes). Part 3 of this course is devoted to the application of psychological knowledge to one specific problem, the adaptation to the transition from high school to college. This problem will be analyzed on the four different levels that were presented in part 2 of this course. Grades are based on two papers (one empirical, one literature review), five quizzes (spaced approximately biweekly) and one final exam. The text used is Gleitman, PSYCHOLOGY, plus readings in a course pack. The format of the class is lecture and discussion. (Inglehart)

Section 005 This course is intended to provide an in-depth overview of psychology, with an emphasis on the links between psychological research and the "great ideas" or "great questions" addressed by thinkers over the ages who have applied prodigious minds and sensibilities to the same subjects. Among the questions we will consider are the following: (1) How do we know what we know? (2) To what extent is human personality and action influenced by nature vs. nurture? (3) What are the proper roles of reason and emotion in human behavior? (4) How is individual behavior affected by group membership? A variety of class formats will be used, including lecture, discussion, films, and class demonstrations. In addition to a textbook, students will read a course pack consisting of readings (essays, journal articles, short stories, autobiographical accounts, etc.) corresponding to the topics presented in the textbook. Other course requirements include frequent quizzes, frequent short papers (four-six pages), and a comprehensive final examination. (Landman)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 35 settings in which you can provide direct service to children, adolescents, and adults: to those who are handicapped, retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically ill, legally confined to institutions or normal; or to social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Most sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Final Edition of the Time Schedule for proper credits, lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Information regarding registration, field work placements, and general course information will be available at a Mass Meeting on TUESDAY, MARCH 31, 1987 AT 7 P.M. in (room to be published in the Time Schedule). For information call 764-9179. Psychology majors electing two separate sections of Psych 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R.D. Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309.

The field practicum course offers students an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. This course is coordinated by the Committee on Undergraduate Studies. Before enrolling in the course, students develop an informal proposal in collaboration with a Department of Psychology faculty sponsor. The proposal is then submitted to the Undergraduate Psychology Office for further information regarding course descriptions and procedures to follow in registering for the course. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation.

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

SECTION 001 WORKING WITH CHILDREN. Directed experience with children aged 18 months 5 years at the University of Michigan Children's Center and Children's Center for Working Families approximately 6-10 hrs/week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a naturalistic setting. (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology.

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS). No credit to students with credit for Psych. 431.

This course surveys the field of Psychobiology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Psychobiology is an area of study concerned with physiological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; psychological and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning, memory, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Psychobiology courses. (Berridge)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (TUTORIAL).

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. MAY NOT BE ELECTED FOR CREDIT MORE THAN ONCE.

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This is the introductory course in industrial/organizational (I/0) psychology. It may be required for more advanced courses in the area. Some students take this course to broaden their knowledge of the major areas of psychology. Others take it in preparation for someday entering the world of work. Among the topics covered are (a) the psychological bases for recruiting, selecting, placing, and training employees, (b) the design of work environments in terms of human factors, safety, and social interaction, (c) the links among motivation, employee reward systems and job performance, (d) the relative effectiveness of different types of leadership, decision-making, and group influences, and (e) the links among job stress, job satisfaction, and turnover. (Caplan)

368/Anthropology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

See Biological Anthropology 368. (Wrangham)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Hesse, Lessing, Eliot and Feild. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams, classroom contributions, and through a series of short papers. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. (Manis)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001. An intensive introduction to the clinical and research literatures on the family in contemporary American society. Designed especially for students interested in clinical work with families, the course will examine family process, assessment, and intervention from the conceptual vantage point of general systems theory. Additional readings from cultural anthropology, ethnographic criticism, sociology, and psychoanalytic commentary will be used to highlight ethical, political, and heuristic issues in the field of family studies. Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and discussion. (Olson)

Section 020. After an examination of the historical, cultural and socio-economic contexts for the significance of marriage and the family, various theoretical positions will be examined including psychodynamic, social role, social exchange, and family systems approaches. Special topics of focus will be: communication, power, sexuality, and conflict. The life cycle of marriage from initial attraction through marriage among the elderly will make up the second part of the course with some special attention to divorce and its consequences. Lectures with occasional movies will take place on Tuesdays and discussion plus project planning will occur on Thursdays. Two examinations (short answer plus longer essays) and a paper based on a taped interview with a couple will be the major basis of evaluation. (Veroff)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 575 and permission of instructor. (See LSA Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning April 6. Enrollment is limited to twenty students who are graduating seniors. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, actions, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward at the VA or the University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are outside resource speakers, written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examinations, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

SECTION 002. The focus of this course will be on research strategies and methods which are brought to bear on understanding the nature and treatment of psychopathology. Special attention will be given to the integration of clinical and research data. As part of this course, students will serve as part-time research assistants (approximately two hours/week) to faculty members in order to gain "hands on" clinical research experience. This may include interviewing subjects, coding fantasy material or results of psychological tests, participating in the design of questionnaires, etc. In no case will students be asked to do drone-like work. The aim is to become an active member of a functioning research team. In addition to this experiential component, the course will cover readings drawn from the areas of general epistemology, research methods, and theories of psychopathology. Two papers (each approximately two-three pages long) focused on evaluation of published clinical research round out the formal requirements. The course is intended for students planning graduate work in either the social sciences (e.g., clinical psychology, applied developmental psychology) or in areas in which such sophistication in understanding reports or clinical research is helpful (e.g., medicine, certain areas of law and education). Students who have taken Psychology 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle). (Kalter)

430. Comparative Animal Behavior. Introductory psychology or introductory biology or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course presents a broad introduction to animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Topics include Darwin's theory of evolution, the relationship between genes and behavior, the evolution of group-living, and social interactions between close genetic relatives (e.g., parent-offspring, siblings), mates, and other conspecifics. Terms such as aggression, territoriality, and mating systems are considered in light of how they have evolved and how they contribute to daily survival and reproductive success. Examples from a wide variety of animal species are used to help emphasize various points. A lecture format is used, and students are encouraged to question and comment during class. Grading is based on two in-class essay exams and a term paper. The class is open to sophomores and is well suited for any student interested in animal behavior, biological psychology, or the relationship between evolution and social behavior. (W. Holmes)

431. Physiological Psychology. Psych. 331 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). No credit to students with credit for Psych. 331.

This course will cover a range of topics at a level appropriate for students who have a serious interest in brain and behavior, the behavioral neuroscience, or developmental psychobiology. Students should have taken Psychology 331 (Introduction to Psychobiology) or have had some background in biology and behavior. The class format will be lectures with opportunity for discussion. A textbook will be assigned, plus some supplementary reading. Grades will be determined by performance on a midterm and final examination. (Valenstein)

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).

Recognizing patterns in a complex and uncertain world is extremely difficult. The fact that people do it so well is an amazing accomplishment. The course begins by looking at some ways this impressive feat might be carried out. To solve this theoretical challenge it turns out to be necessary to look at the way people acquire and store knowledge about their environment. The knowledge people have (and the way it is organized) provide a way of looking at not only how people recognize patterns, but also how they think and solve problems as well. Class sessions are somewhat disorganized discussions. The reading list is extensive and doing the reading is essential if what goes on in class is to make sense. Grades are based on a midterm, a final and a one-page paper that attempts to summarize the principles learned in the course. Enrollment in this course is by application only; application forms are available in K106 West Quad. (S. Kaplan)

444. Perception. Psych. 170, 172, 192 or 310. (3). (NS).

This is an advanced undergraduate lecture course that focuses on basic perceptual phenomena and theories. At its most general level, human perception concerns the questions of how and why human beings conceive of, and experience immediate reality on the basis of sensory experience and information. Topics covered include: Psychophysics, sensory transduction, Gestalt organization, constancy and contrast effects, expectation, selective attention, perceptual learning, and symbolic representation. While the course has a natural science orientation, social, humanistic, philosophical and esthetic perspectives are also considered. The instructor assumes some sophistication on the part of the students, however, no particular knowledge base is assumed. Thus, students with no background in psychology are welcome. Grades are based on three, open-book, open-note, essay exams. Once a week, in addition to the regular lectures, there is a question and answer, discussion section in which the lecturer reviews material presented in lectures. This is a completely optional session which students need not schedule (i.e., they may schedule some other class during this hour). (Pachella)

447/Ling. 447. Psychology of Language. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides a survey of topics and methods concerning the psychology of language, including speech production and perception, sentence processing, semantics and communication, and language acquisition. Throughout the course the focus is on alternative explanations of language: as a biological, social, and cognitive phenomenon. Classroom demonstrations will illustrate certain phenomena that are presented in readings and lectures. (Gelman)

451/Ling. 451. Development of Language and Thought. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course examines children's early language and conceptual development. Through lectures and discussions, we will cover: the development of word meaning, the organization of early concepts, and the nature of early grammatical knowledge. We will also consider how language development relates to logical thinking and social knowledge. Emphasis will be placed on contemporary research and theory. Students will be evaluated by three exams and a project. (Gelman)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This section will survey the field of personality psychology, with a major focus on CURRENT research and theory, rather than on the grand historical theories. Special attention will be given to the following issues (1) what are the basic PHENOMENA of personality (e.g., actions, feeling, cognitions, emotions)? (2) how do we determine which phenomena are IMPORTANT and which are trivial? (3) what UNITS should we employ to organize the basic personality phenomena? (4) what are the CAUSAL ORIGINS of personality in evolution, genetics, physiology, socialization, maturation, life-history, culture, and immediate situations? (5) how do features of persons INTERACT with features of the environment? A wide variety of methods will be covered including self-report, observer report, mechanical recording devices, laboratory tests, life history data, and act data. A key theme throughout the course will be understanding human personality within an EVOLUTIONARY CONTEXT. (Buss)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 457 are granted credit for Psych. 453 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001 The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with major psychological research and theory on the processes by which the child becomes a social being. Attention is given to the influence of the family, and particularly the parents, and also to the influence of the school, peers, and the community. Topics include the development of attachment, peer interaction, moral development, sex roles, and the stability of personality. The role of social change and its impact on development will be considered. (Mangelsdorf)

456. Human Infancy. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course covers phenomena of human development and maturation from conception to the third year of life. Topics include physical growth, elements of early attachment and relatedness, cognitive development, emotional expression and communication, the growth of personal and interpersonal competence, the role and status of infancy in the family and society, and careers centered on early human development. Sessions will include lectures, audio-visual presentations and discussions. Exams: Two plus a final. (Horner)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. Students with credit for Psych. 453 are granted credit for 457 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course is a survey of child development from birth to adolescence. Physical growth, language development, and socialization are examined. Special attention is devoted to children's intellectual development and learning. Students are expected to read approximately 50 pages per week and to attend lectures and weekly discussion groups. Opportunities to work directly with children are optional but can be arranged. Grades are based on three hourly exams and two short papers. (001 Byrnes; 020 Staff)

459. Psychology of Aging. Introductory psychology. Credit for Psychology 459 is not granted to students who have earned credit for Course Mart 383 (Dimensions of Human Aging), Public Health 595, or both University Course 435 and Education H520. (3). (SS).

Section 010. This course covers major behavioral changes throughout adulthood, particularly in old age. Special emphasis is given to such topics as changes in biological functioning including sensation and perception, and changes in cognitive processes including intelligence, learning, memory, and problem-solving. In addition, psychosocial aspects of adulthood are discussed. These include family roles, work roles, use of leisure time, personality, coping mechanisms, psychopathology and treatment, and dying, death and grief. The course also considers environmental facilitation of psychological adjustments to both normal and pathological processes in old age. Students do assigned readings, class exercises, projects, and take two examinations. Projects primarily include interviewing two people throughout the term and writing a research review paper. (Weaverdyke)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Psych. 363 or equivalent or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course, the second in a series includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems), focuses on the behavior of work groups in organizations. It emphasizes the understanding and application of psychological theories of group behavior. Specific topics include the formation and development of groups, the design of group tasks, the impact of groups on individual behavior, leadership in small groups, group decision-making processes and problems, communication processes within small groups, intragroup and intergroup conflict, methods for improving work group effectiveness, and current trends in the use of groups within U.S. organizations. Material (drawn from the research literature, contemporary organizations and the instructor's own research and consulting experience) is presented through both didactic and experiential teaching methods. To strengthen students' abilities to apply theory to practice, teams of students are formed to observe existing work groups in organizations and report as teams on their observations. Grades are based on these group projects, students' descriptions of the teams of which they were a part, one case study and class participation which includes several written but ungraded assignments. (Davis-Sacks)

475. Deviant Individual. Introductory psychology. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575. Not open to students with credit for Psychology 575. (3). (SS).

This course overviews abnormal psychology, emphasizing psychological explanations of such problems in living as anxiety, depression, drug abuse, and sexual dysfunction, as well as their treatment by psychological means. There are two lectures and one discussion per week. Grades are based on examination performance and activities assigned in discussion sections. Books include Rosenhan and Seligman's ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY and Kesey's ONE FLEW OVER THE CUCKOO'S NEST. Additional readings may be assigned. (Peterson)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001. An extremely difficult and unusual course. Not suitable for many students. Each student selects a group of people of particular interest. Usually people in a neighborhood that is very different from the sort of neighborhood she grew up in. Sometimes, alternatively, people whose lives have special relevance to her, such as people practicing a profession she plans. The student must then create in-depth prolonged meetings with a small number of these people and write up each week these meetings and her reflections on them. This journal is checked every two weeks. The course also will deal with about five books. Last term these were one technical book on attitudes, three sociological books of participant observation, and one novel by Lessing and Achebe. Real investment of time: about ten actual hours/week, EVERY week. NOT for students with a high need for structure from an authority figure. NOT for the uncurious. (Ezekiel)

SECTION 010. The course deals with how people form their beliefs and attitudes about the social world and with how their beliefs and attitudes affect their behavior. Conformity, social influence and propaganda are examined. Special attention is paid to the rationality of processes of belief and attitude formation and to the accuracy of beliefs about the social world. The degree to which people are aware of their beliefs and attitudes is discussed. There is a special focus on changing erroneous beliefs and altering flawed ways of forming beliefs. Statistics background is helpful. Evaluation is by means of exams and short papers. Lecture-discussion. (Nisbett)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psychology 170, 172, 192, or 310, and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 NEURAL CONTROL OF INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR (NEUROETHOLOGY). Neuroethology is the study of neural mechanisms of instinctive behavior. Much of the focus will be on animals with relatively simple nervous systems and rules of behavior, to better illuminate general principles. The three main general issues for this course are: (1) how are instinctive PATTERNS of action programmed neurally? (2) how are animals able to detect and recognize the most important objects in their worlds? and (3) how are simple decisions made by neurobehavioral systems? Specific topics include: predator recognition by amphibians; localization of sounds by owls; song recognition and production in birds; walking in cockroaches and cats; taste, eating, and swallowing in mammals; swimming by fish; action sequence control in rats; learning about parents by chicks; hierarchies of decisions and action control. Format will be mixed lecture, discussion, and student presentations. (Berridge)

SECTION 002 REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR IN MAMMALS. This course on mechanisms in mammalian reproductive behavior is open to undergraduate and graduate students interested in the biological basis of behavior. The course assumes that students have a basic background in Biology (e.g., Biol. 105, 112, or 114) and behavior (e.g., Psych 331, 430, or Psych/Anthro 368), but there are no specific prerequisites. Humans will be discussed in the course, but only as one of many examples in mammalian reproduction. Course format will involve a combination of lectures and student discussions of research articles. Proximate mechanisms will be stressed in the treatment of various topics: the genetic determination of sex and sexual behavior, hormonal influences on sexual behavior, pubertal maturation, pregnancy and parental care, seasonal breeding and the timing of reproduction, and the influence of social and environmental factors on reproduction. Grades will be assigned on the basis of in-class essay exams, a short paper, and participation in discussions. (Holmes)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 DREAMS AS MODELS OF PERSONAL CONFLICTS AND RESOLUTIONS. The purpose of the course is to review historical developments in the conceptualization of the meaning of nocturnal dreams from the late 19th Century to the present. The major emphasis will be on the use of dreams to explicate personal problem solving hence clinical data will be the focus the aim of developing students' ability to read, interpret, and understand the meaning of dreams (their own and others') the main practical skill developed. In the course of the term, issues from psychopathology, personality, psychotherapy, creativity, literature and development will be discussed in respect to dream material which presumes the student has some degree of familiarity with these fields and topics. The classes will involve discussions of readings in which students will be expected to take active roles. The course readings will consist of Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams" and a course pack. The particular discussion of readings will be announced in class each week as well as on a course reading list. Course evaluations will be determined by quality of participation in the class, one or two exams (announced in class) and by (largely) a course paper on dreams (outline to be discussed) which will focus on a series of dreams of one's own or someone else in regard to cognitive structure, psychodynamic content and adaptive problem solving strategy. (Wolowitz)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 BEHAVIORAL BIOLOGY of WOMEN. In Fall Term, 1987, this course is jointly offered with Biological Anthropology 469; section 001. (Smuts)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

SECTION 001 This section is for THREE hours of credit. This lab will explore various techniques for describing and analyzing the dynamics of spiritual crisis, intervention, and resolution. We will develop coding schemes for examining scriptural, fictional, and poetic expressions of these dynamics, and we will also undertake a series of interviews using projective and fantasy techniques. The prerequisites (Psychology 370 or 403 or Religion 369 or 424) will be enforced, and the required permission of the instructor may be obtained at 554 Thompson. There will be a series of small lab reports and one final project. Early in the term each student will be trained in the use of MTS and CONFER in order to create an electronic conference containing both the data and the commentary of the members of the lab. (R. Mann)

SECTION 002 ADVANCED LABORATORY IN ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. This advanced laboratory will survey four theoretical and empirical approaches to group and organizational effectiveness: (1) participative planning; (2) goal setting; (3) role analysis and (4) task redesign. Each approach will be examined through a laboratory simulation, discussion of relevant theory and research, and field observation project. Course requirements include four short field observation reports and a final integrative report. (Price)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies - contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

511. Advanced Laboratory in Physiological Psychology. Psych. 331 or 431. (4). (Excl).

This laboratory course is intended to provide practical experience with some of the basic research paradigms and techniques used in the study of brain-behavior relations. Laboratory exercises include sessions on functional neuroanatomy (dissection of sheep brain), the behavioral effects of manipulating brain neurotransmitters and psychoactive drugs, the hormonal control of reproductive behavior, animal models of psychiatric and movement disorders, electrical stimulation and recording from brain structures, and methods of analyzing behavior, etc. There are two hours of lecture, and three hours of lab each week. Grades are based on exams over the lecture material and on lab reports written in a formal scientific style.

513. Advanced Laboratory in Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 523. (3). (Excl).

This course involves the student in a series of demonstration projects designed to show diverse approaches to the measurement of human traits, ranging from intellectual abilities to personality characteristics, interests, and attitudes. In addition, projects are undertaken in test design and construction, item analysis, validation, reliability determination and in the multivariate analysis of trait structure. Several extensive data sets have been put on computer files and students are introduced to MTS and Midas procedures and carry out psychometric analyses on these data. (Norman)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300; and Psych. 382 or prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001 "Do the life stories of leaders of highly-active political groups sound like the life stories of leaders of highly-active religious groups?" "When members of extremist groups discuss their family lives, do we hear dimensions that also arise when they discuss national events?" Questions of this order questions that try to link social and political events to currents within the lives of individuals are the subject for our inquiry by both quantitative and non-quantitative methods. The ideal student is one hungry to explore because she has a rather deep need to understand social and political developments they are not casual interests. She also is ready to work in a collaborative, independent fashion with other students and the instructor. Each student will work out a research question of her own and will pursue it for the term probably as part of a loosely-structured team. She should arrive at class with a good start toward identifying those aspects of the environment that raise deep needs for understanding on her part. We will need attendance at all class meetings and some six additional hours of work each week. A rewarding course for independent souls with active minds and social passions. (Ezekiel)

Section 002 The purpose is to teach basic research techniques of social psychology. Students do survey, field study, and experiment. For extra credit they may also design and carry out their own research project under supervision of the instructor. Projects are usually done in groups of two or three. Class attendance is important. Students must work outside of class to complete projects. Grade is based on final examination (15%) and individual research reports (85%). (Burnstein)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459. (3). (Excl).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, socio-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students engage in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering theory, research issues, methods, and actual studies in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in the Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Two to three different research projects will be conducted off campus, each involving different methods and different aged-subjects. Evaluation is primarily based on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. (Byrnes)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an opportunity to carry out research in personality. There are weekly in-class discussions during the first part of the course leading up to the design and execution of a small group research project. Course requirements include several short papers and a final paper which is a formal presentation of the final research project and its results. (Cantor)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (NS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What do we take into account and ignore when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? How do we reconcile conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how the alternatives are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is flawed to the extent that we expose ourselves to the risk of serious errors. The course considers when those errors should and should not occur. It also discusses ways of preventing such mistakes. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in such fields as medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in which students participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. Psychology 522 satisfies the psychology concentration Group 1 requirement. Grades are based on demonstrations, two-three assignments, two quizzes, and a final examination. Course grades typically average around "B." (Yates)

523. Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300. (3). (Excl).

This course considers methods for assessing human traits (abilities, interests, attitudes, personality characteristics, etc.) and the uses of such assessments in practical decisionmaking and scientific theory testing. Tests, inventories, questionnaires, rating scales and other procedures will be evaluated in terms of their reliabilities, validities, and other relevant criteria. Introductory psychology and elementary statistics are the relevant prerequisites and an advanced laboratory (Psych. 513) is offered concurrently for those wishing additional practical work in this area. Student evaluation will be by means of objective (multiple-choice) exams and a term paper. Methods of instruction will include lectures, demonstrations and discussion. (Norman)

533. Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course surveys current knowledge of the human brain and its role in mental processes, such as perception, attention, thought, language and memory, and learned behavior skills. Special topics include left vs. right-brain functions, sex differences in brain function and rehabilitation of cognitively impaired individuals with brain damage. Evaluation based on hour exam and final exam. Lecture and discussion. (Butter)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (Excl). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

This course provides the opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly lectures and discussion sessions are included as well. The placements include settings in which children reside who have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness (including acute and chronic), or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, critiques of readings, case reports, and final essays integrating information from the various portions of the course. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psychology concentration and Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (SS).

This course examines the adolescent period, largely from the points of view offered in personality, clinical, and social psychology. Although the course emphasizes the normal processes of adolescent development, for example, the achievement of ego identity, and the growth of mature modes of thinking and reasoning, it will also give close attention to such characteristically adolescent phenomena as delinquency and eating disorders, especially anorexia and bulimia. We will also try to understand the extraordinary increase in severe pathology among adolescents during the last two decades. There is a two-hour seminar discussion once each week; and the class members will also meet in groups of five or six once every two weeks. There is a term paper and a final essay examination. (Adelson)

565. Organizational Systems. Psych. 363 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course examines some of the properties and major problems of human organizations, emphasizing system-level variables and activities. Organizational structure, adaptation to the environment, and problem solving in such key areas as coordination and control, integration, and conflict, and related social-psychological phenomena constitute its main concerns. The course considers several theories of organization, but it mainly approaches organizational structure and functioning from the perspective of open system theory. (Georgopoulos)

569/Anthropology 569. Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It considers intimate relationships, and especially the bond between mother and child, from an evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspective. The course will focus on attachment theory, an influential approach to human relationships that integrates concepts and data from evolutionary biology, animal behavior, psychiatry, developmental psychology, and cultural anthropology. The readings will include research articles and reviews on evolutionary theory, naturalistic and experimental studies of attachment behavior in nonhuman primates, and studies of human attachment behavior, including anthropological data from non-Western societies. The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with research on attachment from a variety of different perspectives and to evaluate the usefulness of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human social behavior. An equally important goal is to promote interchange among students with backgrounds in different areas. To facilitate this goal, the course will use a seminar format and everyone will be expected to participate in discussions. Grades will be based on class participation and four short essays that require creative synthesis of course materials. The reading load will be heavier than average and enthusiasm and commitment are important prerequisites to successful participation in this course. Prerequisites include: (1) background in either evolutionary theory/animal behavior or developmental psychology AND (2) permission of instructor. All students must be interviewed by the instructor and obtain an override BEFORE CRISP in order to enroll in this course. (Smuts)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

574. The Clinical Perspective. Psych. 452 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. Psychology 574 is a small seminar (limit of 20) for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, papers, clinical diagnostic interviewing, and a final) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate his knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2)to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. (Lohr)

Section 002. This course is designed primarily for Junior and Senior students who are concentrating in psychology and who are considering the mental health profession as a career. Professional issues in Psychology, Social Work and Psychiatry will be addressed. The clinical inference process will be emphasized through readings and discussion of clinical interviews, psychological test protocols and research data. The course will integrate theories of normal psychological development, psychopathology and a variety of orientations to psychotherapy. The prerequisites suggested for this class are: Introductory Psychology, Psychopathology and Developmental Psychology. In order to facilitate in-depth discussion of the clinical materials, the class size will be limited to approximately twenty students. Evaluation of students will be based on a combination of several brief analytical papers, a midterm and a final exam. (Hatcher)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. Psychology Department prefers that concentrators elect Psych. 575 rather than Psych. 475. Students with credit for Psych. 475 are granted credit for Psych. 575 only by permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

576. Experimental Contributions to Clinical Psychology. Junior or senior concentrators; others by permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys selected issues in clinical psychology in view of current research evidence: e.g., animal models of psychopathology, clinical judgment, effectiveness of psychotherapy, social support, stress and coping, causes of schizophrenia, sex differences in depression, and so on. Some prior coursework in clinical psychology (e.g., PSYCH 575) is strongly recommended, as is background in statistics and research design. A seminar format is followed. Grades are based on written assignments, seminar presentations, and class participation. (Peterson)

590. Senior Honors Research I. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. The purpose of the course is to guide students (1) in formulating their individual research for the Honors thesis, and (2) in designing procedures for carrying out this research. There will be a seminar for the discussion of common problems plus individual tutorials. The students will be evaluated on the basis of a term paper describing their progress in respect to the above two issues.

SECTION 002. The main event in Senior Honors is thesis production. (Get thee to your tutor, get rolling, get finished). The goal is a thesis that makes one justifiably proud. Early on, each student will present thesis background and design to the class. Possible class discussion topics: school/job decisions and statistical tests that students intend to use. Drafts of segments that can later be incorporated into the thesis will be submitted periodically. However, the main order of business, and classwork will not interfere, is get thee to your tutor... (Weintraub)

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