Asian Languages and Cultures

Courses in Buddhist Studies (Division 332)

320/Asian Studies 320/Phil. 335/Rel. 320. Introduction to Buddhism. Buddhist Studies 220 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

An introduction to the Buddhist religion, with attention to its moral and philosophical teachings, its modes of practice (e.g., meditation and ritual), and its social and institutional structures. The course takes a historical approach, concentrating primarily on the origins and development of the Hinayana, Mahayana, and Tantric traditions in India. The Buddhism of two other areas that fell within the sphere of Indian culture influence - Southeast Asia and Tibet will also be covered in some detail. The Buddhism of East Asia (China, Korea, and Japan) is touched on lightly at the end of the course. Students desiring an introduction to East Asian Buddhism are advised to take the sequel course "Buddhism in Zen Perspective" (Buddhist Studies 325). "Introduction to Buddhism" is in lecture format, but in-class discussion is encouraged. There will be essay style examinations, including a "take-home" midterm and in-class final. No previous knowledge of the subject is required, but the material covered is challenging, and a high degree of student commitment is expected. (Foulk)

480/Asian Studies 480/Phil. 457/Rel. 480. Problems in Buddhism. Buddhist Studies 320 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course discusses selected topics in the history of Buddhist ideas. For 1987 the theme is "concepts of self" in Buddhist thought. The class combines lectures and discussions on a number of primary sources ("Buddhist Texts") in English translation. The theme of Buddhist doctrines of self and concepts of the person is approached from religious as well as speculative (philosophical and psychological) points of view, using primarily, but not exclusively, the conceptualizations of classical Buddhist systems. Two exams and one short paper.

485. Chinese Buddhism. Buddhist Studies 320 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

A survey of the main themes in the history of Chinese Buddhism, doctrinal (immortality and liberation, precept and freedom, ignorant wisdom, the practice that is not a practice), practical (techniques of meditation, devotional forms, pilgrimage cycles), and institutional (the monasteries, the laity). The course focuses on primary materials ("Buddhist texts") in English translation. This course is not part of a departmental sequence and has no prerequisites, but it is meant for upperclassmen and beginning graduate students. Two exams and a short paper.

Courses in Chinese (Division 339)

101. Beginning Chinese. (5). (FL).

Chinese 101 is an introductory course in speaking, understanding, reading and writing Chinese. The student is expected to achieve control of the sound system, basic sentence patterns and basic vocabulary of Standard Mandarin Chinese (up to lesson 13 in both books). Starting the 5th week, we will learn to read and write the characters. In Chinese 101, the major emphasis is on SPEAKING and AURAL COMPREHENSION. We recommend that students listen to the tapes two hours per day. This is a five-credit-hour course. We meet one hour each day. Tuesdays and Thursdays are lectures; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays are recitations. Students are required to register for both a lecture section and a recitation section. Attendance is taken everyday and NO AUDITS ARE ALLOWED. Textbooks: (a) John DeFrancis, BEGINNING CHINESE (Yale Univ. Press) (b) John DeFrancis, BEGINNING CHINESE READER, Part I and II (Yale Univ. Press). Materials covered (Fall Term): BEGINNING CHINESE, Lessons 1-13. BEGINNING CHINESE READER, Lessons 1-13. (Tao)

201. Second-Year Chinese. Chinese 102 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

This course is a continuation of work begun in Chinese 101-102. Students electing the course should have mastered the spoken language material presented in DeFrancis' BEGINNING CHINESE or a similar introductory text and should be able to recognize and write about 400 characters and 1200 combinations. The primary goal of the course is achievement of a basic level of reading competence within a vocabulary of 800 characters and accompanying combinations. A closely integrated secondary goal is continued improvement of aural understanding and speaking competence. These goals are approached through classroom drill and recitation, out-of-class exercises, and work in the language laboratory. Daily class attendance is required. Students are graded on the basis of daily classroom performance, periodic quizzes and tests, homework assignments, and a final exam. The text is CHINESE LINGUISTICS PROJECT, Princeton, INTERMEDIATE CHINESE. (Liang)

405. Third-Year Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (5). (Excl).

Chinese 405 and 406 are a two-term sequence constituting the third year of the Chinese program. All four basic skills reading, writing, listening, and speaking are stressed, but the most time is devoted to learning to read various styles of modern Chinese, including fiction, essays, and documentary and journalistic materials. (Students who want more spoken language work are encouraged to enroll also for Chinese 378, (ADVANCED SPOKEN CHINESE.) Readings are selected from a large variety of textbook and non-textbook materials, most of them in course pack form. (Baxter)

451. Literary Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (4). (Excl).

This is a course for specialists, requiring knowledge of modern Chinese at least through the Second Year level. Using Shadick's A FIRST COURSE IN LITERARY CHINESE as a text, supplemented with locally prepared handouts, we treat selectively the styles of Chinese (poetry as well as prose) that were written in traditional times, from the Chou classical age into the Ch'ing dynasty. Classes are in small recitation groups, requiring steady application measured in weekly tests and regular hand-in exercises, and a two-hour final exam. Emphasis is always given understanding, and rendering clearly into English. The course is the first half of a two-term sequence that is prerequisite to more advanced Chinese courses.

461. Readings in Modern Chinese. Chinese 406 or equivalent. (5). (Excl).

Graded readings at the fourth-year level of a variety of materials to improve command of structure and vocabulary in a range of standard colloquial styles. (Mills)

468/Phil. 468. Classical Chinese Thought (To A.D. 220) Upperclass standing; no knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

See Philosophy 468. (Munro)

471. Classical Chinese Literature in Translation. No knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

Largely through lectures, this course will examine the highlights of early Chinese literature from antiquity to the 13th century. We will begin with THE BOOK OF CHANGES, THE BOOK OF SONGS, and a few ancient philosophical texts (which are written in brilliant literary styles) from the millennium before Christ, the millennium in which China made an astonishing "philosophic breakthrough" in its civilization. We will then undertake to follow the development of the various forms of poetry, fiction, and other kinds of prose during the subsequent centuries. The principal aim is to enable students to become familiar with, and also to be able to enjoy, these masterpieces of literature that illustrate the range and depth of the Chinese imagination, the inner life of the individual as well as the outer social and political life of China through the ages. Two short papers and a final exam are required. Sample readings include Cyril Birch, ed., ANTHOLOGY OF CHINESE LITERATURE, Vol. I; two major texts in Taoist mysticism: LAO TZU: TAO TE CHING and Burton Watson, Jr., CHUANG TZU: BASIC WRITINGS; Burton Watson, CHINESE LYRICISM; and other materials in a course pack. (Lin)

473. Twentieth-Century Chinese Literature in Translation. No knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

An introductory course in Modern Chinese literature in translation designed for the non-specialist who has no knowledge of the Chinese language. It covers the period from 1900 to the present and concentrates primarily on fiction because more fiction has been translated. Some poetry and plays are also read. Students are expected to read the equivalent of about two easy novels a week; background material is handled in lecture form by the instructor. The emphasis is on literature as a reflection of the Chinese in Chinese society in the 20th century. Class discussion is encouraged. There are either two oral reports a term or a term paper. Readings include novels like THE FAMILY by Pa Chin, the story of a split between the generations in a Szechwan family; MIDNIGHT by Mao Tun, a story of financial manipulation and intrigue in the Shanghai stockmarket of the 1930's; SCHOOLMASTER NI by Yen Sheng-t'ao, a story of the development of a young intellectual from an idealistic schoolmaster into a revolutionary; and THE SUN SHINES ON THE SANG KANG RIVER by Ting Ling, the story of land reform in the Chinese countryside in the late 1940's. Plays on tensions in Chinese society by Tsao Yu and many collections of short stories are covered. (Mills)

495. Introduction to Chinese Linguistics. Chinese 101. (3). (HU).

Chinese 495 is an introduction to the study of the Chinese language. Topics covered include the languages of China and their relationships (including both non-Chinese languages and Chinese dialects); the sound system and grammatical structure of standard (Mandarin) Chinese; the history of the Chinese language; the development of the Chinese writing system; the indigenous linguistic tradition of China; and language policy and language reform. Readings are mostly in course pack form. In addition to written tests, students are required to give one or more oral reports and to write one research paper. A background in linguistics, though helpful, is not required. (Baxter)

Courses in Japanese (Division 401)

101. Beginning Japanese. (5). (FL).

The course aims at the acquisition of the four basic language skills - reading, writing, speaking, and listening comprehension in Japanese. The emphasis is on thorough mastery of the fundamental structure of Japanese through aural-oral exercises and practice to the extent that natural fluency in both spoken and written Japanese is achieved. (Tomura)

201. Second-Year Japanese. Japanese 102 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

Designed for students who have finished an introductory text, the course will help students acquire more proficiency in modern Japanese. Although increasing emphasis will be given to reading and writing, listening and speaking will constitute an integral part of the course, and the course will be conducted primarily in Japanese. Approximately 500 (cumulative) KANJI will be introduced in Japanese 201 and 800 (cumulative) in Japanese 202. The dialog section of each lesson will help students learn important styles of spoken Japanese in various social and cultural contexts.

378. Advanced Spoken Japanese. Japanese 202 or 362. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

This course is designed to develop the communicative skill through classroom drill, conversation, discussion, etc. The students are expected to express themselves entirely in Japanese in class.

401. Japanese Literature in Translation: Classical Periods to 1600. A knowledge of Japanese is not required. (3). (HU).

A survey of Japanese literature from the eighth century through the sixteenth. All assigned readings are in English translation, and no previous knowledge of Japan or the Japanese language is required. Special attention is given to the great works of the Japanese literary tradition, including the MAN 'YOSHU, the eighth century anthology of native poetry; THE TALE OF GENJI, the novel of court life from the early eleventh century; diaries and essays from the Heian period (ca. 800-1200); the epic war tales of the thirteenth century; and some of the major noh plays of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. This course, together with Japanese 402, its sequel, are recommended to all students with a general interest in literature or in Japanese culture. Classes are primarily devoted to lectures, with occasional discussion periods and ample opportunity for questions from students. The course has a midterm and a final examination, emphasizing essay questions. Also, one short paper of some 8 to 10 pages is required. In addition to a course pack, required texts include: E.G. Seidensticker, trans., THE TALE OF GENJI; and D. Keene, trans., YOSHIDA KENKO'S ESSAYS IN IDLENESS. The course is required for concentrators in Japanese. (Ito)

405. Third-Year Japanese. Japanese 202 or equivalent. (5). (Excl).

The course aims at further development of overall language proficiency through reading of modern texts in various fields, discussion and composition. Classes will be mostly conducted in Japanese, and drills and homework assignments will be aimed at improving the students' command of grammar and more advanced vocabulary as well as developing translation techniques. The students will be given assignments to translate some pages of Japanese writings that are in the students' fields of specialization. (Endo)

407. Advanced Readings in Modern Japanese Literature. Japanese 406. (4). (Excl).

This course introduces the student to modern Japanese fiction (largely short stories) and other materials written by outstanding writers for a mature Japanese audience. The emphasis is upon a literary approach, using close reading and translation, in class, of Japanese texts. Occasional papers and written translations of supplementary texts are required. The pace of reading is intended to help the student build up reading speed and comprehension. The course will also teach the student how to use dictionaries and other basic research aids effectively. (Ito)

461. Social Science Readings in Japanese. Japanese 406. (4 each). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This is a course designed to give students who have completed three years of the Japanese language studies the opportunity to read various social science materials written in Japanese. The grades for the course are based on daily performance, homework, examinations and a paper. The texts are chosen according to the students' needs and specializations.

541. Classical Japanese. Japanese 406 and 408, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

An introduction to the classical written language, with emphasis upon grammar, syntax, and various classical written styles. A reading knowledge of modern Japanese (equivalent to at least three years of study) is a prerequisite. Class meetings are devoted to reading, translating from Japanese into English, and grammatical analysis. A selection of literary works from the tenth through the sixteenth centuries are read, with stress on accurate translation, close analysis of grammatical structure, and careful attention to literary qualities. This course is required of graduate concentrators in Japanese and is a prerequisite (with Japanese 542) to advanced work in pre-modern Japanese literature. It is also highly recommended to graduate students of pre-modern Japanese history, Japanese art history, Buddhism, etc. It may also be taken by undergraduates with sufficient advanced preparation in the modern language. (Danly)

Courses in South and Southeast Asia (Division 483)

Language Courses

105(305). Elementary Hindi-Urdu. (4). (FL).

South and Southeast Asia 105 is the first term in the sequence of courses offered by the Dept. of Asian Languages and Cultures in Hindi and Urdu, the respective national languages of India and Pakistan. Meeting four times a week, the course is intended to develop students' skills in speaking and in aural comprehension as well as introduce them to the Devanagari writing system. There are no prerequisites.

301. Thai. (4). (FL).

This course is the first half of the sequential Elementary Thai courses. The emphases are on practicing pronunciation and simple conversation, reading and writing simple Thai, and expanding students' vocabulary. Four hours of language lab are recommended. Evaluations are based on observations of students' progress, midterm, and final.

303. Elementary Indonesian. (4). (FL).

Indonesian, the national language of Indonesia, is the language of over 100 million speakers in Indonesia. In addition it is nearly identical with Malay, the language of approximately 12 million speakers in nearby Malaysia. Within the area covered by the Malay and Indonesian languages over 3,000 miles from east to west there exists a stunning variety of cultures and ethnic groups of great interest to the researcher or social scientist. At the same time a growing economic dynamism in Southeast Asia makes this an ideal area for work in the development and business-related fields. South/Southeast Asia 303 is the first half of a two-term sequence designed to provide the student with a basic working-knowledge of the Indonesian language. Classroom readings concentrate on the formal, written style of the language, while a series of taped conversations and exercises keyed to the text emphasizes everyday language use. Evaluation is based on a series of short quizzes and a midterm and final exam.

307. Elementary Tagalog. (4). (FL).

Tagalog is the national language of the Philippines. Elementary Tagalog is a two-term sequence designed to give the student who has little or no knowledge of Tagalog the necessary basis for learning to speak it and to have a functional acquaintance with the cultural context in which it functions. Tagalog is particularly interesting in the way it has integrated the broad influences of both Spanish and English into its own syntactic and semantic systems. The oral approach is greatly emphasized in the classroom, using questions and answers and short dialogues to develop active use of the language in the most natural way possible. This is complemented by the use of taped lessons in the Language Laboratory. There are frequent short quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. At the end of the first year, the student should be able to handle brief exchanges in common social situations and to read and write simple Tagalog. For the student specializing in Philippine studies, learning Tagalog is a must. For the student specializing in language studies, a number of linguists of note have found Tagalog structure highly instructive in understanding certain aspects of language. For the student with Philippine affinities, learning Tagalog provides a bond of understanding and for some, a link to one's roots. For the student who has neither a Philippine connection nor a specialist interest in language, learning Tagalog can be rewarding as it provides an experience of new modes of expression and new ways of looking at the world around us and within ourselves. (Naylor)

401. Intermediate Thai. S&SEA 302. (3). (FL).

This course is the first half of the sequential Intermediate Thai courses. It is designed to increase students' speaking, listening, reading, and writing abilities, as well as vocabulary expansion. Students practice pronunciation and conversation as well as read and write short paragraphs. Four hours of language lab per week are recommended. Evaluations are based on observations of students' progress, midterm, and final.

403. Intermediate Indonesian. S&SEA 304. (3). (FL).

Intermediate Indonesian is the second half of a two-term sequence aimed at increasing the student's skills in speaking, reading, comprehending, and writing the Indonesian language. The text and associated tapes used for the course stress building a practical vocabulary for both formal and informal language situations. One meeting a week is devoted to clarifying basic grammatical structures, while the balance of class time is devoted to study of practical language use. In addition, slide-shows with simple Indonesian narration on a variety of cultural subjects are introduced in order to increase the student's familiarity with the social and cultural settings of Indonesian language use. Evaluation is based on homework, a series of short quizzes, and a midterm and final exam.

405. Intermediate Hindi-Urdu. S&SEA 306. (3). (FL)

South and Southeast Asia 405 is the third term in the sequence of courses offered in the Hindi and Urdu by the Dept. of Asian Languages and Cultures. Meeting four times a week the course is intended to increase students' skills in speaking and comprehension as well as introduce them to the Nastalig writing system used for Urdu. They will continue to develop their proficiency in reading and writing the Devanagari script. Students with strong background in Hindi-Urdu may be able to enter the sequence at this point. See the instructor for placement evaluation. (Hook)

433. Intermediate Tagalog. S&SEA 314 or permission of instructor. (3). (FL).

This course is designed for the student who has some knowledge of Tagalog and who wishes to develop some fluency in spoken Tagalog and to be acquainted with Tagalog literature. It is part of a two-term sequence which is essentially a continuation of what has been learned in the first year but there will be more emphasis on reading and writing. Students who have not taken Elementary Tagalog (South and Southeast Asia 307) may take this course if they pass an evaluation test to be given by the instructor. The format will be as follows: two class hours a week will be devoted to readings and grammar review and one class hour a week will be devoted to guided conversation. Readings will be assigned and these will provide the framework for the discussion of grammatical points and question and answer sessions in Tagalog on the content. There will be written assignments, a midterm, and a final examination. By the end of the second year, students should have acquired sufficient competence to handle longer conversations, write brief letters, read certain plays, newspapers, magazines, etc. Course texts are: INTERMEDIATE READINGS IN TAGALOG, ed. by Bowen; TAGALOG REFERENCE GRAMMAR by Schacter and Octanes; and a Tagalog-English Dictionary. Supplementary readings will be assigned during the term. (Naylor)

501. Advanced Thai. S&SEA 402. (3). (FL).

This course is the first half of the two course sequence of Advanced Thai. The course is designed to improve students' proficiency in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehension of the Thai language. The course is flexible and tailored to suit students' needs and interests.

505. Advanced Hindi-Urdu. S&SEA 406. (3). (FL)

South and Southeast Asia 505 is the fifth term in the sequence of courses offered by the Dept. of Asian Languages and Cultures in Hindi-Urdu. Meeting three times a week, the course is intended to further students' skills in speaking and aural comprehension as well as increase their proficiency in reading and writing both Hindi and Urdu. Students with prior work in Hindi-Urdu may be able to join the sequence at this point. See the instructor for placement. (Hook)

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