Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

Biological anthropology is a subfield of anthropology dealing with human biology and evolution. This course presents a survey of the major topics in the field. The course is divided into four major parts, (1) human genetics and evolutionary theory, (2) primate behavior and evolution, (3) the human fossil record, and (4) biological variability in modern populations. Grading will be based on three one-hour multiple choice exams and a required 1-hour a week discussion section. No special background knowledge is required or assumed.

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures and readings, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual sexual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early ecological shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology, and the changes in physical form that are the consequences of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. Class participation and discussion are emphasized. Student evaluations are based on a midterm, a short paper, and a final examination. (Wolpoff)

368/Psychology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order and its major divisions, and provide detailed knowledge of several of the widely studied species of prosimians, monkeys and apes. The major focus of the course will be the evolutionary significance of behavior in the wild, and special attention is therefore given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, behavioral development, kinship systems, sexual behavior, aggression and competition, and similar topics are then described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, but it also serves as an introduction to 369, Primate Social Relationships. Two lecture hours, one film, and one discussion section weekly. One midterm and one final exam. (Wrangham)

371. Techniques in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in anthropology. (1-3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Individual work in preparing specimens used in physical anthropology laboratories (skeletons, fresh specimens, casts, fossil materials, etc.). Methods of instruction will include limited demonstrations. Individualized instruction and independent work will be stressed, and assignments will be matched to individuals' interests and skills. Three hours per week for each hour credit is required. (Frisancho)

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The application of genetic theory and data to the interpretation of the course of human evolution. The data include variation both among human populations and among humans and their close primate relatives. Reconciliation of the genetic data with various views of the fossil record will also be considered. Lectures and course pack. Grade based on midterm and final exam. (Livingstone)

469. Topics in Biological Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (2-4). (Excl).

SECTION 001 BEHAVIORAL BIOLOGY of WOMEN. What does it mean to be a woman? This new course approaches this question with an even more fundamental question: What does it mean to be FEMALE? Modern evolutionary theory will provide a framework for comparing human females with females in other sexually reproducing organisms, in other mammals, and in other primates. These comparisons illuminate the evolutionary origins of universal features of human female behavioral biology, including, for example, menstrual cycles, pregnancy, lactation, and the menopause. To understand how such universal biological features affect individual women, the course will examine the relationship between mind and body (psychology) and the ways particular cultures influence a woman's experiences and sense of self (anthropology). The course has two major goals: (1) to introduce students to recent and innovative research on women in the fields of biology, psychology, and anthropology and (2) to help students understand the relevance of this information for their own lives and for current and political issues, such as fertility, birth control, eating disorders and body imagery, premenstrual syndrome, women's friendships, ambition and competition between, and women's struggle to combine family and work. Course prerequisites: Introductory Anthropology or Introductory Psychology. The course will be given for four credit hours and will include two 1 1/2 lectures each week plus one hour of discussion section. Discussion sections will be arranged during the first week of classes. A substantial amount of reading will be included in a course pack and possibly one or two books. Grades will be based on a midterm examination, a few brief essays, and a 12-15 page term paper that analyzes the relevance of some set of research findings for an important issue confronting women today. (Smuts)

Section 003 SIMULATION in POPULATION GENETICS. Development of computer models of human genetic variation and evolution. Individual student projects. (Livingstone)

563. Mechanisms of Human Adaptation. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The course is addressed at evaluating the physiological responses and adaptations that enable humans to survive environmental extremes such as those found under stressful conditions of heat, cold, solar radiation, high altitude, undernutrition, overnutrition, and Westernization of dietary habits. Because this course is addressed to students of the several disciplines and to facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of human adaptation to environmental stress, the discussion of major topics is preceded by sections outlining initial responses observed in laboratory studies with humans and experimental animals. Emphasis is given to the short adaptive mechanisms that enable an organism to acclimate itself to a given environmental stress. Subsequently, the long-term adaptive mechanisms that enable humans to acclimatize themselves to natural, stressful environmental conditions are discussed. Throughout the course, emphasis is given to the effects of environmental stresses and the adaptive responses that an organism makes during its growth and development and their implications for understanding the origins of population differences in biological traits. Student evaluation includes three tests, a final exam, and a term paper. The method of instruction is lecture and some discussion. (Frisancho)

569/Psychology 569. Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See Psychology 569. (Smuts)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory|slash|Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Exposure to anthropology's cross-cultural, comparative and holistic viewpoints, and to ethnography, the field's characteristic data-gathering procedure, are important in a liberal arts education. Anthropology 101, which surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology) provides students (generally freshmen and sophomores) with a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. Anthropology 101 stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. Anthropology 101 teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about nature and diversity, and to think critically. As is proper for a distribution course, the principal aim of Anthropology 101 is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods which typify the discipline. This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology, as well as surveying its content. (As such it is also recommended for anthropology concentrators.) Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex-gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings include basic text(s) and three paperbacks. Students must register for the three weekly lectures (section 001) and a discussion-recitation section. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. Extra-credit option: Any student who wishes to earn extra credit by exploring anthropology's subject matter in greater depth (through extra reading and writing) may register for section 015 OR 021 AND two credit hours of Anthropology 449, section 014. By doing this, you can earn six credit hours, rather than the usual four. Honors students should register in section 012, but may also choose one of the special sections. (Kottak)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. (Lockwood)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine both a general survey of world prehistory and a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of prehistoric archaeology as a social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on three main processes in the development of human culture: a) the emergence of human culture from a primate background, b) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the establishment of village farming communities, and c) the rise of complex states and empires from these simpler farming societies. The presentation of techniques, methods, and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, analytical methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in archaeology as an explanatory social science. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the field as toward eventual concentrators. There will be three lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include a midterm and a final examination, plus two take-home exercises which give students experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. (O'Shea)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

301. Ethnography of East Asia. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course is designed to acquaint the student with the traditional and contemporary cultures of Japan, China, Korea, Mongolia, and Tibet, and some of the tribal societies which border on China proper or are included within the political boundaries of China. It is concerned both with shared traditions between these societies and with their unique configurations. The course readings will consist primarily of selections from ethnographies and community studies, supplemented by literary works and historical and philosophical writings from the various cultures. There will be a midterm and final examination, and one or two short papers. This is a lecture course, with in-class discussion. An introductory anthropology course would be helpful as a prerequisite. Students should find this course useful as preparation for upper-level courses in Asian studies. (Diamond)

315. Indians of North America. (4). (SS).

The course provides an introduction to Native North American peoples and involves a detailed discussion of several typical cultures and culture areas, with a special emphasis on modes of subsistence, economic and social organization, and religion. By focusing on native world views, an attempt is also made to gain a better understanding of the Native North American's own perceptions of and attitudes towards reality and human life. The course deals primarily with the more "traditional" native cultures prior to the spread of Western domination. Nevertheless, several major post-contact cultural developments, aspects of Indian-White relations, and contemporary problems (including those of Michigan Indians) are touched upon. Required reading includes several ethnographic studies, a biography of a Native American man or woman, and some articles from a course pack. Student evaluation is based on two essay-type exams and a short research paper developed by the student in consultation with the instructor and/or the teaching assistant. While lectures and one weekly section conducted by the teaching assistant are the major methods of instruction, films, presentations by guest lecturers, and demonstrations of artifacts from the Museum of Anthropology play an important role in the course. (Kan)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, with the emphasis on the Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is first looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant and urban. The conceptual and historical relations between these are examined with reference to the writings of Ibn Khaldun and to such events as the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. In the second half of the course some cultural themes are discussed that recur throughout the area: the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term-paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from classics such as Doughty and Snouck-Hurgonje, as will as from recent anthropology. (Dresch)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: FOUR 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize READING and LECTURE materials; participation in CLASS discussions; regular class attendance. (Owusu)

418. Indians of South America. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (SS).

This course examines how the ethnic category of "Indian" has been constructed as a dialogue between Europe and South America. We will consider the following topics: (1) the creation of a European mythology about the New World and its inhabitants, (2) the response of indigenous people to the Conquest in the form of messianic uprisings, (3) the restructuring of native social institutions and the gradual evolution of modes of daily resistance within the subject populations, (4) the role of indigenous peoples in the 19th century independence movements and the question of their national identities today, (5) indigenous responses to and interpretations of capitalism, and the impact of "development" on Amazon peoples, and (6) the rise of political movements in the 1970's and 80's and an examination of why some indigenous peoples have chosen to express their demands for social reform through Indian organizations and others through class-based federations which cross-cut ethnic lines. The course is designed to emphasize the active role of indigenous peoples in South American history. Case studies on the Campa, Amuesha, Gran Chaco, Quechau, Tupi-Guarani, Ge-Bororo, and Tukanoan groups will be selected from the classic ethnographic literature on the continent to give the student a critical overview of the religious, social and political forms considered characteristic of South American cultural formations. Course requirements will include a take-home midterm and a research paper on a topic of the student's choice. (Poole)


330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is an introduction to the cross-cultural study of concepts and meanings. Anthropologists are constantly confronted with the task of explaining the enormous diversity of known cultures in a way that takes into account the similarities that appear from culture to culture. The problem of uniformity and diversity has been tackled through psychological, sociological, and cultural-intellectual lines of reasoning. Students will be introduced to these lines of reasoning and to anthropological data, through a focus on some of the more frequently debated customs of tribal and early state societies: warfare and institutionalized homicide, witchcraft beliefs, exotic sexual practices. Students can choose between 5-five-page essays that will be evaluated primarily in terms of writing skills or two five-page essays and two essay-style exams (midterm and final) which will be evaluated more in terms of the mastery of anthropological reasoning. Suggested paper topics will often involve additional reading. Some films will be shown. There are no prerequisites.

332. Social Forms. Sophomore standing. (4). (SS).

The aim is to provide a solid grounding in core subjects and theories of ethnology. This course should be useful, not only to anthropology concentrators, but to those wishing to use ethnological ideas in other subjects. A previous course in ethnology is no hindrance but is NOT essential. Every effort will be made toward clarity of presentation. No previous knowledge will be assumed. Topics such as witchcraft, kinship and symbolic classification will be used cumulatively to demonstrate the principles which inform social life. The way anthropologists elucidate those principles will be explained. The positions of different authors and schools will be pointed out, and the meaning discussed of such terms as society, culture and social structure. The worth of different approaches will be tested at the end by looking at millenarian movements: such events as the Sioux ghost dance and the Tai Ping rebellion. There is a lot to cover. The essential points of each topic will be dealt with in LECTURES. Lecture material and required readings will be discussed separately in SECTIONS, led alternately by the instructor and a TA. Students must be ready to give the time needed for a 4 HOUR credit. Assessment will be based on short take-home papers, the objectives of which will be explained beforehand. (Dresch)

432. Social Theory. (3). (SS).

A description of Cultural Anthropology 432, subtitled "The Nervous System" will be available after April 1. Please come to the Anthropology Department, 1054 LSA Building, for detailed information. (Taussig)

528. History of Anthropological Thought. Senior concentrator or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an intensive analysis of critical problems in social anthropological interpretation within both a contemporary and an historical context. The course begins with a discussion of theoretical problems. This is followed by a detailed analysis of how these problems are crucial in an analysis of the works of many pre-1945 theoreticians such as Marx, Morgan, Durkheim, Weber, Boas and Kroeber, Benedict and Mead, Malinowski, and Radcliffe-Brown. Class format is a combination of lecture and discussion, and course requirements include the reading of critical works by the theoreticians mentioned above and a final examination which is given as a take-home examination. (Yengoyan)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, functions and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why law is obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the customary judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs: infants, women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers, or three 6-8 page student papers. Lecture/discussion format. (Owusu)

337(450). Sorcery and Witchcraft: Anthropological Interpretations. One course in ethnology. (3). (SS).

This course examines the principal theoretical interpretations and modes of explanation that have been employed in the anthropological study of witchcraft and sorcery, and in historical studies of Western Europe witchcraft that draw on anthropological models. The course begins with consideration of witchcraft/sorcery beliefs as a system of thought (and subjective reality), on one hand, and with the objective reality of public accusations and their consequences, on the other. Comparison of patterns of accusation (i.e., who accuses whom) in a selection of societies leads to examination of the relation between witchcraft/sorcery and gender systems, political power and social organization (respectively). Readings, lectures and discussions focus on the sociology of witchcraft/sorcery beliefs and practices, and on the locus of these within more comprehensive cosmological and symbolic systems. This lays the groundwork for investigation of continuity and change in these beliefs, and in the actions predicated upon them. The dramatic rise in witchcraft prosecutions and executions in Western Europe between 1500 and 1650 is examined in relation to anthropological studies of related phenomena in tribal societies. This class is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. Evaluation is based on class report and take-home examination. (Kelly)

357. Undergraduate Seminar in Ethnology. A course in cultural anthropology and either junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001 MALINOWSKI and THE RISE of BRITISH ANTHROPOLOGY. Bronislaw Malinowski is widely regarded as the founding father of ethnographic fieldwork. His prolonged residence among the Trobriands and his highly readable studies of their culture and society marked the beginning of a new era in anthropology. First-hand accounts and holistic studies became the standard for generations of anthropologists. It is not enough to extol the brilliance of Malinowski but it is also necessary to ask in what sense we have advanced in our anthropological knowledge. What is the difference between Malinowski and the modern fieldworker? How did Malinowski experience his position in Trobriand society and how has the current awareness of the relation between ethnographer and informant changed the practice of fieldwork? How has the shift from a holistic, functionalist approach to symbolic, interpretive, and historical approaches affected the anthropological understanding? In order to assess this development, the course will compare Malinowski's description and interpretation of a number of central themes in anthropology with those of contemporary authors on Melanesia. The following issues will come up for discussion: order and conflict, reciprocity and exchange, death and mourning, ritual and routine, and magic and experience. This is a lecture and discussion course, with two take-home exams and a research paper. The course is especially important for students in anthropology, but the readings are general and varied enough to be of interest to students in other concentrators. (Robben)

Section 002 ANTHROPOLOGY of EXPERIENCE: WITCHCRAFT, DIVINATION, MAGIC and SELF. This course explores two interrelated questions by examining such anthropologically relevant topics as witchcraft, divination, magic and the notion of self. These questions are: (1) how do the local people experience their culture? (2) how can an ethnographer understand their experience? The purpose of the course is, first, to uncover theoretical presuppositions in classical monographs and articles on these topics, and, second, to examine these presuppositions critically in order to achieve a better understanding of the local people's experience. The course begins with consideration of some basic concepts necessary for the rest of the course. In the remaining sections four topics listed above will be first presented in lectures and later discussed in class. The students will be required to write two short critical essays (from 8 to 12 pages) and to participate in class discussion. The readings will include: Evans-Pritchard, WITCHCRAFT AMONG the AZANDE; Lienhardt, DIVINITY and EXPERIENCE; Rosaldo, KNOWLEDGE and PASSION. (Ota)

437. Anthropology and Economic Systems. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (SS).

This course reviews some of the main issues in economic anthropology, using both case studies and theoretical writings. The purpose is to explore the differences between industrial and preindustrial societies. Topics will include technological/ecological limitations on production, the social organization of production, modes of exchange and distribution, factors in economic decision-making, innovation and change. Materials will cover hunter/gatherer societies, simple agricultural societies, pre-capitalist complex State societies, and the peasant sector in modernizing countries. The course format will consist of lectures and discussion. Students will be asked to write one long paper (about 20 pages) on a topic of their choice and to make a brief oral presentation in class. (Diamond)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.

SECTION 001 CULTURE, CLASS and COMMUNITY in MEXICO and GUATEMALA. This course explores the paradoxes of ethnic diversity in contemporary Mexico and Guatemala: why, after over four and a half centuries of conquest, colonialism, and nationalism do so-called "Indian" peoples still persist in these countries? Conversely, why is so much of what passes today as "Indian Culture" actually colonial rather than prehispanic in origin? And what precisely is the nature of emerging national and social identity for those who disclaim such Indian heritage? Answers to these and other questions will be sought in the postconquest history of Mexico and Guatemala, as well as in the study of local communities. These will range from seemingly remote Mayan Indian villages to urban neighborhoods in Mexico City, analyzed not as simply autonomous and enduring ways of life but as evolving adaptations to a social world structured by both cultural diversity and class stratification. In this way, the course will hopefully reveal the variety of human experience as lived today in Mexico and Guatemala, the forces that shape these experiences, and how anthropologists have come to diverse understandings of both. (Watanabe)


472/Ling. 409. Language and Culture. (3). (HU).

This course explores the relationship between language and culture as a set of mutually reinforcing constraints which form different types of coherence systems. Language is dealt with both as a set of grammatical forces as well as semantic imperatives which must be related to culture as a system of social principles, as webs of meaning, and as a framework of knowledge and philosophy. The realm of thought is analyzed as a human condition which produces creative and constrictive conditions on language and culture. A few short paperback volumes are required in addition to articles placed on undergraduate reserves. Course requirements are a midterm and a final examination. (Yengoyan)

473/Ling. 473. Ethnopoetics: Cross-Cultural Approaches to Verbal Art. Two courses in anthropology, linguistics or literature, or permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). (HU).

How do we understand the verbal art of non-western peoples without imposing our pre-conceived folk ideas about form, performance, authorship, and textuality? If poetic form, devices and traditions vary from culture to culture, how can we even hope to understand them? And if we do manage to understand how another culture patterns its verbal art in performance, how do we translate and represent it without parodying the other culture? This course will consider some recent (and some not-so-recent) efforts by anthropologists, linguists, poets, folklorists, and literary theorists to address these questions at several levels: First, we want to develop a methodology which allows us to discover 'unsuspected devices and intentions' which form indigenous poetries and texts, "unsuspected" in that they draw upon aspects of language which our own traditions by-pass, and "unsuspected" in that they have often been collected and published without cognizance of those devices and intentions. This forces us to develop a view of language which is adequate to interpret 'oral literatures' as they shape and are shaped by the cultures of which they are a part. What relevance does such a view of language have for our culture's theories of verbal art, text, and performance? Finally, in what ways can it contribute to reshaping anthropology itself? (Mannheim)

474/Ling. 410. Nonstandard English. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410. (Burling)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

See Linguistics 417. (Dworkin)

576. Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. Two courses in anthropology or biology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course serves as an introduction to language and linguistics for anthropologists. It provides the basic tools necessary for discussing and working with linguistic systems and introduces theoretical models both as tools for working with data and as models of cultural activity. The nature of language as a sign activity, the status of linguistic representations, and semiotic and biological bases of linguistic universals are explored (Mannheim)


394. Undergraduate Seminar in Archaeology. Anthro. 282 and concentration in anthropology; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The seminar examines the major intellectual and methodological problems American anthropological archaeologists have addressed throughout the history of professional archaeology. Students are expected to have completed at least one archaeology course prior to enrolling. This course satisfies the undergraduate concentration seminar requirement. Students will prepare an oral presentation, write a paper, and participate in class discussions. The texts include Willey and Sabloff, A HISTORY OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY, Schiffer, etc., ADVANCES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL METHOD AND THEORY SELECTIONS, in addition to reserve readings. This seminar is excellent preparation for graduate school in anthropology and a career as a professional archaeologist. (Ford)

581. Archaeology I. Senior concentrators, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The first part of this course is devoted to developing models of the operation and evolution of hunter-gatherer cultural systems and to discussing the ways in which these systems may be studied from the archaeological record. The second half of the course consists of a review of the archaeological evidence for the evolution of these cultural systems from their earliest appearance until the beginnings of sedentary, agricultural communities. Most emphasis is given to materials from Africa and Europe with brief attention paid to Asia and the New World. Lecture course. Evaluation based on paper and examinations. (Speth)

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