Near Eastern Studies

General Near East (Division 439)

101. Introduction to Near Eastern Studies. (3). (HU).

This course offers a broad, humanistic examination of the numerous elements which make up the Near East. Students will be introduced to the people, cultures, historical background, and economic and political problems of the area. The course has no prerequisites. While intended for the general student body, it will also provide a structural framework for beginning students in Near Eastern Studies by showing the relationship between subject matter presented in more advanced courses. There will be one midterm and a final. The course is based on lectures, numerous guest lecturers, and class discussion. Special "lab" sessions will introduce students to NEAR EASTERN food and dance. (Kolars)

201/Rel. 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Freedman)

363/Hist. 307/Rel. 359. History of Ancient Israel II: The Formation of Classical Judaism. May be elected independently of NES 362. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the history of Judaism and Jewish communities from the Babylonian Exile of the 6th century B.C. until the collapse of the last major Jewish independence movement in Palestine in antiquity, the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132-135 A.D. The focus will be on Palestinian Jewry, but other areas, particularly Egypt, will also be studied. Our interest is not only in the political course of events, but in the nature and structure of the developing Jewish communities of these centuries, e.g., the Pharisees, Sadducees, Dead Sea Scroll community, and early Christians. Further, we shall look at the major religious ideas and institutions, such as the development of Jewish law, forms of worship, apocalyptic thought, and interaction with Greek culture. Our overall concern will be to see how the ancient Israel of the Hebrew Bible became Judaism. The format of the course will consist of lectures and discussions based upon both modern secondary studies and the original texts themselves in translation. In addition, we shall consider archaeological finds where appropriate. There will be two examinations (including the final) and two short papers; student evaluation will be based on these and, to a lesser extent, on performance in class discussion. While this course is a continuation of NES 362 (History of Ancient Israel I), neither the latter nor any other course is required as a prerequisite. There are, indeed NO prerequisites, except a healthy curiosity and inquiring mind. (Machinist)

397. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

An independent study course of 1-3 credit hours. A student must obtain permission of the instructor prior to registration. The subject and terms of grading the course should be determined by the student and instructor prior to registration as well.

435. Literary Analysis and Theory I. (3). (HU).

The study of Near Eastern literatures from the viewpoint of contemporary literary theories is fairly new. This course offers an introduction to that study. The emphasis will be on the practical application of major literary theories. These will be surveyed in the first part of the course, together with analyses done and discussed jointly by the class. In the second half of the course, the major Near Eastern literatures, ancient or modern, will be introduced, and sample texts jointly analysed, with emphasis on the literatures represented by the participants. Participants will take turns in presenting assigned readings, taking minutes, and analysing assigned texts and, later, texts of their choice. The latter will form the basis for their term paper. Evaluation will be on these assignments and class participation. (Windfuhr)

445. Introduction to Ancient and Classical Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

Our fascination with the Near East is not just limited to archaeological and historic records; these but suggest the outlines of life during humankind's cultural infancy. More than anything else, it is the literature of a people which reveal its heart and mind, its emotions and thoughts. This course opens the door for the contemporary student into the innermost life of ancient and more recent peoples living in the lands surrounding the Eastern Mediterranean. It identifies the popular forms of narrative and poetic expression, explains the social backgrounds of early Near Eastern literature, and considers its links with our contemporary Western literary traditions. Lectures and discussions focus on representative myths, stories and poems. The literatures covered in this course include (1) Ancient Near Eastern literatures: ancient Egyptian, Assyrian-Babylonian, Hittite, Iranian, Biblical leading to (2) Classical Near Eastern and Islamic literatures: Arabic, Persian and Turkish, and literary activity in Hebrew. Each literature is taught by a different faculty member. Student evaluation is by examination (graduates have to prepare an additional term paper). The required texts are specially selected, xeroxed and available in Course Pack form. There are no prerequisites, but NES 101 or some other background on the Near East is recommended. (Stewart-Robinson)

469. Jewish Civilization. (3). (SS).

Lectures on topics in Jewish Intellectual History, with class discussion based on selected assignments. Some of the topics are: Monotheism, Law, Messianism, Mysticism, Language and Literature, Sabbath and the Festivals, Sacrifice and Prayer. Students are evaluated on the basis of two exams. (Schramm)

472/Hist. 543. Perso-Islamic Civilization in the Eastern Caliphate and India, 900-1350. (4). (HU).

This course deals with one of the most important varieties of Islamic Civilization, the one formed in the area stretching from present-day Iraq across the Iranian Plateau to Central Asia. Perso-Islamic Civilization underlies the modern Islamic cultures of Afghanistan, Muslim Soviet Central Asia, Pakistan, Muslim India, and Iran, and it had a great deal of influence on the formation of Ottoman Turkish Civilization. Topics will include Ancient Iran's contribution to the formation of Islamic Civilization in Arabic, the emergence and maturation of New Persian literature, the impact of the Turkish invasions, Perso-Islamic Civilization on the eve of the Mongol invasion and the transfer of this culture to India as an "émigré civilization" under the Delhi Sultanate. A paper or set of four critical reviews, a midterm and a final are required. Readings are from secondary materials and source translations in English from a reserve list and a course pack. (Luther)

485/Rel. 485. Muslims Sages. (3). (HU).

The purpose of this course is two-fold: to make an in-depth study of some of the distinguished Muslim minds in various fields of intellectual activity; and to make that study serve as an introduction to those fields. The following list should give an idea of scholars to be studied: Hasan al-Basri, Ma'arri, Ghazali, Rumi, Ibn Khaldun, Ahmad Sirhindi, Shah Waliullah, and Igbal. The course will be given mainly in the form of lectures. There will be a course pack, and, if necessary, one or two books. All readings will be in English. The basis of grading will be two exams and a paper. NO PREREQUISITES. (Mir)

487/Phil. 471. Muslim Philosophy. (3). (HU).

This course will begin by looking at the Hellenistic background to Muslim philosophy, and then concentrate on Muslim philosophy as it developed during the Medieval period. Major philosophers (like Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ghazali, and Ibn Rushd) will be studied in some depth. Later developments in philosophy (especially in Persia) will be taken into account. A look at modern developments in Muslim philosophy will conclude the course. All readings will be in English. Two exams and a term paper. NO PREREQUISITES. (Mir)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, honor's advisor, and the LSA Honor's Council. This course should be taken both terms of the senior year, for not less than three or more than six credits per term. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors," or with "with Honors," in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.

561. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern History: Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is a senior/graduate-level course designed to introduce students to the history of Sumeria, Babylonia, Assyria, the Hittites, and related interacting cultures. It will identify a number of special topics and organize reading, discussion, and writing around these. A number of available textbooks will be used, but the emphasis will be on going to the original written sources in translation, and to relevant summaries of archaeological research. The period covered is from ca. 3000 BC to Alexander. Students at junior level, or below, should elect Near Eastern Studies 361. All students will write two short papers, and the graduate students will additionally be asked to write a longer term paper. (Orlin)

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. (3). (FL).

An introduction to the language and style of the Hebrew Bible, using Weingreen's PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF CLASSICAL HEBREW as the text. Daily instruction on grammar with drills. Students are evaluated on the basis of daily homework assignments and weekly quizzes.

380/Rel. 380. Selected Topics in Christian Studies. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits. Only one course from Religion 380, 387, and 487 may be elected in the same term.

See Religion 380.

Literature and Civilization Courses

441. Ancient Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

This course aims to survey the chief types of ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN LITERATURE in translation; we shall be dealing with Sumerian, Assyro-Babylonian, Egyptian, Canaanite, Hittite, and selected Hebrew materials. Beyond this it seeks to examine specifically and at some length the outstanding masterpieces of ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN CIVILIZATIONS, works such as the Gilgamesh Epic, various creation myths, Sinuhe, Wen-Amon, outstanding examples of hymns and prayers, Wisdom literature, and more. Finally it seeks TO DISCUSS AESTHETIC AND LITERARY-CRITICAL PRINCIPLES THAT CAN BE APPLIED TO THIS ANCIENT LITERATURE. The teaching method combines lectures and discussions; where pertinent, lectures will attempt to take into account characteristics of Greek literary types for comparative purposes. Student evaluation will be on the basis of two short papers, a midterm exam, and the usual final exam for undergraduates, and one short and one long paper, a midterm exam, and the final examination for graduates. Texts include a variety of available paperbacks. (Orlin)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for review and oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult instructor or course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour and general instructions. Arabic 101 may be taken for two to six credits. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each lesson (50%) and scheduled and comprehensive tests (50%). Textbooks: (1)A PROGRAMMED COURSE IN MODERN ARABIC PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT by E. N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2)ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC PART ONE, by P. Abboud et al. (Staff, Rammuny)

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course may not be taken until SIX hours of Arabic 101 have been completed. It is a continuation of Arabic 101 and includes continued drill practice on the phonological system, on basic vocabulary and morphology, and on Arabic syntactic patterns. The course stresses oral practice with increasing emphasis on reading selections based on Arab culture, and on producing Arabic orally and in writing. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons and tests satisfactorily completed. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each term (50%) and scheduled comprehensive tests (50%). Textbook: ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC, Part Two, by P. Abboud et al. (Rammuny)

201. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. (6). (FL).

No previous knowledge of Arabic is required for Arabic 201. This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or for those who expect to have some immediate use of Arabic. Its primary goals are: (1) mastery of the phonology and writing systems of literary Arabic; (2) control of the basic grammatical structures of the language; (3) mastery of about 800 vocabulary items; and (4) acquisition of related skills. The materials used are based on a combined approach stressing the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The course starts with A PROGRAMMED COURSE IN MODERN LITERARY ARABIC PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT, by Ernest N. McCarus and Raji Rammuny. These introductory programmed materials are usually completed within the first two weeks of classes. This is immediately followed by ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC, PART I, by Peter Abboud et al. This book is especially designed to provide careful guidance to both the student and the teacher. At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to read printed and handwritten literary Arabic and to produce familiar material in a manner acceptable to a native speaker. In addition, the student should have acquired related skills such as familiarity with the use of Arabic dictionaries, or the ability to use a small set of greetings and polite expressions. The course meets six hours per week for six credits. Use of language lab is necessary and strongly recommended to reinforce classroom work. The course grade is based on daily assignments, weekly quizzes, bi-weekly tests, classroom performance, and a final exam. (Rammuny)

401. Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 202 or the equivalent. (6). (FL).

The course emphasizes a review of morphology and a continuation of the study of Arabic syntax. There are selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and nonfiction, with special emphasis on oral work, reading, active mastery of a basic Arabic vocabulary, and development of composition skills. Passages in Arabic are translated sometimes with and sometimes without the use of a dictionary. There are also dictionary practice drills which are intended to aid vocabulary acquisition and discussion of specific morphological problems based on extracts taken from Arabic newspapers. This is a semi-intensive course which meets six hours each week. With the aim of achieving a practical command of spoken modern standard Arabic, there is an application of the fundamentals of grammar through drill sessions with a native speaker. In order to develop a command of written Arabic, students produce (in Arabic) weekly summaries, commentaries, and composition. Arabic 401 is required of all students concentrating in Arabic and is recommended for students who expect to learn the language for use in related fields. Weekly quizzes, midterm, and final. (Staff, Rammuny)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

430. Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. Arabic 402 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introductory survey to the phonology, morphology and syntax of literary and dialectual Arabic. It is designed to accommodate Arabic concentrators with little training in linguistics and linguistics concentrators with no knowledge of Arabic. Class will be devoted to lectures and discussions. Course grade will be based on homework problems arising from class discussion, and a final exam (no term paper). No textbook, but a reading list will be distributed. (McCarus)

501. Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course presupposes knowledge of Arabic at the intermediate level (NES Arabic 402 or equivalent). It offers extensive oral and written practical work based on (1) a wide variety of literary texts ranging from short stories, personal and formal letters, plays, essays to proverbs and poems adapted from the works of contemporary professional writers and (2) audiovisual materials including video-cassettes, automated slide shows and tape-recordings of newscasts, speeches and lectures. There is special emphasis on basic fundamentals for effective Arabic writing, illustrations of the basic differences of grammar and idioms between Arabic and English keyed to the most common errors of American students of Arabic, and cultural content pertinent to the learners' needs and interests. The course meets three hours per week and is conducted entirely in Arabic. It also requires about 6 extra hours weekly for outside of class preparation, listening to or viewing lesson tapes and writing composition. Course grade is based on students' preparation and class performance (25%), written composition (25%), bi-monthly tests (25%), and a term paper in Arabic (25%). Textbooks: Raji M. Rammuny ADVANCED ARABIC CONVERSATION AND COMPOSITION, Ann Arbor, Mi.: Dept of Near Eastern Studies, 1986. Also Raji Rammuny STUDENTS' GUIDE, Ann Arbor, Mi.: New Era Publications 1980. (Rammuny)

503. Survey of Arabic Literature. Arabic 502 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course will trace the development of Arabic literature from the earliest times to the present and introduce the student to its major genres and authors. Lectures relating literary trends to intellectual, social and other factors will be given in Arabic by the instructor. Readings of original works from different periods will be assigned, and the students will be required to deliver oral reports for discussion, as well as written summaries and brief critiques. All activities will be conducted in Arabic. Evaluation will be based on class performance, one or two written tests, and a term paper.

551. Modern Arabic Fiction. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

This course presents, for translation, analysis and commentary, works representative of the major Arabic writers of the modern age. The readings, of selected short stories and from novels, demonstrate the recent development in the art of fiction in Arabic; they show how this literature expresses the social and political concern and philosophical orientations of its authors. (LeGassick)

553. Modern Arabic Nonfictional Prose. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

This course introduces the work of major Arab writers on the 19th and 20th centuries. Variable in focus according to the interests of the class, readings are selected for translation, analysis and commentary. The course explores the historical progression in the development of political and societal theories in modern times in the Arab world. (LeGassick)

Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Modern Hebrew. (5). (FL).

Development of basic communication skills in Hebrew. Reading, writing and grammar. Class discussion and readings in Hebrew. Class and language laboratory drills. (Coffin)

301(401). Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 202 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. Review of morphology and syntax. Continued emphasis on oral work and writing skills. (Coffin)

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

401(501). Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The object of this course is to enhance the student's Hebrew reading and writing skills. In addition, emphasis is placed on expanding student's vocabulary. To present the various levels of Hebrew, the materials include heterogeneous texts, ranging from the biblical period to modern times. (Balaban)

403. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Emphasis on readings, listening and speaking skills. The special genre of the communications media (newspapers, radio and television) will serve as the basis for discussion of current events. Unedited newspaper selections will be read and news broadcasts and television programs will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory. (Coffin)

530. Structure of Hebrew. (3).

An intensive analysis of the graphemics, phonology, morphology and syntax of literary Hebrew based on the literary corpus of the Bible and the other movements of Hebrew literature. Students will be required to submit a paper on a specific problem, and there will be one midterm exam. Prerequisites: a reading knowledge of Hebrew. (Schramm)

543. Medieval Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

Readings of medieval genres, including secular and liturgical poetry. The romance and prose narratives. Discussions will center on literary innovations and the role of Medieval Hebrew literature within the context of the history of Western European literature. (Schramm)

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Persian. (4). (FL).

Persian 201 is the first term of a two year (four-term) sequence of language coursework that takes the student through to an intermediate level of reading and speaking the Persian language. Student evaluation is based on examinations-periodic quizzes, a midterm, and a final. The basic text, MODERN PERSIAN, ELEMENTARY LEVEL, by Windfuhr and Tehranisa, will be used throughout Persian 201 and supplemented by coordinated tapes produced for enrolled students in the language lab. (Windfuhr)

401. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Reading and comprehension, conversation and composition are systematically developed. The textbook is a new series of volumes accompanied by tapes covering modern fiction, expository prose and cultural-topic material both in readings and dialog form. The language of the classroom is increasingly Persian. Textbook: MODERN PERSIAN. Intermediate Level, Vol. I and II. Windfuhr et al., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. (Luther)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Turkish. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish language, this course focuses on speaking, reading and writing the language of modern Turkey. Course topics include the principles of Turkish grammar with the phonological structure, basic sentence patterns and the morphology of the language. The method of instruction is of the recitation variety and includes written and oral work. There are laboratory sessions and conversation periods. Students are evaluated on the basis of class participation, written work, a midterm and a final examination. The required texts are: H. Sebuktekin, TURKISH FOR FOREIGNERS (available in departmental office) and G.L. Lewis, TURKISH (Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1980). (Stewart-Robinson)

401. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, Turkish 401 is offered only in the Fall Term and Turkish 402 only in the Winter Term. The course is designed for students who have completed either Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It emphasizes further study of Turkish grammar and stresses development of comprehension, and oral and written expression through the use of selected materials relating to Turkish culture and collected in a course pack. A strongly recommended text for the course is G.L. Lewis' TURKISH GRAMMAR (Oxford University Press, 1967 or later editions). Student evaluation is based on class performance, written work, a midterm and a final examination. (Stewert-Robinson)

411. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 202 and permission of instructor. (3).

Part of the sequence of courses required of concentrators, MAs and PHDs in Turkish Studies and open to Near Eastern Studies with a multi-language interest and to students in other disciplines who need Ottoman for research purposes. This is a recitation-type course designed to give students speedy access to written Ottoman in the Arabic script. The texts are specially selected and xeroxed for distribution to students. Quizzes and a final examination are required in each term. (Stewart-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

501. Modern Turkish Readings. Turkish 402 or equivalent. (2). (HU).

Since this course is part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, admission to it is dependent on satisfactory completion of Turkish 402 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It is designed to further develop reading and comprehension competence in a variety of modern Turkish styles; newspaper and learned articles, political tracts, government publications, etc. The method of instruction is through recitation including preparation, reading and oral or written translation of texts in class or at home with discussion of grammar, style and content. Students are evaluated on their class preparation, a midterm and a final examination. Among the texts used are A. Tietze's ADVANCED TURKISH READING and a collection of xeroxed materials. (Stewart-Robinson)

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