Romance Languages and Literatures

ELEMENTARY LANGUAGE COURSES. Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school must see an academic advisor to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. College or university transfer students may see M.P. Hagiwara or H. Neu for advising.

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school MUST take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the placement test.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (FL).

Students with one-two years prior study of French may elect this course only by permission of an LSA academic advisor or of the department and should enroll in sections 001-013. Students with absolutely no previous study of French are encouraged to enroll in sections 014-019. (These special sections are offered in fall term only. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the end of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (l l/2 2 hours per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations, listening comprehension and speaking tests.

SECTION 020 PERMISSION OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES PROGRAM (CSP).

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103 or 102. It is strongly suggested that transfer students see H.Neu or M.P.Hagiwara for advice re placement in the appropriate course.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

Students elect this course by permission of an LSA academic advisor or of the department. It is for those with previous study of French (normally 1-3 years in high school or 1 term of college or University French not at University of Michigan) whose proficiency is not sufficient for second-year work. The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves at a rapid pace, covering about 60 percent of the French 101 materials by midterm, and about 60 percent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 percent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

205. French Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 102, or 103, or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 205 is offered in Fall Term). It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must see an academic advisor for placement. Students enrolling in French 231 are assumed to have completed at least 3 years of high school French, French 102 or 103 here, or equivalent. The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. Both courses also have listening comprehension and speaking tests, and 232, in addition, has an outside reading test.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

See French 231.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LSA language requirement.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have received credit for college French. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is for undergraduate and graduate students who would like to gain a good reading knowledge of French in one term. The essentials of French grammar as well as vocabulary and idioms are presented for passive recognition, followed by translation and sight-reading exercises on materials taken from both humanities and sciences. The skills gained in the course should enable students to read technical writings of moderate difficulty. Toward the end of the term students select a short article or a chapter of a book in their field of interest for outside reading. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

305. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 305 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 205/206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and attendance, homework and active participation in classroom activities determine the credit/no credit grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet three times a week in section. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (listening comprehension program), simulations, one novel, one play. Bi-weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. (Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture and social life. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings, and other relevant cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties as revealed through the weekly essays. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Laboratory activities, two novels, one play, simulation, bi-weekly essays. (Gabrielli)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the term, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. (Muller)

372. Problems in Translation. French 371 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This new course is designed as an introduction to translation from English into French. Texts to be translated will be chosen from contemporary articles in magazines and newspapers as well as contemporary novels, the choice being dictated by the social and linguistic interest of the texts. We shall review some of the grammatical pitfalls encountered in translation by means of comparison and exercises; special attention will be given to the enrichment of vocabulary by systematic work on synonyms and idiomatic phrases. Students are expected to come prepared to every class. The final grade will be based on class participation, weekly papers, and short quizzes to check the acquisition of points discussed in class. Mid-term and final exams. Maximum enrollment is 15. (Muller)

380. Intermediate Business French. French 361 and 362. Students may be permitted to take 380 and 362 concurrently. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the LANGUAGE of business transactions in France. It deals with both written and spoken commercial French. It is partly built around a fictitious company: EUROSPORT, whose activities are divided into themes dealing with various aspects of the business world: banking, advertising, claims and disputes regarding products, organization and hierarchy of the enterprise, applying for a job in France. The writing will concentrate on commercial correspondence and will stress the formal nature of written business French. There will be occasional translation exercises and one simulation. Students will write two medium length papers and take a final exam. Coursepack. NO AUDITORS. To respond to student demands, the maximum enrollment has been increased to 45. If the course is full, the second meeting will be divided into TWO RECITATION SECTIONS, meeting twice a week, while the first one will be A LECTURE. (M. Gabrielli)

453/Rom. Ling. 553. French Phonology and Morphology. French 361 and 362, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The course deals primarily with French phonology and morphology from a structural point of view. In phonology, English and French vowels, consonants, syllabic structures, and prosodic features are compared. Students learn to describe French sounds accurately, explain causes of pronunciation problems encountered by speakers of American English, transcribe prose and poems using phonetic symbols, and read phonetic transcriptions of dialogues. In morphology, the evolution of French sounds and words and the formation of words through compounding and derivational processes constitute the main topics. The course is conducted in French. No previous knowledge of phonetics is necessary. Class time is divided into lectures and TRAVAUX PRATIQUES. There are three one-hour tests. (Hagiwara)

456/Rom. Ling. 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

The course consists of four main components: phonology, morphology, syntax, and psycholinguistics. In each component, discussions of theories are combined with practical problem-solving. Students are introduced to different fields of linguistics, a contrastive study of English and French phonetics, a linguistic method of analyzing the French language, problems of teaching pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and an evaluation of different teaching methods, techniques, and available materials. The course is conducted in English. Class time is divided into lectures, discussions, and TRAVAUX PRATIQUES. There are midterm and final examinations and a paper. High proficiency of spoken and written French is required. No previous knowledge of linguistics or phonetics is needed. (Hagiwara)

Literature

331. French Literature in Translation. Not open to French concentrators. (3). (HU).

POWER AND DESIRE. Why are the themes of adultery and seduction so frequent in the novel; and what do they tell us about the power structure of society? What in particular can we learn about gender-relations from the novelistic treatment of these themes? In what other ways do novels address social issues? If power and desire are "written into" novels, are there also investments of power and desire in the narrative act, or in novelistic writing, itself? These and similar questions will be explored in reading some influential French-language novels, ranging from seventeenth-century France to contemporary Quebec. We will look at them in two strands, distinguishing novels that center primarily on desire (Lafayette, Laclos, Proust) and those that center more particularly on power (Balzac, Carrier), and taking MADAME BOVARY as a starting-point because it so clearly straddles the two categories. Lectures, and bi-weekly discussions. No knowledge of French is required. Students will mainly need reading time (approximately 5-8 hours per week). Written work: regular notes on reading and class-discussions in the form of a journal. SPECIAL ASSIGNMENTS (ABOUT 30 PAGES IN ALL) FOR ECB JUNIOR/SENIOR WRITING REQUIREMENT. No exams. TEXTBOOKS: Lafayette, THE PRINCESSE DE CLEVES; Laclos, LES LIAISONS DANGEREUSES; Balzac, HISTORY OF THE THIRTEEN; Flaubert, MADAME BOVARY; Proust, SWANN'S WAY; Carrier, LA GUERRE,YES SIR! (Chambers)

387/388/389 INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LITERATURE.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to French literature of the 17th and 18th centuries. Its aim is to familiarize them with the literary genres and techniques prevalent in these periods, the cultural and ideological contexts in which the works were produced, and to introduce them to the methods of literary analysis. The class will combine lecture and discussion. Active student participation will be encouraged. Students will be responsible for the following texts: Corneille, LE CID, Molière, LE TARTUFFE, Racine, PHEDRE, Voltaire, CANDIDE, Rousseau, LES REVERIES DU PROMENEUR SOLITAIRE. Grades will be based on a short paper on each of the works studied and on class participation. There will be no final examination. The course will be conducted in French.

442/MARC 401. Introduction to Medieval Symbolism. (3). (HU).

SECTION 002. This section is jointly offered with MARC 401. (Mermier)

SECTION 003 FRENCH WOMEN'S WRITING. This course will examine the works of French women writers from the 17th century to the present in various genres prose fiction, poetry, essays, letters. We will consider the place of female authors in the literary canon, and the problematics of the woman writers, but the primary focus will be close analysis of selected texts in the light of feminist criticism. Our discussions will also explore the concept of the female text and the implications of "writing as a woman." Authors will include: Lafayette, Sevigne, Graffigny, De Stael, Tristan, Sand, Vivien, Colette, de Beauvoir, Wittig, Duras and Cixous. NB: Texts will be read in French; discussion will be conducted in French or English depending on the composition of the class. Requirements: an oral presentation; a paper; and a final exam. In addition to the above undergraduate, prerequisites, a 400-level literature course or permission of instructor are necessary. (Stanton)

451. Introduction to Twentieth-Century French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

Le cours porte essentiellement sur la generation nee vers 1870, et dont les annees de maturite se situent donc dans le premier tiers du vingtieme siecle. Les ecrivains choisis pour representer cette generation sont: Paul Claudel, Andre Gide, Colette et (mais par le biais de quelques poemes seulement) Paul Valery. Nous etudierons aussi l'oeuvre poetique de Guillaume Apollinaire (1881-1918) et l'apport du Surrealisme avec les MANIFESTES et des poemes d'Andre Breton. Les devoirs (au nombre de trois) seront rediges en francais par les etudiants qui se specialisent dans cette langue; les autres sont autorises a s'exprimer en anglais. (Muller)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with emphasis as well on conversation. Text for the course is Lazzarino's PREGO with workbook and lab manual; Italian 101 covers the first half of this text (Chapters 1-11). Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm, and a final examination. (Vitti-Alexander)

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also encouraged. The course covers the second half of Lazzarino's PREGO (Chapters 12-22) with workbook and lab manual; a cultural reader supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. Compositions are required and are based upon readings or current events. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm, and a final examination. (Vitti-Alexander)

Other Language and Literature Courses

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

360. Italian Culture and History. (3). (HU).

Through lectures, slides, and films supplemented by readings, this course presents a survey of Italy's cultural achievements in their historical context from the Middle Ages and Renaissance to the present. Students with diverse interests and background - art history, literature, Italian relatives, music, etc. will be able to pursue specialized topics within the general historical outline. Topics include Renaissance art and literature, music and the rise of opera, the unification and industrialization of modern Italy, with some attention to contemporary cinema and Italian-American history. Required are a ten-page paper, a midterm, and a final examination. The course is taught in English, but students with a background in Italian will have the opportunity of reading some texts in the original. (Mazzola)

361. Intermediate Italian. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

All the basic skills of the language will receive attention in this course, the primary goal of which is the improvement and refinement of oral, reading and writing proficiency. Review of difficult points of grammar will be taken up when necessary, but the major concentration will be on class discussion of short reading materials ranging from newspaper and magazine articles, short fiction and poetry to polemic essays on contemporary cultural, political and social topics. Short essays will be part of the regular assignments, as will occasional prepared oral presentations, translations, and dictations. The variety of the materials covered will be as broad as possible to introduce students to the several different writing styles and manner of presentation of the language. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly.

420. Topics and Themes in Modern Italian Literature. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (2). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.

Heroines, Harridans, Helots, and Helpmates: Women in Modern Italian Literature. From the early nineteenth-century historical novel to the narratives of the mid-twentieth century, the activities and aspirations of women are chronicled in a series of depictions that reflect the political and cultural transitions of a nation late in unification and economic development. The perceptions of writers male and female are embodied in characterizations that express clearly both traditionalistic and modernist attitudes, although the latter are often played out beneath the surface of conformity. Readings will include both nineteenth- and twentieth-century materials, with emphasis on short fiction (novellas and short stories) from the period, 1920-1960. Among the writers to be studied: Natalia Ginsburg, Anna Banti, Alberto Moravia, Luigi Capuana, and Matilde Serao. Lectures, class discussion, short papers, final examination. (Olken)

433/MARC 439. Dante in Translation. A knowledge of Italian is not required. Not open to Italian concentrators. (3). (HU).

This course will be an introduction and an overview of the DIVINE COMEDY through lectures and discussions of selected cantos, from the Inferno, Purgatory and Paradise. While stressing the work as literature, other aspects of XIII and XIV centuries culture, such as medieval religion and philosophy, will be treated. Required are a paper and a final examination. Lectures in English; students with reading knowledge of Italian will be encouraged to use the original text. (Mazzola)

479. Manzoni and Romanticism. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

I PROMESSI SPOSI, the first real Italian novel, and masterpiece of Italian Romanticism, will be the central work discussed. Introductory lectures will treat the backgrounds of the period and movement, including Ugo Foscolo's JACOPO ORTIS, and the theoretical consideration of Italian Romanticism, as expressed both by Manzoni and Giovanni Berchet. Lectures, class discussion, short papers, and a final examination. (Olken)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

101. Elementary Portuguese. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to give students the ability to understand the Portuguese of everyday life when spoken at a moderate speed, to be understood in typical situations of everyday life, and to read non-technical Portuguese of moderate difficulty. The course covers units 1-10 of MODERN PORTUGUESE by Ellison et al. Because of the nature of the text and accompanying tapes, and the nationality and training of the present staff, students will learn the variety of Portuguese spoken in Brazil by educated speakers. Classroom work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structure through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, writing exercises and time in the lab. Grading will be based on one-hour quizzes given every other week, two oral exams, class participation and a final exam. A weekly "brown bag lunch" is held every Wednesday in the Commons Lounge. Everyone is welcome who wants to practice Portuguese in an informal environment. Portuguese 101 is offered only in the Fall Term.

231. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 102 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Second year Portuguese is designed to develop and enhance the work done in Portuguese 101/102. (See description above). It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history, and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. The required texts at the moment are King and Suner, PASA A FRINTE! and selected short stories and other materials made available as hand-outs. Classroom work involves an intensive grammar review, the study of finer points of Portuguese grammar as made necessary from daily observation of students' writing and speaking performances, oral presentations and discussion of short stories and texts from newspapers and magazines. Homework involves studying grammar, preparing oral presentations, and writing guided essays. Grading is based on quizzes given every other week, oral presentations, essays, class participation and a final exam. Portuguese 231 is only offered Fall Term.

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

300. Introduction to the Romance Languages. French, Spanish, or Italian: five terms at college level or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The purposes of this course are to discuss the relationships which exist among the various Romance languages, to acquaint students with the methods and objectives of Romance linguistics, and to attract students to a specialization program. Following a brief introduction to the methodology of linguistic analysis, the grammatical structures of French, Spanish, Italian, and Rumanian are compared. The course is conducted in English, and all required reading is in English. Students who can read other languages are encouraged to pursue certain topics in these languages. The text is a course pack supplemented by handouts. (Leonard)

455/Spanish 455/Educ. D455. Teaching Spanish/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

See Spanish 455. (Wolfe)

456/French 456/Educ. D456. Teaching French/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

See French 456. (Hagiwara)

553/French 453. French Phonology and Morphology. French 361 and 362, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See French 453. (Hagiwara)

Courses in Romanian (Division 463)

101. Elementary Romanian. (4). (FL).

The principal subject is the Romanian language, its grammar and use. Also stressed is the cultural history of Romania and of Romanian civilization. In this regard, the use of film-strips and records is a prime tool. No special background is needed except interest and receptivity. Oral and written examinations will be given on an approximately monthly basis, more for the purpose of checking student progress than for assigning a hierarchy of grades. The methods of instruction will be lecture, discussion, and audiovisual materials mentioned above.

231. Second-Year Romanian. Romanian 102. (4). (FL).

The principal subject is the Romanian language, its grammar and use, conversation in the language, exercises, translation from Romanian into English, and vice versa. This course is intended also, to improve the student's vocabulary, speaking, reading and listening. Also stressed is the cultural history of Romania and of Romanian civilization. In this regard, the use of film-strips and records are prime tools. Oral and written examinations will be given on an approximately monthly basis, more for the purpose of checking student progress than for assigning a hierarchy of grades. The methods of instruction will be lecture, discussion, and the audiovisual materials mentioned above.

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, two oral exams, other quizzes and written work, daily oral work. (Spanish 101 AND 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.)

SECTION 026: PERMISSION OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES PROGRAM (CSP). This CSP section is designed for native speakers of Spanish who have some degree of aural-oral fluency in the language but lack basic reading and writing skills. The class will meet five hours a week.

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental evening exams, three oral exams, other quizzes and written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who completed 101 at the University of Michigan.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish 102 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere.

205. Spanish Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities which are of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week, and the most important qualities necessary to participate successfully are a willingness and a desire to learn. Grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. THIS COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on two oral exams and a series of quizzes designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on two oral exams, a series of quizzes designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

Other Language Courses

305. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this one credit hour course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to increase the linguistic skills (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. THIS COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS.

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3); IIIb in Ann Arbor: (2). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and by the students. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects.

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 361. (3); IIIb in Ann Arbor: (2). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Section 002 Anderson; Section 004: Staff)

363. Problems in Language Translation. Spanish 361; Spanish 232 with permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course begins with translations of short items from newspapers on a variety of fields, essays, historical texts, short stories, criticism and poetry. Students are required to read a number of essays on the theory and problems of translation to become aware of the nature of translation. The course is divided into two parts, the first will deal with Spanish-English translation. During this period students will learn the techniques of translation going from the less to the more known language. This period is used to sensitize students to the dual task of the translator, to interpret correctly the original and to be faithful to the demands of the target language. Thus, alternatives in nuances, words, the need to rearrange sentences are investigated in a language that they control. Once this process of initiation is completed, translations into Spanish are undertaken. Students must prepare daily translations and participate in the discussions to search the most appropriate rendering of the original. (Casa)

453. Advanced Syntax. Spanish 361 and 362. (3). (Excl).

This course aims to improve student understanding and mastery of written Spanish through:(a) detailed analysis of specific syntactic problems, such as the tense structure of Spanish, the subjunctive mood, and the pronoun system (b) extensive grammar exercises, (c) vocabulary building exercises and (d) writing and editing compositions. Student grade is based on three major exams, compositions, and class participation (discussion and correction of grammar exercises). Class meets three hours a week. (Wolfe)

455/Rom. Ling. 455/Educ. D455. Teaching Spanish/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

Theoretical and practical aspects of second language acquisition with special reference to the acquisition of Spanish by speakers of English. Principles of syntactic, semantic, morphological, and phonological analysis applied to practical problems in teaching and learning Spanish. Among the topics included in the course are: theory; analysis of learning problems; course design; textbook analysis; testing; techniques for teaching and learning (a) listening, (b) speaking, (c) reading, and (d) composition skills. Knowledge of Spanish and English is required. (Wolfe)

Literature

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

The Enlightenment, Romanticism, Realism, the Generation of '98, and the years around the Spanish Civil War are the periods represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, and an effort is made to show how they exemplify their historical and cultural context. Representative authors who may be studied are Larra, Zorrilla, Espronceda, Becquer,Galdos, Unamuno, and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of quizzes, a term paper, and a final examination. The course is conducted in Spanish. (Hafter)

373. Topics in Spanish Literature. Spanish 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 "EL TEMA DE ESPANA EN LA LITERATURA PENINSULAR." En este curso se analizara el tema de Espana como problema a traves de una serie de textos literarios y ensayisticos. Entre los autores que se leeran se incluyen: Blanco White, Larra, Unamuno, Ortega y Gasset, Azorin, Valle-Inclan, una seleccion de poesia contemporanea, Juan Goytisolo, Cela, Buero y Martin Santos. Se dara la clase en forma de conferencia y discusion, con informes presentados por los estudiantes en su debido momento. Habra un examen intermedio (de Midterm), un examen final y un trabajo escrito final. (Valis)

374. Monographic Studies in Latin American Literature. Spanish 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 Narrating the Conquest of America. How does our understanding of events change according to the way they are told to us? Can content be separated from its formal presentation or is there no tale apart from its telling? This course will address these questions through a variety of narrative accounts of historical events: the Spanish conquests of Mexico and Peru. We will examine the ways in which various kinds of telling (chronicle, epic, romance, and essay) and various kinds of subject positioning (the locus and identity of the tale's teller) combine to produce accounts that do not necessarily fulfill our expectations for discovering "the events as they really happened." Readings and discussion will be primarily in Spanish; in English as needed. (Adorno)

375. Civilización de Espa a (Spanish Civilization). Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (HU).

This course will focus on some current issues that confront Spanish democracy. Social, economic, political and cultural aspects of Spanish life will be discussed. For example, what do the Spanish people think about abortion or the relationship between the Church and the State? How has the Spanish economy changed since Spain's entry into the Common Market? Are the Spanish people satisfied with their monarchy and the present socialist government? What do the Spaniards think changed when Spain joined NATO. How did the cultural life improve after the death of the dictator Francisco Franco? The objective of the course is to discuss the contemporary problems as well as the historical origins of these and other questions and to expose students to the perspective that the current democracy introduced. The course will cover information about these issues through readings and lectures. The goal is to stimulate critical thinking by the students and discussion in the class. (Calvo)

381. Introduction to Latin American Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Historical Survey of Latin American Literature (19th Century).
Study of the main Spanish American authors of the century in poetry, narrative, theatre and essay (Andres Bello, Jose Marti, Ruben Dario; Jose Hernandez's Martin Fierro; D.F. Sarmiento, E. Echeverria, M.A. Segura, Florencio Sanchez). The concentration is on reading a selection of literary texts. First course in the sequence 381-382-463. Conducted in Spanish. Lecture and discussion will be the format of the course. The student's performance will be evaluated through grades obtained in: (a) reports, (b) midterm exam, and (c) final exam. Reading list: Andres Bello, A LA AGRICULTURA; Jose Marti, VERSOS SENCILLOS; Ruben Dario, AZUL Y PROSAS PROFANAS; Jose Hernandez, MARTIN FIERRO; Domingo F. Sarmiento, FACUNDO; Esteban Echeverria, EL MATADERO; Alberto Blest Gana, MARTIN RIVAS. (Mignolo)

463. Literatura Hispano-Americana, Siglo XVI a XIX. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Section 001 Dynamics of Colonial Discourse. Colonial literary production is often assumed to be imitative and boring, servile to the aesthetic norms of the dominant culture and to the political exigencies of its ideology. Today, a major critique of these views of colonial letters is underway and we are discovering that colonial discursive and narrative practices defy facile description. This course will examine these complex dynamics by reading the works of European, creole, and Amerindian authors and discussing the following topics: (1) Past and present: The use of written histories of the Spanish conquests to address contemporary colonial problems; narrative strategies that conceal and reveal hidden polemics; (2) Self and other: Marginalized writers' (Amerindians', women's) responses to views of themselves, their history and culture; (3) Text as context: The interrelationships of colonial discourses: their dialogical, polemical nature and the persistence of certain themes; (4) A critiques of dichotomies: An evaluation of dualities and oppositions as pertinent categories of analysis of the colonial literary situation. Readings, lectures and class discussions will be primarily in Spanish; in English as needed. (Adorno)

467. Spanish Literature of the Eighteenth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-378. (3). (HU).

The course presents the intellectual and literary awakening of Spain in the first century under the Bourbons. Lectures and class discussions will focus on such issues as the rise of a critical spirit in a country deeply sensitive to its decline and intensely suspicious of foreign thought; the attempts to define the national culture in conservative or progressive terms, and to create a literature in accord with those tendencies; Neoclassicism as art and problem; the development of sensibility, and early Romantic stirrings. Authors to be studied include Feijoo, Forner, Garcia de la Huerta, Jovellanos, Ramon de la Cruz, Cadalso and Moratin. Hour and final examinations, term paper, and an occasional class exercise. (Hafter)

472. The Modern Spanish Novel. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course is subtitled: The Feminine and the Modern Spanish Novel. It will focus on modern Spanish fiction, both male- and female-authored, and will use the framework of feminist criticism as the discussion model. Among the authors and texts to be studied are: Benito Perez Galdos' TRISTANA, Valle-Inclan's SONATA DE OTONO, Miguel de Unamuno's "Dos madres," Carmen Laforet's NADA, Dario Fernandez-Florez's LOLA, ESPEJO OSCURO, Carmen Martin-Gaite's "Las Ataduras," Miguel Delibes' CARTAS DE AMOR DE UN SEXAGENARIO VOLUPTUOSO, and DOCE RELATOS DE MUJERES. We will be using K.K. Ruthven's FEMINIST LITERARY STUDIES. AN INTRODUCTION and a course pack of selected essays of feminist criticism. The class will be given through lecture and discussion. There will be a series of small papers, a mid term, and a final exam. If enrollment calls for it, the course may be given in English. (Valis)

485. Don Quijote. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

Cervantes' masterpiece is not only an ambiguous and highly debated work, but also a compendium of Renaissance literary genres. The author launches his personage on a series of adventures whose meaning is not always clear. For this reason, the work has been considered both a funny book whose only purpose it was to entertain by satirizing chivalric novels, and the ultimate presentation of sublime idealism. The class will deal with these contradictory explanations, with the literary tradition that made it possible, chivalric romances, pastural literature, the short-story, and with the important contributions of Cervantes to the formation of the modern novel. Students are expected to participate actively in class discussion and to write three papers on different subjects during the term. A final examination is also required. It is suggested that students buy the book before summer break and begin to read it before the term begins. The edition to be used is that of Luis Andres Murillo for Castalia. (Casa)

488. Latin American Narrative of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

This course explores the Latin American novel of the 20th Century in the context of narratology. One among several kinds of narrative manifestations, the novel is perhaps the most complex of them all, in that it not only narrates a story but does it at the same time that it explores the limit and possibilities of narrating a story. Although it is frequently presented as fictional discourse, the modern Latin American novel has also established a close relationship with historical and testimonial narratives. The course is designed for Spanish, Latin American and Latino Studies concentrators. Spanish 381 or 382 is recommended. Reading will be in Spanish. Discussion will be in Spanish or English, according to the group composition. Exams will be based on oral presentations, exams and a final paper. (Mignolo)

495. Romance Studies: Introduction to French-Spanish Literary Relations. A reading knowledge of French and Spanish. (3). (HU).

MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE LOVE POETRY. The main goal of this course is to examine Medieval and Renaissance love-poetry in a broad European context. In the first part of the course we will study the development of love-lyric from its first manifestations in Arab Spain in the High Middle Ages; in the second part its flourishing in Provence, Catalonia, Galicia, Portugal and Castile; and in the final part its renewal in fourteenth-century Italy and the beginning of its decline at the end of the fifteenth-century of the Iberian Peninsula. The readings will include: Spanish Arabic love poems, Galician-Portuguese "cantigas de amor," Provençal and Catalan love-poetry, "stilnovisti" compositions, Ausias March's love poetry, Aviceanna's TREATISE ON LOVE, Ibn Hazm's THE RING OF THE DOVE, Andreas Capellanus; THE ART OF COURTLY LOVE and Ramon Llull's, THE BOOK OF THE LOVER AND THE BELOVED. (All works will be available in translation). The format of the course will consist of lectures and discussions around formal aspects of the texts and a broad cultural background. Lectures will be given in English. Requirements will include: active participation in class discussions, two ten to fifteen page papers and one final exam. (Vaquero)


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