Courses in Biology (Division 328)

Introductory Courses

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible, the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. (Cather and Eernisse)

101. Biology and Human Affairs. (4). (NS).

This course is an introduction to those aspects of biology that have direct applicability to the lives of people in today's world. It covers current controversies within biology, especially as they relate to human life and human affairs. Topics discussed include IQ and genetics, sex roles, agriculture, world hunger, and the environment. Background information is given for each topic, but the emphasis is placed on the controversies and the role of science in human affairs. In addition to the two lectures per week, there is a two-hour discussion period in which the topics are further explored and films are frequently shown. (Vandermeer)

102(Botany 102). Practical Botany. (4). (NS).

Practical Botany is an introductory course in learning how to grow and use plants. Students will learn how to grow, identify, propagate, and take care of many different useful plants both common and exotic ones. The major topics in lecture and laboratory include wine, mead, and beer making; plant propagation by cuttings, and other vegetative means (runners, bulbs, corms, offsets, divisions, and underground stems); breaking seed dormancy, and seed germination; forcing spring corms and bulbs into flower indoors; edible wild plants; natural plant dyes and dyeing wool; fall vegetable gardening, organic gardening and composting; plant pruning, including bonsai; landscaping around the home; how to make hanging baskets and terrariums; drying and use of plants for crafts; flower and fruit types and structure as related to pollination and plant breeding; construction of solar greenhouses and coldframes; herbs and their uses. Hands-on work by the students is a major part of this course. There are several field trips which emphasize ecology, edible wild plants, and poisonous and medicinal plants, as well as visits to Hidden Lake Gardens. Two of the highlights of the course are a trip to Brighton Bog and a natural foods and edible wild plants dinner which the students prepare. Several guest lecturers help to make this a very interesting class for the budding indoor gardener and outdoor gardener. There are two lectures and one four-hour discussion/lab period per week. The labs are held at the Botanical Gardens (free bus transportation is provided). Required book is PRACTICAL BOTANY by Peter Kaufman et al. (Kaufman)

105(Biology 102). World Hunger. (4). (NS).

This is a natural science course that discusses the problem of inadequate human nourishment in various parts of the world, from a variety of perspectives all related in a concept of human ecology. Although basically a natural science course, social, historical, economic, and political considerations essential to understanding world hunger are also made. Specific topics discussed include: human nutritional requirements and the kind of food sources that meet them; contemporary agricultural economies; how plants grow; plant productivity and life styles in different environmental conditions; the world distribution of these different environmental conditions; history of agriculture; management of agricultural resources; pest control and its consequences; recent major changes in agricultural resource use patterns; social, economic, and natural consequences of contemporary resource use patterns; limits to agricultural resources; alternative food sources; and prospects for the future. Although the course is intended to provide Pattern I natural science distribution credit, the combination of natural and social science necessary to understand the important contemporary problem of world hunger will interest students from a wide variety of departments, including natural science. Three one-hour lectures plus one three hour discussion session in smaller groups each week. (Estabrook)

152(Biology 112). Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 123 or 107 or the equivalent recommended. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 195. (4). (NS).

Biology 152 is the first term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology or other science programs, and for preprofessional students. Other students wishing detailed coverage of biology who have suitable preparation are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are to provide factual and conceptual knowledge of biology; to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological data, including formulation and testing of hypotheses; and to give an integrated overview of modern biology. Development of thinking and writing skills is also a major aim. The topical coverage of Biology 152 is divided among three areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology; (b) genetics and developmental biology; and (c) microbial and plant biology (structure, function, diversity).

Each week, students must attend three lectures and one three-hour laboratory/discussion section. STUDENTS MUST ATTEND THEIR REGULARLY ASSIGNED LABORATORY/DISCUSSION MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OF THE COURSE OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST. Attendance at all laboratories and discussions and completion of written laboratory reports are required for credit in the course. There will probably be three course-wide examinations and a final examination. Students MUST be sure to reserve appropriate times and dates for these activities (specified in the Time Schedule).

Students usually purchase a textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes. Students need not buy any other study guides or supplementary materials.

Enrollment for Honors work entails time and effort beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, register in Biology 152 (lecture section 002 and ANY lab/discussion) plus Biology 153 (one credit hour). See separate listing.

NOTE CONCERNING PREREQUISITES. A functional knowledge of general chemistry at the college level is recommended, and is utilized starting at the outset of the term in Biology 152. Chemistry 123 or 107 or the equivalent college-level chemistry course is recommended (Chemistry 125 is even more helpful). High school biology is not required. For further information contact Ms. Sabra Briere at the Biology 152/154 office, Room 1563 C.C. Little Building, 764-1430.)

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this Guide.

153(Biology 113). Introductory Biology Honors. Concurrent enrollment in Biology 152 and admission to the College Honors Program. (1). (Excl).

The scientific method is the basis for inquiry in biology. This course is intended to introduce the scientific method to Honors students who are concurrently enrolled in Biology 152. Discussion materials may include classic papers of Watson-Crick, Briggs-King, etc., and such current problems as genetic engineering, acid rain, and the green revolution. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. Students are requested to submit several short papers and one term paper, and are expected to participate in the weekly discussions. Open ONLY to students admitted to the LSA Honors Program.

154(Biology 114). Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit is granted to those who have completed 195. (4). (NS).

The course is a continuation of Biology 152, and includes the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and animal behavior; and (c) animal biology (structure, function and diversity). Aims and format are stated above for Biology 152. STUDENTS MUST ATTEND THEIR REGULARLY ASSIGNED LABORATORY/DISCUSSION SECTION STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OF THE COURSE, OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ELSE ON THE WAITING LIST. Each week students must attend three lectures and one three-hour laboratory/discussion section. There will be two midterm examinations and a final examination at times and dates specified in the Time Schedule. Regular attendance at all laboratories and discussions, and written laboratory reports are required for completion of the course. Students will usually purchase a textbook, laboratory manual, and course pack of syllabus and lecture notes. Students need not buy any study guides or other supplementary material. Enrollment for Honors credit entails time, effort, and written work beyond the regular course material. For Honors credit, students in LSA Honors Program must register for Honors lecture section (031) in addition to the Honors laboratory section. Further information about Biology 154 can be obtained from the Biology 152/154 office, 1563 C.C. Little.

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) in this Guide.

195(Biology 105). Introduction to Biology. Three science or mathematics courses, including Chem. 123 or 107. Biol. 195 may be substituted wherever Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent) is a prerequisite. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. 152-154 (or the equivalent). (5). (NS).

Biology 195 is a one-term alternative to the Biology 152-154 sequence. It differs from 152-154 IN THE ACCELERATED PACE OF STUDY AND IN THE SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL FORMAT. Students who enroll in the course should be aware of the intense nature of the course and the need for self-discipline. Effective writing skills are also necessary for the course. Biology 195 is divided into four units (Biology of Cells, Genetics and Development, Biology of Organisms, and Biology of Populations). Unit examinations test both factual recall and analytical and integrative abilities. Lectures in Biology 195 reinforce key topics from the reading assignments and laboratory work and to provide in-depth perspectives in several subdisciplines of biology. The laboratory, which is central to the course, provides the opportunity to make observations and perform experiments; these are discussed in weekly recitations. The course grade is based on examinations, laboratory reports, quizzes, and the student's participation in the course. Students are required to purchase the textbook Keeton and Gould's BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 4th edition, a course pack, a laboratory kit (at Chem Stores), and a quadrille-ruled notebook. For additional information concerning the course or registration, contact Lynn Coulter, 3064 Dana Building, 763-0495. (Ikuma and Shaffer)

Writing, Research and Experiential Courses

301(Biology 300). Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Biology 301 was designed to help biology concentrators to improve their writing AS BIOLOGISTS. With that goal in mind, we have devised a set of diverse assignments that introduce students to many of the kinds of writing they will have to employ as professional biologists. In order to make the work as realistic as possible, we insist on a high standard of biology as well as writing. Therefore, an essay that is beautifully written but has the biology wrong is no more acceptable than good biology badly written. Thus, a research paper is required that is based upon actual hands-on experiments of the kind scientists use in their own work. In addition to good writing and sound biology, we stress critical thinking by means of lectures and a critique that is designed to require students to evaluate a published research report in a way that is new to most of them. Of all our assignments, the critique is probably the most challenging and valuable, and we sometimes use a second critique as an in-class exam. Considerable emphasis is placed upon the library as a research tool throughout but especially in an assignment on the writing of a review. This requires considerable preparative work, including the development of an outline, a visit to the library, and an oral report on the subject of the paper. Throughout the course, revisions of the original writing assignments must be submitted for review by the instructor so that the need for continued editing is reinforced. By the end of the term, we hope to have improved our students' performance as both originators and users of biological literature. (Sussman)

Molecular and Cellular Biology and Physiology

209(Botany 281). Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (3). (Excl).

This course is intended for students planning to concentrate in plant sciences (cell and molecular biology or botany). The course introduces the basic concepts for understanding how plants carry out vital functions and introduces students to the process of formulating and testing hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms of plant functions. The contents of the lectures fall into three main categories: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzymes action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism; (2) transport phenomena, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, water relations, transpiration and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development, including the action of growth hormones, light effects on plant developments, photoperiodic control of flowering, and dormancy. This course is offered ONLY in the Fall terms. (Yocum and Frasch)

210(Botany 282). Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 209. (2). (Excl).

This laboratory course is intended to provide experience with some of the variety of approaches used in contemporary plant physiology research. The laboratory experiments will focus on the three main categories covered in Biology 209: (1) plant physiology, (2) transport phenomena and (3) growth and development. Biology 209 must have been taken prior or concurrently with this course. This course is only offered in the Fall terms. (Frasch)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for students who are majoring in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and problem sets covered in the discussion sections. (Rizki and Palmer)

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (2). (Excl).

This course provides students with laboratory experience on basic genetic principles. Students should have already taken or be concurrently taking the 305 Genetics lecture course. The first half of the course is devoted to genetic analysis in Drosophila by a series of crosses and in Sordaria (a fungus) by ordered tetrad analysis. Students will analyse the linkage relationship and mapping of unknown mutants of Drosophila. The experiments in microbial genetics during the second half of the course include mapping by conjugation in E. coli, transduction experiments using bacteria and phage, and complementation experiments for studying gene as a unit of function using different "his" mutants of yeast. One three hour lab is scheduled each week additional three hours of lab time per week is expected at irregular times. Students are expected to write four lab reports and to keep a complete and accurate record of all results and analyses in a bound lab notebook. There are 2 quizzes given during the term. (Jeyabalan)

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; Chem. 126 or the equivalent. Organic chemistry is helpful but not required. Not open to students who have completed Biol. 428. (3). (NS).

This lecture course provides (1) understanding of basic functions of living prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, (2) detailed appreciation of the evidence that has established our current level of understanding, (3) through study of how evidence is used, inferences about how science can work in more general terms, and (4) awareness of how cellular and molecular biology contribute to other areas of biology and to human affairs. Interdependence of intracellular structure and function is stressed, along with efforts to phrase explanations in molecular and evolutionary terms. Course content includes: introduction stressing unity and diversity in cell functions throughout the biosphere; membrane structure and function; organelle function and biogenesis; properties of cell surfaces; intracellular transport; secretion; cell cycle and division; cytoskeleton; and methods for study of cell function. The aim is to provide a selected one-term core background in cellular and molecular biology for biology concentrators and others desiring one term's coverage. For more detailed treatment, students should not elect Biology 320, but should take Biology 427 and/or Biology 428. There will be a textbook; its purchase is optional, but students opted for it in the past. Notes and books with recommended readings will be on reserve in the UGL. Each of two or three exams during the term includes shorter-answer 'factual' questions and others requiring short essays interpreting data, formulation of hypotheses, or testing an idea experimentally. For further questions about enrollment contact 2004 Nat. Sci., where a waitlist will be kept if needed. (Shappirio, 764-1491)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit is granted to those who have completed Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl).

The major objective of this course is to provide upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students in biology, physiology, cellular and molecular biology, pharmacy, biological chemistry, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, physical education, microbiology, bioengineering, and other related areas of biology with an appreciation of the molecular aspects basic to metabolism in living cells. As an introductory course, emphasis is placed on a broad view rather than a detailed knowledge of this enormously encompassing field. Thus, biochemistry is defined in the broad sense, i.e., that organizational level of biology as described in molecular or chemical terms and reactions, the chemical basis of life. This course is directed toward those contemplating a career in some aspect of experimental biology including medicine, dentistry, and other professional pursuits. The general subject matter includes amino acids, protein structure and function, allosterism, molecular disease, enzyme properties, kinetics and mechanisms, connective tissue proteins, membrane structure and function, energetics, intermediary metabolism and its regulation, biosynthetic processes, DNA, RNA, transcription, the genetic code and protein synthesis, control of gene expression, muscle contraction and cell motility, and hormone action. This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's chosen according to interest and ability to help other undergraduates with biochemistry. The course is divided into 15 logical units of material, and students are required to MASTER the content of each unit. Upon attaining mastery, the student may take both a written and an oral quiz which, upon completion, is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed plus a factor derived from performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 60 hours/week in a suite permanently assigned to this course. Several lectures dealing with biochemical topics are presented by Professor Beyer. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course, i.e., not in the textbook, and is not the subject of examination. Students are encouraged to attend sessions in which biochemical discoveries are presented by TA's and the professor. (Beyer and Douthit)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as proctors (tutors, TA's) for students currently taking Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Six hours per week (twelve hours in the Spring half-term) are spent helping and quizzing Biology 411 students. In addition, each proctor provides two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for both Biology 411 and 412. Proctors also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the proctors are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and proctor grade the quiz together. The proctor asks the student additional verbal questions generated by the proctor. The proctor passes a student when, and if, the proctor feels the student has MASTERED the unit material. Student-proctor interactions are evaluated by the students. The proctors are graded on the basis of the quality of their final and midterm examination questions, their biochemical discovery session presentations, and their grades on the midterm and final examination. Proctors learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. (Beyer and Douthit)

415(Botany 488). Plant Constituents and their Functions. Biol. 154 or 195 and one term of organic chemistry. (2). (Excl).

A different kind of study of plants for students interested in the special functional and economic aspects of plant chemical constituents or plant-plant and plant-animal interactions. This course will survey the major secondary compounds in plants, their functions in plants and their effects on animals. These compounds will be grouped primarily on a functional rather than a structural basis. Pigments, fragrances, hormones, allopathic agents, toxins (including mycotoxins and carcinogens), medicinal compounds, hallucinogens, plant defenses against pathogens, and others will be considered in terms of their value to plants, their mode of action, and their evolution or potential use as phyletic markers. This courses will be offered only in alternate years. (Nooden)

418(Zoology 428). Endocrinology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. (3). (Excl).

This course is a comparative study of animal endocrine functions with emphasis on the evolution of hormones and of hormonal control, the cellular origin and chemical nature of hormones, their physiological actions in organisms and the biochemical mechanisms of hormone action. The course will concentrate on the endocrine systems of vertebrates. One-fifth of the course is devoted to a detailed description of Reproductive Endocrinology. Individuals interested in the human or clinical aspects of hormones would be better served by any of several courses offered by various units of the Medical School. Instruction in Biology 418 assumes a basic familiarity with General and Comparative Physiology. Training in chemistry through organic is essential and a course in biochemistry would be helpful. Evaluation is based on two midterms and a final exam. (Doneen)

419(Zoology 430). Endocrinology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 418; and permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

This laboratory course must be taken concurrently with the companion lecture course, Biology 418. Enrollment is limited to twenty students. Lab work will emphasize modern techniques in the identification, isolation, and mechanisms of action of hormones. Two three-hour lab periods are scheduled each week; the nature of biological systems, however, makes it advisable to anticipate an additional three hours of lab time at various (and occasionally odd) times in the week. (Doneen)

420(Zoology 420). Lectures in Metabolic and Regulatory Physiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; Math 113 or 115; organic chemistry; physics. Students who have completed Biol. 325 must obtain permission of the instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to acquaint students with the aims, concepts, and methods of comparative physiology though consideration of metabolic physiology and physiological regulation. Topics covered from a comparative standpoint include: aerobiosis and anaerobiosis, respiratory mechanisms and gas transport, circulation, nitrogen excretion, ionic and osmotic regulation, acid-base balance, and temperature regulation. Physiological adaptation to the environment is discussed and examples of it described. Three lectures a week are presented and these are supplemented by assigned readings from a required textbook. Review questions and some supplementary explanatory materials are included in the course pack. There are three, one-hour examinations (100 points each with better two used in grade determination) and a final examination (125 points). (Dawson)

421(Zoology 421). Laboratory in Metabolic and Regulatory Physiology. Accompanied by Biol. 420. (2). (Excl).

The laboratory sessions permit work with an assortment of species of vertebrates and invertebrate animals in experiments dealing with energy metabolism, respiration and gas transport, circulation, ionic and osmotic regulation, and temperature responses. The laboratory consists of two, three-hour periods, weekly. Laboratory instructions written specifically for Biol. 421 are used. Two weeks of the laboratory are devoted to independent research projects designed by students in consultation with the laboratory staff. Students prepare laboratory reports that involve consultation of the research literature in physiology. (Dawson)

427(Biology 417). Molecular Biology. Biology 305 and Biology 411 or Biol. Chem. 415, or equivalents. (4). (Excl).

Three one-hour lectures and one three-hour discussion per week. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems are discussed, and topics include: physical and biochemical methods used in molecular biology; DNA structure and topology, DNA replication, and DNA-protein interactions; genetic engineering; transcription, RNA processing and transcriptional regulation; chromatin structure; genetic codes; protein synthesis, ribosomal structure and function, and the regulation of translation; regulation of gene expression. Readings include current reviews and original research papers as well as assignments from the text. Three two-hour midterm examinations. (Brown and Jones)

Animal Biology

351(Zoology 351). Vertebrate Biology and Structure. Biol. 152-154 or 195; or the equivalent. (6). (NS).

The course has multiple aims. The dissection in the laboratory introduces the student to the structural pattern, mainly of shark and cat, but also of a series of other vertebrates. It is intended to lead to a comparative understanding of the roles and evolution of structures in the major functional systems of protochordates and vertebrates. Lectures are designed to put these structural observations into a broad perspective by focusing on the function, origin, and evolution of chordate structures, with particular emphasis on those of vertebrates. The laboratory also includes demonstrations, film presentations, and a visit to the Natural History Museum. (Gans)

536(Biology 592)/Anatomy 660. Cellular Aspects of Development. An introductory course in development: Biol. 307, 406, or equivalent. (4). (Excl).

The approach of the course will be to discuss molecular and cellular mechanisms of development, from yeast to mammals. The course is designed for students who have already taken at least one course in development, cell, or molecular biology. It will have a lecture/discussion format. The course will be taught on an advanced level; current literature will be assigned, reviewed, and discussed. No text will be used although several will be listed as references. Students will be expected to present one class discussion on experimental approaches to current developmental problems at the cell or molecular level in lieu of examinations. (Barald)

Plant Biology

355(Botany 337/230)/Nat. Res. 337. Woody Plants I: Biology and Identification. Biology 152 or 195 or equivalent. (4). (NS).

The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Identification and ecological relations are taught during one afternoon field trip per week. The plants are studied in their natural habitats and communities dry oak-hickory forests, mesic-maple forests, river floodplains, swamps, and bogs. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in Nichols Arboretum, Main Campus, and Saginaw Forest. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology, life histories, forest ecology, physiological ecology, genetics and variation, systematics, conifers, and winter identification. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., China, and the Tropics. Field trips are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 once a week. MICHIGAN TREES (Barnes and Wagner) is the required textbook. Lecture material is based in part on the book, FOREST ECOLOGY (Spurr and Barnes). Grading is based 60% on field quizzes and exams and indoor identification exams; 40% on lecture (2 hour exams). (Wagner and Barnes)

458(Botany 439). Biology of the Algae. Biol. 152 or 195, or the equivalent, or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course studies the very diverse group of plants and photosynthetic protistans collectively known as "the algae," which includes the prokaryotic blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and the eukaryotic green, golden, yellow-green, brown, and red algae as well as well as the euglenoids, dinoflagellates, and cryptomonads. The framework of the course is a systematic orientation, examining representative examples from the various algal groups, mostly from living material but also from prepared slides and preserved specimens. It treats both freshwater and marine types and includes identification, structure, reproduction, ecology, and stresses the interrelationships among the algae. A comparative approach is followed. The use of algae as research tools is stressed, where appropriate. Two lectures and two laboratory sessions per week are scheduled, and two field trips are planned. Text: INTRODUCTION TO THE ALGAE, Bold and Wynne, Prentice-Hall, 1985, 2nd edition. (Wynne)

558(Botany 532). Aquatic Flowering Plants. Written permission of instructor and Biol. 459 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course aims to provide familiarity with the local aquatic vascular plants (both submersed and emergent species), with the kinds of characters used in their identification (regardless of region), and with the natural history of these plants through field experience and indoor discussion-laboratory sessions. Adaptations to aquatic existence, pollination, aquatic "weeds," and uses of aquatics by wildlife and people are among the topics considered. The first five weeks consist of field trips, including one all-day Saturday trip to marshes of Lake Erie. Indoor discussions later in the season are thus based on some firsthand observation, although the field work is oriented primarily toward recognition of about 150 species. Indoor work includes identification of some additional species and consideration of other topics, aided by a study herbarium for the course, demonstration materials (dry, pickled, and fresh), color slides, and literature "on reserve" in the lab. Fassett's MANUAL OF AQUATIC PLANTS is the only required text; handouts include a bibliography and suggested readings, which are available in the lab. Checklists of expected species are distributed for each field trip. A hand lens is essential in the field. Grading is based on identification and essay/short-answer exams on general topics; there is no term paper. Enrollment is limited to eight, and a waitlist is maintained by the instructor (in 2012 NUB), from whom more complete information is available. (Voss)

Ecology, Evolution and Animal Behavior

381(Biology 351). General Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. (5). (NS).Also offered at the Biological Station during IIIb.

This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the role of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, dynamics of single species populations, competitive, predator-prey, and mutualistic interactions, community organization, ecological succession, evolutionary aspects of ecology, and current applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 381 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There are three lectures a week and one discussion period. The laboratory meets one day a week for four hours at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, 1800 Dixboro Road. Two field trips to outlying study areas are included. Free bus transportation between the Main Campus and the Botanical Gardens is provided. An independent project, several laboratory reports and two one-hour exams, plus a final examination, constitute the main basis of evaluation. The required text is ECOLOGY, by Begon, Harper, and Townsend. (Goldberg and Rathcke)

483(Biology 443). Limnology: Freshwater Ecology. Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing, with background in physics, chemistry, biology, or water-related sciences. (3). (Excl).

Limnology is the study of lakes. Some of the topics covered in this course are: the origin of lakes; the importance of physical and chemical properties; the geochemical cycling of carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron, and silicon; the ecology of aquatic bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, macrophytes and fish; the pollution and eutrophication of lakes; paleolimnology; food-chain dynamics; energy-flow; and experimental investigations using whole lakes. Lectures are designed to provide the student with a basic understanding of limnology in addition to presenting up to date information from the current literature. Grades are based on examinations (no term paper). Wetzel's LIMNOLOGY, second edition, is the text. This course fulfills concentration requirements in the area of Ecology and Evolution. The limnology laboratory is offered as a separate course Biology 484 described below. (Kilham and Lehman)

484(Biology 444). Limnology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 483 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The limnology laboratory is open to 12-15 students by permission of the instructor. Several field trips to local lakes will enable students to master sampling and measurement techniques for acquiring physical, chemical, and biological data. Laboratory work will include chemical analysis of lake water, taxonomy and counting methods for aquatic biota, and experimental methods applicable to lake plankton communities. (Kilham and Lehman)

490(Biology 418). Introduction to Population Genetics. Biol. 305 and Stat. 402; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will introduce the field of population genetics and its relationship to population ecology, emphasizing the experimental aspects of population genetics. About 25% of the course will be devoted to population genetic theory necessary for understanding the experimental approaches used in the field. Experiments and data on plant, animal, and human populations will be used to illustrate the various principles of population genetics. Course outline: (a) the factors of evolution, mutation, migration, selection, in-breeding, small population size; (b) the concept of fitness, concepts of genetic load, estimation of the rate of evolutionary change; (c) population variation and adaptation; (d) organization of the population genotype, two locus models, coadaptation, intergenotypic interactions; (e) demography and population genetics. Evaluation of student progress will be based on: (1) a midterm; (2) a term paper which should be a critical exposition of one aspect of the course of particular interest to the student, the title to be chosen by the student after consultation with the instructor; (3) one final exam; and (4) two or three problem sets which will be given out through the term. (Smouse)

498(Biology 456). The Ecology of Agroecosystems. A course in ecology and Math. 115 or equivalent. (3). (NS).

An analysis of ecological principles as they apply to agricultural ecosystems, emphasizing theoretical aspects but also covering empirical results of critical experiments. While the emphasis is on principles, practical applicability is also explored where appropriate. Physical, biological, and social forces will be integrated as necessary. Designed as preparation for active research in agroecosytem ecology. (Vandermeer)

590. Ecology of Aquatic Plants and Wetland Ecosystems. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course will focus on the physiology and ecology of submersed, floating, and emergent aquatic plants of the littoral and wetlands of aquatic ecosystems. Morphological and physiological adaptations, mineral nutrition, growth characteristics, population dynamics, competition, community productivity, and control measures based on the physiological ecology of the plants will be examined. The physiological ecology of attached algae and other microflora of the littoral and wetland ecosystems will also be evaluated and integrated with the aquatic plant functions. Laboratory and field analyses of community and ecosystem characteristics and their dynamics, and experimental evaluations of metabolic and growth regulation. Laboratory and field studies, a research-oriented project, discussions, and two examinations contribute to participant evaluations. (Wetzel)

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