Courses in English (Division 361)

For all English classes, registered students must be present at each of the first two meetings to claim their places. Any student who does not meet this requirement may be dropped from the course. NOTE: If you must miss a class due to religious observances, contact the instructor or leave a message for the instructor with the department (764-6330).


The English Department's Professional Semester is an experimental, integrated, team-taught program, designed for students who are committed to teaching English in the secondary schools or who wish to explore that possibility. This program, which will carry 12 hours of credit, along with English 305 to be taken concurrently for 3 hours of credit, will normally constitute the student's entire course load for one term, and will meet the following requirements in the Teaching Certificate Program (students who have already accumulated some of these credits are welcome to negotiate):

English 325-013. Intermediate Composition. (4 credits).

English 489/Education D440-001. Teaching English. (3 credits). (Plus concurrent practicum, Education 307-040, Observation in the Schools, 2 credits).

English 417-013. Senior Seminar. Studies in American Literature. (3 credits).

The Professional Semester is not taught as a collection of separate courses, but rather as a coherent program with flexible scheduling arrangements and opportunities for large and small group projects and discussions, guest consultants and lecturers, and student planning of many segments or aspects of the program. As a hypothetical example, one might focus on the question of audience, taking up criticism on how literature reaches its audience and including poetry, a Shakespeare play, a modern novel, a film, to explore how the different genres affect an audience. In the same unit students might also examine the communications potential of language in a number of contexts and write brief papers addressed to various audiences. Discussion and observation of different local secondary schools will be arranged under 307 on a concentrated basis for a portion of the term.

The Professional Semester can accommodate up to 25 students and meets MW 11-12, Th 10-12, and MWTh 2-4, with the practicum to be arranged. After discussion, students can arrange to have credit for other numbers if they have had one or more of the courses above and it appears there will not be significant overlap. Registration requires overrides, available in the English Department Office in 7611 Haven Hall or from the instructor for the program.

Students interested in participating in this program can get more information from the instructor: Alan Howes, 763-2269 (office), 662-9895 (home). He can also put you in touch with students who have participated in the program and who will be happy to tell you what it was like. A brochure with a general description of the teaching certificate program in English is available in the English Department Office.


After taking or placing out of Introductory Composition, students may elect English 225 for further practice in the fundamentals of expository and argumentative prose. English 325 offers the opportunity for work in argumentative and expository prose at a more advanced level.

Several sections of English 223, the beginning course in creative writing, are available each term; the work is multi-generic, and two of the following will be covered in each section: fiction, poetry, and drama. More experienced writers may apply for admission to specialized sections of English 227 (Playwriting), English 323 (Fiction or Poetry), English 423 (Fiction), English 427 (Playwriting), and English 429 (Poetry). Admission to these advanced courses is by permission of the instructor, who will require writing samples.


Independent study in English must be elected under one of the following numbers: 226 (Directed Writing, 1-3 hours), 299 (Directed Reading, 1-3 hours), 426 (Directed Writing, 1-4 hours), 499 (Directed Reading, 1-4 hours). There is a limit to the total hours that may be taken under any one number (3 in 226; 6 in 299, 426, and 499). All elections require permission of the professor, on an election authorization (override) form to be turned in at CRISP and also on a departmental approval form. GSTA's are not normally authorized to supervise independent study.

125. Introductory Composition. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

Introductory Composition prepares students for the various kinds of academic writing required, of them as undergraduates at the University of Michigan. In addition to informal exercises or impromptu essays, students can expect to write six or more formal papers exemplifying the various modes of discourse which comprise our academic community.

Individual course descriptions will be available for reference in 224 Angell Hall. For all English classes, registered students must be present at each of the first two class meetings to claim their places. Any student who does not meet this requirement may be dropped from the course.

CSP section available. See Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in the guide.

167. Introductory Composition, Shakespeare. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

This is a composition course, not a "Shakespeare" course; our principal concern will be the development of writing skills, though our approach to the writing will be by way of reading and discussing some Shakespearean plays and also some other short texts. If you complete the course successfully you will have satisfied the underclass writing requirement. There will be lectures as well as section meetings.

PRIMARILY FOR FRESHMEN AND SOPHOMORES. Courses numbered 200 and above may be elected only after the Introductory Composition requirement has been completed. A full course description will be available in 224 Angell Hall after March 21, 1988.

Primarily for Freshmen and Sophomores

Courses numbered 200 and above may be elected only after the Introductory Composition requirement has been completed.

220. Intensive Composition. Open to transfer students only. Students must take the ECB Writing Assessment before registering for this course. (2). (Introductory Composition). May be repeated for a total of four credits.

Intensive Composition is a course designed especially to meet the needs of entering transfer students. Enrollment in English 220 is limited to senior, junior, and sophomore transfer students. It is a two-credit course, meeting three hours each week for an EIGHT-WEEK (half-term) PERIOD (September 8 to November 4). English 220 will be offered only during the first half of the Fall 1986 Term, and students must be enrolled before the Fall Term begins. The work in English 220 is intensive and the classes are small. This course meets the Intro-Comp requirement and students move from this course to the ECB-required junior-senior writing courses throughout the University. The course is repeatable once, for a total of four hours' credit.

Students enrolled in this course will write much and often - a minimum of 500 words each week. This course differs from English 125 in the pace of the assigned work, and in the assumed level of transfer students' experience as writers. Students are advised against taking this course as an overload. If you have any questions, please contact the Introductory Composition Office, 224 Angell Hall, 764-0418.

223. Creative Writing. English 125 or 167 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May not be repeated for credit.

All sections of 223 teach the writing of two of the following three genres: fiction (including personal narrative), drama, and poetry. Different sections will emphasize the individual genres to varying degrees. Classwork involves the discussion of the process of writing and the work of a few published authors. Students will do exercises meant to develop a sensitivity to language and a facility with evocative detail, voice, form, and so forth. Most classroom time, however, is devoted to reading and discussion of student writing. A final portfolio of revised work of 35-50 manuscript pages may be required. All sections of English 223 will have course descriptions available for reference in 224 Angell Hall after March 21st.

SECTION 012: This is a SPECIAL SECTION of Eng. 223. Its work is visual and verbal art, composition of works with both literary and graphic components. It proceeds as a studio seminar making and discussing such works. Weekly journal writings are required. (Wright)

225. Argumentative Writing. English 125 or 167 or equivalent. (4). (HU).

This course will explore ways of making the style and logic of your writing more effective as you explain or argue. The questions of connotative language and slanting, understatement, surprise, selection of evidence, tonal and organizational variation, and logical fallacies will be considered in the context of writing to a specific audience for a specific purpose. Classes are usually run on a discussion/workshop basis, with students sharing drafts of papers and examining writing examples from periodicals or from a textbook of collected essays.

All sections of English 225 will have course descriptions available for reference in 224 Angell Hall after March 18. For all English classes, registered students must be present at each of the first two class meetings to claim their places. Any student who does not meet this requirement may be dropped from the course.

CSP section available. See Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this guide.

227. Introductory Playwriting. (3). (Excl).

Students will learn the fundamentals of playwriting and play analysis. Focus is given to development of dialogue, characterization, and plot. Several writing assignments will be assigned, designed to acquaint the student with structure and style. Students will also write several short scenes, one monologue play, and a one-act play. Those interested in enrolling should add their name to the waitlist at CRISP, and be available for an interview with the instructor on Thursday, September 8th, at a location to be announced. For further details, check the course description in 224 Angell Hall after September 6. (Press)

230. Introduction to Short Story and Novel. (3). (HU).

Rather than a comprehensive survey of the short story and novel, this course offers an introduction to the basic techniques of analyzing prose fiction. Beginning with short stories, students learn to define questions of narrative construction, voice, characterization, theme, and style. As critical facility increases, the course will consider more challenging and in some cases experimental fiction. At least three novels will be read in addition to numerous short stories. Students should expect to read substantial amounts of fiction, to participate in class discussions, and to write several short literary analyses.

SECTION 002 The reading for this section will pretty evenly divide between short stories and novels (about 30 of the former and five or six of the latter), one of our considerations being what, besides length, determines the nature of each as a type. We will consider something of the historical development of each genre and the various forms that each takes. We will attend, as well, to certain narrative techniques to be found in both forms: e.g., narrative voice, point of view, style, imagery, symbolism. There will be several short papers required and a midterm and a final exam. (Beauchamp)

SECTION 003 Mr. Micawber says that he reads David Copperfield's novels "with delight, with entertainment, with instruction." We will attempt to do the same thing as we read seven great novels - including David's autobiography and a volume of short stories. Our aim is to read fiction critically and intelligently. We will concern ourselves with such things as the novelist's understanding of the world around him, and how he deals with it; the role of the artist in society, selfishness and selflessness; and the meaning of happiness. Our reading list will include the following books:
Dostoevsky's CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (Vintage),
Emily Brontë's WUTHERING HEGHTS (Penguin),
Jane Austen's EMMA (Penguin),
James Joyce's DUBLINERS (Penguin),
Ralph Ellison's INVISABLE MAN (Vintage),
Evelyn Waugh's DECLINE AND FALL (Dutton),
and Dicken's DAVID COPPERFIELD (Penguin),

Please use the editions indicated; books have been ordered from Shaman Drum Book Shop, on State Street. Course requirements include three papers, daily in-class "scribbles," group reports on DECLINE AND FALL, and a final exam. Daily attendance and participation expected; optional Wednesday night discussions at my home. For Honor students only. (Hornback)

240. Introduction to Poetry. Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001 Questions of very different kinds can be asked about a poem (What does this word mean? Does line one rime with lime four? Why does the poet talk?), and what is useful to ask about one poem may offer little with another. We will try to develop both a versatile repertory of good questions and skill in choosing and answering the ones that will be fruitful with a given poem. The aim will be to experience the poem as it was intended, having refined that experience through class examination of its causes; to "read each work of wit" as Pope puts it, "with the same spirit thats its author writ." The poems will be drawn from the last four centuries and will be of many kinds. We will work primarily through close reading and discussion of particular poems; from time to time we will try to view matters from the poet's various types. There will be several short papers and exercises, a midterm and a final exam. (English)

Section 002 This course is a prerequisite for concentrators in English, and is designed to develop and refine skills in close reading, discussion, and written analysis. We will be reading a wide variety of poems written in English, from the Renaissance to the present day, selected to exemplify varying formal, thematic, and cultural aspects of lyric poetry. Class meetings will be devoted to discussion of the poems; attendance and active participation are mandatory. There will be several short papers and a longer term paper. (Mullaney)

Section 003 In this section of Introduction to Poetry we will concentrate on the dominant modes and forms of verse, such as the couplet, quatrain, ballad, sonnet, and ode, as well as examine the free verse tradition. With each poem we shall discuss technical matters such as imagery, figurative language, diction, and rhythm, and how all the techniques contribute to the total shaping of a successful poem. The objective of the course is to familiarize students sufficiently with poetic conventions that they can read widely in all poetries with understanding and pleasure. Required texts are Nims, WESTERN WIND and a comprehensive anthology of poetry. There will be regular short writing assignments and a final long paper, as well as a midterm and a final examination. (Goldstein)

Section 004 The main assumption: that close analytical attention to parts of poems is indispensable, not inimical, to one's appreciation of whole poems and genres of poetry. The work: reading and re-reading of poems assigned daily: many short overnight writing exercises; some impromptu pieces: in-class explication, reading (aloud), and discussion of assigned poems; participation in at least one small group project; recitation during the final weeks of the term of at least 50 memorized lines of poetry in the course anthology. (The usefulness and the nature of midterm and final exams will be discussed early in the term.) (Van't Hul)

Section 005 (Honors) The subject of this course is the beauty of poetry how to perceive it, how to take joy and understanding from it. We will read together poems written mostly in this century, poems I have chosen because they please me and I think they will please you. You will write briefly to open each class meeting, to prepare for each day's discussion. Those of us who write poetry and would like to share it with the class, will do so several times during the term. We will also have readings and discussions in some of our classes by working poets in the University. In addition to daily writing, this class requires a midterm paper and a final paper. It has no examinations. (Fader)

Section 006 POETIC AND DRAMATIC POETRY. The nature of poetic discourse in the dramatic mode, from early to recent examples. Close analysis of texts, from Beowulf to Beckett, Keats to Yeats. Attention will be paid primarily to "voice" the oral formulaic tradition, the dramatic monologue, the modern verse play, etc. Students will be expected to do some creative work (the writing of poetry, the recitation thereof) in addition to critical writing Texts: THE NORTON ANTHOLOGY OF POETRY, Ed. III AN INVITATION TO POETRY, ed. Jay Parini (Prentice Hall) (Delbanco)

Section 007 In this course we read and study poems rather carefully so that we can read poetry with more enjoyment and knowledge. This activity is prerequisite to concentrating in English. The course can also be a good one for students not intending an English concentration but who want to know more about poetry. We go by as much reading of poems in class and as much discussion as we can. We invite familiarity with the main manifestations of English and American verse through the reading of a large number of poems written over the centuries as well as through the close reading of a given few. That way we can hope to get some sense of the range of lyric poetry as well as some skill at seeing how different kinds of poems are put together and how they work; and this not for its own sake but so that we can know more clearly, enjoy more deeply. Toward the close of the course we will study the work of one major poet perhaps Yeats or Frost or Dickinson. There will be a number of written exercises, two relatively short papers, one hour exam and a final exam. (McNamara)

Section 008 Students will become conversant with the prosodic and figurative dimensions of lyric poetry, with the topic and structural functions of poetic argument, with the enabling constrictions of lyric economy and the formal contract generally. Our recurrent question, in other words, will be about the relationship of form and imagination. This course is not conceived as an historical survey of the lyric genre, but we will examine poems from a variety of historical periods, by authors who represent a variety of aesthetic, conceptual, and political persuasions. Three five-page papers, occasional quizzes and in-class writing assignments. Class meetings will be devoted primarily to discussion and close reading. (Gregerson)

Section 009 We shall study the traditional and modern forms of English and American poetry, with special attention to the close reading of great examples of the principal forms. We shall proceed chiefly by discussion, supported by short papers, quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam. Participation in a computer conference is a required part of the course. A major object is to enable students to read and appreciate poems written from points of view and with purposes not immediately obvious or even sympathetic to an unskilled modern reader. English 240 is a prerequisite for English concentrators but it is open to all University undergraduates. (Cloyd)

Section 010 This course begins to answer the question of how to read poetry with pleasure and skill. We will look carefully at poem after poem with an emphasis on the poet's craft, or how the poem is put together. Requirements will include some memorizing, several short "exercises," one or two formal papers of analysis, and a midterm and a final. Class proceeds by discussion. Text is the complete Norton Anthology of Poetry. (Zwiep)

SECTION 011: The aim of this course is to teach students to respond intelligently and sensitively to poetry. We will read closely and widely in lyric poetry from the Middle Ages to the present, and conclude with three weeks on a single Renaissance poet John Donne. We will look closely at the historical component of poetic forms and of lyric discourse. The course will alternate between chronological and thematic organization. Requirements include three short papers, several informal exercises, a midterm and a final; attendance and participation in class discussion are expected. (Schoenfeldt)

Section 012: This course introduces students to the forms and conventions of poetry as they have established themselves in English over the last seven hundred years. It also introduces students to methods of analysis and interpretation. Student participation in class discussion will be essential. There will be several papers, a midterm and final examination. We will use The Norton Anthology of Poetry and will read many more poems than we have time to discuss in class. The pleasures of poetry are multiplied by knowledge. (Schulze)

SECTION 013: "Poetry is the subject of the poem; from this poem issues and to the return..." Wallace Stevens. The purpose of this course will be to generate, refine, and implement strategies for understanding and explicating a wide range of poems. Using the NORTON ANTHOLOGY OF POETRY and various supplemental materials, we will discuss not only the means by which poets communicate their lyric visions of the world but also the ways in which readers produce convincing, heterogeneous, and often conflicting accounts of the same poem. Topics to be addressed will include the characteristic features and types of poems, the rhetorical function of poetry, the relation between text and context, and the role that critical methodologies and cultural assumptions play in the interpretations of poems. Class will be run predominantly as a discussion group and students will be expected to participate regularly. Requirements will include occasional in-class assignments, frequent one page responses, two poems, several analytical essays, and perhaps and final examination. (Flint)

245/Res. College Hums. 280/Theatre 211. Introduction to Drama and Theatre. (4). (HU).

Section 001 What have "theater" and "drama" meant at different times in history, what do they mean now, and what else could they mean? What impulses and skills have gone and go into the creation of theatrical events, and what needs do they attempt to fulfill? What's meant by "performance," "stage," "audience," "director," "tragedy," "comedy," and a dozen other terms we tend nowadays to use rather casually? In attempting to answer such questions we will be examining certain key scripts in their theatrical and social contexts. The relevant playwrights are likely to include Euripedes, Shakespeare, Molière, Ibsen, Chekhov, Brecht, and Beckett. Those involved in the creation of theatre in the community. (Nightingale)

270. Introduction to American Literature. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001 This course concentrates on four major writers of the American tradition, two from the nineteenth and two from the twentieth centuries: Hawthorne, James, Faulkner and Stevens. The emphasis of the course will be on careful reading and deliberate inquiry. There will be two papers and both a midterm and a final examination. The novels to be read will include:

Section 003 AMERICAN DREAM/AMERICAN NIGHTMARE: to introduce students to American Literature, this course will focus on a characteristically American issue: the gap between promise and practice. Our writers, with a combination of surprise and outrage that is also characteristically American, expose that gap, probe its origins, and imagine its consequences. Our approach will be psychological, cultural, and literary. Thus we will talk about personal dreams of freedom and self-definition, about the pressures of the culture to shape those dreams according to the imperatives of others, and about the diversity of imaginative forms and literary strategies authors choose to express these concerns. Our readings will include novels, short stories, poems, and a play selected from the work of the following authors: Hawthorne, Melville, James Wharton, Dickinson, Hemingway, E.L. Doctorow, Toni Morrison, Author Miller, Rosellen Brown and others. Our format will be lecture/discussion with an emphasis on the latter. Class requirements include regular attendance, two papers, a reading journal, and a final exam. (Wolk)

280. Thematic Approaches to Literature. (3). (HU).

This course is based on the premise that writers approach a text in a different manner than the other readers. Writers often read with an eye on themselves as well as on the page: they both experience a text and observe their own experiencing. What they're interested in analyzing are the techniques being employed by the author and the effects being engendered by those techniques, for writers are always trying to learn from other writers. In this course, then, we will read, discuss and write about contemporary fiction from a writer's not a critic's or a scholar's or a general reader's perspective. An eclectic reading list of contemporary fiction, which will be developed with input from students, will include short stories, novels, and fiction from current periodicals. Students will write a great deal, often developing their own topics and assignments. There will be quizzes on the reading, and possibly a final exam. (Holinger)

285. Introduction to Twentieth-Century Literature. (3). (HU).

THEME: CONFLICTS AND CHOICES THE TWENTIETH CENTURY IMAGINATION. As we discuss the development of modern to contemporary fiction in this class, we will find ourselves ultimately grappling with the difficulties and inevitable dilemmas of being human. Although political and cultural factors will inform our discussions as they reflect the author's world picture, ultimately, we will be talking about human relationships. We will trace the cultural movement away from the end of the nineteenth century conception of more stable values and visions into the world that shows us the artist rejected and rejecting those values. As we enter the modern conception of the world, we will watch the artist's perception of time change from linear to a continuous flow; the past will become present; consciousness will become multiple, rather than singular. It i+ a fascinating "story" to be told, early in the term, by selections from the following authors: Thomas Hardy; D.H. Lawrence; William Faulkner; James Joyce; T.S. Eliot; and, Virginia Woolf. Later, as we read more contemporary works, we will explore the following novels:
William Kennedy's, IRONWEED;
Margaret Atwood's, THE HANDMAID'S TALE.

We will also discuss selections from the following authors: Ann Tyler, Toni Morrison, Alice Walker and Isabel Allende. (Back)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

305. Introduction to Modern English. Recommended for students preparing to teach English. (3). (HU).

Though a requirement for students seeking certification as secondary-school English teachers, English 305 appeals to a broader audience interested in the structure of English and its varieties. Topics to be discussed include: regional and social dialect variation in the United States. English as a rule-governed language shaped by its history, and the history of ideas about good (and "bad" English). English 305 is designed for native-speakers of English (with no prior study of the language or of linguistics) who are curious about the language community of which they are a part. A midterm and final examination allow students to demonstrate the ability to make well founded generalizations based on the material studied. Two short papers invite exploration of domains of language use. (Bailey)

314. Topics in Literature Before 1800. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits with department permission.

Britain's rapid ascendancy in the transatlantic slave trade generated great profits for investors, spurred British Naval and overland exploration, and opened new markets for British manufacturers. Of course, many Britons were uneasy about the source of these new commercial and colonial benefits. This course will examine the importance of the various and often contradictory images of Blacks in 18th-century English literature. These images influenced the period's slavery debate. We will read

And other works alert to the ways in which they support or question European domination of other ethnic groups. Readings include novels, poems, essays, and polemical pamphlets concerning the trade. This course fulfills the pre-1800 requirement for English concentrators. (Artis)

315/Women's Studies 315. Women and Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits with department permission.

SECTION 001 WOMEN IN THE CULTURE. Participants in this course will be reading chronologically through 19th and 20th Century works of American political philosophy, sociology, and literature, focusing on how women look at women. The discussions will be based on the unsentimental analysis of the authors' literary presentations of ideas, and will allow a full range of ideological approaches and responses. Authors will include Martineau and Trollone, the Grimke sisters, Harding-Davis, Alcott, Jewett, Cather, Rand, and others. In-class writings, two shorter papers, class presentation. (DePree)

Section 002 This course will examine how women writers from Jane Austin to Toni Morrison, have shaped narrative discourse, particular emphasis on relationships between women writers. By explaining how women have defined themselves as writers, as women, and as members of a particular class, race and/or culture, we will attempt to view female identity not as a monolithic structure but as a set of diverse experiences inseparable from social and historical contexts. Texts will include novels and stories by Jane Austin, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Emily Brontë, George Elliot, Kate Chopin, Virginia Wolf, Zora Neele Hurston, Toni Morrison, Gloria Naylor and Ursula LeGuin. Most classes will be structured as discussions. Requirements will include several short papers and a final examination. (Vrettos)

317. Literature and Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

SECTION 001 LITERATURE AND HOMICIDE. This course is interested in the ways in which narrative prose deals with provoking social facts. Homicide is certainly such a fact, and this course examines three very different ways in which imaginative writers have treated it. In the first of these, conveniently unreal situations are shaped by certain relatively simple formulae; the most notable instance of this is the murder mystery or detective story. We will be reading murder mysteries by Agatha Christie, Raymond Chandler, and James McClure. In the second, actual crimes are cast into narrative modes that make them more comprehensible, or at least less disturbing, than they would be were they otherwise left unretouched. This phenomenon we see operating every day in the various journalistic media, or in books like Truman Capote's IN COLD BLOOD and Norman Mailer's THE EXECUTIONER'S SONG, both of which we shall read. In the third and most considerable of the narrative modes, the situation of the murderer is explored by novelists who are interested in what it may be made to say of the general human condition. We will conclude the course by reading: Dostoevsky's CRIME AND PUNISHMENT, Camus' THE STRANGER, and Faulkner's LIGHT IN AUGUST. The course will proceed mostly by lecture, but strenuous efforts will be made to allow for some discussion. The course is designed to accommodate students from other departments who, though they have no extensive background in literature, have a lively interest in the way that our real and imaginary experiences of socially important phenomena are organized, and to what effect. (Faller)

Section 002 LITERATURE AND CULTURE OF IRELAND. This course proposes an introductory study of the literature of Ireland from earliest times to the present. This means that we select for reading from among ancient saga, medieval and modern poetry, modern prose fiction and modern drama. We shall draw from both Gaelic literature (in translation) and Anglo-Irish literature. The course has no prerequisite and does not presume prior acquaintance with the subject, nor with Irish history, though students with some knowledge of Ireland and its history should find the course particularly rewarding. The course will be conducted by lecture, with discussion when possible. There will be brief quizzes and one hour exam. Two papers will be written, and a final examination. (McNamara)

Section 003 LANGUAGE IN LAW. Doctor, Lawyer, merchant, professor - each has the English language in common with all of us. What lawyers and judges speak and write is virtually "all they do." How they speak and write is Greek to almost all but them. Legal literacy, like all other kinds, is a specialized way of bahaving with language. The behavior is suited to peculiar audiences, purposes, and situations. In the course: (1) Brief early attention to how, in the English and American past, legal English "got that way": (2) some attention to the lexical and syntactic features of the legal code in today's spoken (court-room) and written (legislative and judicial) uses: (3) extensive reading and discussion of (a) an ample course pack full of essays and chapters by legal, psychiatric, and socio-linguistic scholars; and (b)some short fiction (including Melville's BILLY BUD). To summarize: the purpose of the course is to study principles and practice in the language behavior of lawyers and judges (and of witnesses and juries too). An ultimate, extracurricular ideal is to relate this study to one's idea of a just society. For such reasons, the course does NOT figure (a) to affect the outcome of the student's conceivable day in any court of law; or (b) to raise by one point the LSAT score; or (c) to gain for the student any practical advantage whether for gaining admission to a school of law, or for competing within a school of law for a place in its students' pecking order. Lectures (some by guest experts in law and related professions); demonstrations and experiments; short written exercises; a course paper; a midterm and a final exam. (Van't Hul)

318. Literary Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

SECTION 001 LITERARY TYPES: FANTASY. This course will explore the nature and uses of fantastic narratives from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present, drawing texts from such widely different fields as fairy tale, science fiction, and the so-called New Novel. No special background in literature is required. The written work for the course will proceed on a contract-like basis involving weekly short papers, an optional longer paper that may be written in substitution for two of the shorter papers, and an objective final exam.
TALES OF E.T.A. HOFFMAN (1809-1822), U. of Chicago Pr, ppr.
THE PORTABLE POE, (1835-1849), Viking, selections only.
THE ANNOTATED ALICE (1865, 1872), Lewis Carroll, NAL, ppr.
THE ISLAND OF DR. MOREAU (1896), Airmont, ppr. and BEST SCIENCE FICTION STORIES, Dover, ppr, H.G. Wells.
HERLAND, Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1915), Pantheon, ppr.
THE COMPLETE STORIES, Franz Kafka (1915), Schocken, ppr.
THE CAVES OF STEEL, Isaac Asimov (1953), Fawcett.
THE ERASERS, Alain Robbe-Grillet (1953), Grove.
THE TOLKIEN READER (1949-1964), Ballantine, selections only.
THE PHANTOM TOLLBOOTH, Norton Juster (1961), Random House, ppr.
COSMICOMICS, Italo Calvino (1965), Harbrace.
IN WATERMELON SUGAR, Richard Brautigan (1968), Dell.

Supplementary texts (recommended but not required):
THE FANTSTIC IN LITERATURE, Eric S. Rabkin (1976), Princeton U. Pr, ppr.
THE FANTASTIC, Tzvetan Todorov (1970), Cornell U. Pr. ppr. (Rabkin)

319. Literature and Social Change. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

SECTION 001 BLACK, CHICANO, NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN, PUERTO RICAN, ASIAN AMERICAN LITERATURES. This course will concentrate primarily on 20th century literature expressing the unique cultures and life experiences of people of color in the United States. While there are some features common to all these groups that suffer discrimination within our larger culture, the diversity of responses through literary forms will also be emphasized. In considering the literature of each we will attempt to include writers who hold different points of view and employ different literary techniques. There is an implicit interdisciplinary thrust to this course, and history, sociology, and political theory will be especially important in uniting with literary criticism as useful analytical tools. Requirements include two papers, two exams, and participation in a group presentation. The reading will probably include many of the following:
Frederick Douglass, NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE;
Jean Toomer, CANE;
Richard Wright, BLACK BOY;
Maxine Hong Kingston, WOMAN WARRIOR;
Jose Antonio Villareal, POCHO;
John Neihardt, BLACK ELK SPEAKS;
Louise Erdich, LOVE MACHINE;

There will be both lectures and discussion. (Wald)

320/CAAS 338. Literature in Afro-American Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits with department permission.

See Afroamerican and African Studies 338. (Awkward)

323. Creative Writing. Junior standing and written permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 POETRY. The primary focus of this section will be the student's own poems. Revision of work will be facilitated through class "workshop" discussion of the poems, as well as the instructor's written criticism. To help build a context for the student's own work, we will by reading contemporary poetry, as well as essays by modern/contemporary poets. Besides compiling their own work, students will be required to make a brief, in-class presentation on a poet of their choice. During the term our discussions will touch on topics of importance to the working poet: imagery, free verse, form and meter, publication, audience, and the revision process, among others. For admission, get on the waitlist at CRISP, and come to the first class with a sample three to five page manuscript of poetry. (Sheehan)

Section 002 INTERMEDIATE FICTION. Students in this workshop are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work, and, finally, to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. The text for the course is THE BEST AMERICAN SHORT STORIES-1987, edited by Ann Beattie and published by Houghton Meffin. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. To apply for admission to the course, place your name on the waitlist at CRISP and show up at the first class meeting with a short story that you've written. A class list will be posted and overrides distributed as quickly as possible during the first week of classes. (Ezekiel)

SECTION 003 INTERMEDIATE FICTION. This is a writing workshop designed for graduates of English 223 or those writers who are able to compose interesting, ambitious short stories without the benefit of a beginner's workshop. Students will be required to attend class faithfully, to support the University's Visiting Writers Series, to read a handful of selected stories, and to produce 50 pages of typed, double-spaced, reasonably-polished original fiction. The instructor is an experienced short story writer, and as such, she will focus almost exclusively on the craft of story (as opposed to novel) writing. Interested students should realize that while the required reading for this course is light, the amount of time and energy necessary to produce 50 lively, carefully-revised pages of fiction is prodigious. Enrollment for this course is limited. Thus, admission to the workshop will be determined by the quality of manuscripts (no more than ten pages) submitted to the instructor at the first scheduled class meeting. Each applicant should come to that meeting with a fiction manuscript in hand. If the applicant doesn't have a suitable story to submit, he or she may submit some poetry or an essay. N.B.: Until the first class meeting, English 223 will be listed as closed with CRISP, but students should place their names on the waitlist during registration. (Hagy)

325. Intermediate Exposition. (4). (HU).

This course gives students practice in writing argumentative and expository prose. Its basic goal is the development of an effective personal style, with attention to tone, nuance, figurative expression, argumentation, and critical thinking. Assignments, totaling 40 pages or more of revised prose, will vary in kind and will allow students to choose their own topics where possible. A long paper may be assigned.

All sections of English 325 will have course descriptions available for reference in 224 Angell Hall after March 18. For all English classes, registered students must be present at each of the first two class meetings to claim their places. Any student who does not meet this requirement may be dropped from the course.

329. Practical English. (4). (Excl).

In a workshop, students will cultivate written and spoken forms that have wide practical use in groups: letters, memos, reports, essays, prospectuses, speeches, public drafts, working papers, and more. Much of the work will be collaborative. Although students will compose and revise individually, they will often create specific assignments, edit, and evaluate in groups. This workshop thus reproduces a crucial feature of social and professional life: acts of writing and speaking typically occur in continuing chains of composition, evaluation, and revision leading to collective results ideas, documents, plans of action. Clearly, success in this course requires everyone's commitment to group effort. Students will be expected to focus considerable time and energy on writing, editing, reading, and working together. Appropriate readings to be chosen by the workshop. No exams. Individual grades will be based on a minimum of two speeches, a minimum of twenty-five pages of finished prose, and class participation. Writing Requirement for non-concentrators. Required text: Hodges' HARBRACE COLLEGE HANDBOOK. (Rabkin and others)

355. Core I (Great English Books). (4). (HU).

SECTION 001 This course, the first of a three-part sequence required of concentrators (but open to non-concentrators), studies major works of the later Middle Ages through Renaissance. Class will be conducted as a combination of brief informal lectures and discussion. Readings will include
Chaucer's CANTERBURY TALES (selections),
More's UTOPIA,
Spenser's THE FAERIE QUEENE (selections), plays by Shakespeare and Jonson, a selection of Renaissance lyric poetry, and Milton's PARADISE LOST. Requirements for the course are active participation, a midterm, three essays, and a final exam. (Mullaney)

Section 002 A selection of works from the late Middle Ages through the Renaissance, e.g.,
THE FAERIE QUEENE; poems by Donne, Herbert, and Marvell; VOLPONE; THE DUCHESS OF MALFI; PARADISE LOST. Mostly discussion, occasional lecturing; oral presentation by student panels; modest attempts at staging two of the plays. Frequent short papers, one longer paper, a midterm, and a final exam. (English)

Section 003 In this course we will read some of THE CANTERBURY TALES, from the beginning, and PARADISE LOST, from the end of our time span. In between we will read a concentrated selection of short poems and two or three non-Shakespearean plays of the Renaissance. The class work will be largely devoted to discussion of some of the assigned readings. There will be short written exercises, three papers and two special exams, and a final. The course text will be the first volume of THE NORTON ANTHOLOGY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE, 5th edition, ed. Abrams et al. (Lenaghan)

Section 004 This will be a course in English masters of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. We shall read from medieval literature selections from Chaucer's CANTERBURY TALES (in Middle English), the romance GAWAIN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT, and two religious plays. We'll begin our reading in the Renaissance with sonnets by Sidney, Book III of Spenser's FAERIE QUEENE, and Marlow's tragedy DOCTOR FAUTUS. We'll continue with lyric poetry by Shakespeare, Jonson, and especially Donne and conclude the term with Milton's epic PARADISE LOST. Discussion with short lectures on background. Two bluebooks, two short essays, and a take-home, two-essay final. Text: THE NORTON ANTHOLOGY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE, fifth edition, Vol. I. (Creeth)

Section 005 In this course we will focus on a wide selection of the major works which have for a century and more now comprised the "canon" defining university study of later medieval and renaissance literature. We shall do so with an interest in literary traditions, observing the forms and thematic content characteristic of those works and that period. Authors we'll read will include: Chaucer (with an eye to Dante and Boccaccio); The Second Sheperd's Play; EVERYMAN; Malory; More, UTOPIA (with an eye to Erasmus); Marlowe; Sidney; Spenser; Jonson; Shakespeare; Donne; Herbert; Marvell; and Milton. This is an extraordinarily rich body of material, and its study needs no apology here. But it does deserve questioning, and as we proceed we will be questioning the constitution of "the tradition" which works, which authors are included (and excluded), what larger structures of values the works embody and convey, what concerns the teaching of these works raise when taught as "the tradition" on another continent in a quite different society, and centuries later. There will be three papers required for the course (4-6 pp. each) and two examinations. In short: extensive and detailed reading; engaged participation in discussion; thoughtful writing - these are the requisites for the course. (Williams)

Section 006 This course, the first in the Core sequence required of English concentrators, will examine the major works of English literature from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The readings will include: Chaucer's CANTERBURY TALES (selections), SIR GAWAIN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT, Marlowe's DR. FAUSTUS, Jonson's VOLPONE, lyrics by Shakespeare, Donne, and Herbert, Spenser's FAERIE QUEENE (selections), and Milton's PARADISE LOST. We will pay particular attention to the relationship between the literature and its social and historical context. Class will mix lecture and discussion, with occasional lectures intended to elicit discussion through an application of this context. Requirements: attendance and participation, three papers, and a final exam. (Schoenfeldt)

Section 007 This course is the first of a three part historical sequence required of those who concentrate in English literature; our focus will be major literary works of the English Middle Ages and Renaissance. Narrative texts will include: selections from Chaucer's CANTERBURY TALES, SIR GAWAIN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT, Book III of Spenser's FAERIE QUEENE, and the whole of Milton's PARADISE LOST. Selections from the drama will include:

Shakespeare's HENRY IV, PART I and
Jonson's VOLPONE.

Three five-page papers, occasional quizzes. Class discussion will be supplemented, as required, by informal lectures. (Gregerson)

Section 008 In this course we will read and discuss some major authors and works from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Some major texts we will read are: BEOWULF, SIR GAWAIN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT, parts of
Chaucer's CANTERBURY TALES, a medieval play, Marlowe's DR. FAUSTUS, a Shakespeare play, and parts of Milton's PARADISE LOST.

The course is the first in the core sequence required for English concentrators. Instruction will be by lecture and discussion and grades will reflect student's participation in class as well as performance in a midterm and final examination, and in several papers on assigned topics. (McSparran)

356. Core II (Great English and American Books). (4). (HU).

SECTION 001 An unusually lively team-taught lecture course covering three periods: English literature from the Restoration and Eighteenth Century (1660-1790), English Romantic Literature (1790-1830), and American literature before the Civil War (1800-1860). Students should normally have completed at least English 240 (Introduction to Poetry) and English 355 (Great English and American Books I). Authors will include Dryden, Aphra Behn, Pope, Swift, John Gay; Wordsworth, Coleridge, Keats, Jane Austen, Mary Shelly; Poe, Hawthorne, Whitman, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Genres will include poems, plays, short stories, novels, essays, and letters. Lectures, sometimes illustrated with musical and artistic materials, will include historical, political, cultural, and intellectual background as well as close analysis of literary texts. Each lecture will be followed by a response, supplement, or critique by the other member of the teaching team, followed by an open discussion period. The lecturers hope to dramatize their different approaches to the works. Three short analytical essays (4-6 pp. each), midterm, final exam. (Winn and Ellison)

Section 002 An introduction to some of the major works, authors, and issues of British and North American literature, from the Restoration (1660) to the Romantic period (the earlier 19th century). The course will introduce you to some unfamiliar genres and attitudes (satire, Pindaric ode, neo-Classical imitation), and help you to read familiar genres (such as the novel and the lyric poem) more closely, with a sense of their place in literacy and social history. The basic text for this course is THE NORTON ANTHOLOGY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE, Volumes I and II, fifth edition (if you have the fourth edition you will be missing some of the material, and will have to arrange to Xerox it). From this anthology we will read selections from Dryden, Bunyan, Congreve, Rochester, Astell, Finch, Wortley Montagu, Swift, Pope, Thomson, Gray, Collins, Johnson, Goldsmith, Crabbe, Blake, Wollstonecraft, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Bryon, Keats, P.B. Shelley and Mary Shelley; some of these authors will be represented by a single poem or essay, but some will be studied in depth. You will also need separate editions of
Thoreau's WALDEN, and

I will combine lectures with discussions on prepared questions; you are required to attend all classes, and encouraged to take part in these discussions as fully as possible. There will be two papers and a final examination, each counting as one-third of the grade. (Turner)

357. Core III (Great English and American Books). (4). (HU).

SECTION 001 This course, the third in the Core sequence required for English concentrators, examines the British and American literature from 1850 to the present. We will follow the development of major literary movements, proceeding chronologically from the Victorian age to our own. Our thematic focus will be on the many versions of history we encounter in these texts. What is the significance of the past for these authors? How do they represent their own historical experience? Authors are likely to include Tennyson, Dickens, Mark Twain, Henry James, W.B. Yeats, Virginia Woolf, William Faulkner, James Baldwin, Toni Morrison, Grace Paley, and others. Enrollment may be over 100 students; the format of the class will be varied, however. Class activities will include not only lectures by two professors both of whom will take an active part in all classes but discussions in small and large groups and other participation. The requirements will include attendance, punctual completion of reading assignments, two papers, a midterm and a final examination. In September, students should reserve 10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. on Fridays for rescheduling of class due to religious holidays. (Norich and Howard)

SECTION 002 This course will treat central British and American writers from the mid-nineteenth to the twentieth century, examining the historical, intellectual and cultural contexts they were part of, characteristic issues, and techniques for each author, and some of the literary problems they tackled in selected major works. By way of close reading, we will study the thematic and artistic components of these works, taking them as examples of their genre as well as on their own terms. Our list of authors will include Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, Robert Browning,
George Eliot, MIDDLEMARCH,
Edith Wharton, THE HOUSE OF MIRTH,
Virginia Woolf, THE WAVES,
William Faulkner, THE HAMLET.

Aside from occasional lectures, class time will be spent in exploratory discussion of what we have read. Students will write two 6-8 page papers, and take a final exam. (Maxson)

Section 003 This is the third of three Core courses required of English concentrators but open to all students interested in the best literature in English in the past hundred years. We will read
E.M. Forster's HOWARD'S END,
Jean Toomer's CANE,
Thornton Wilder's OUR TOWN, and THE SKIN OF OUR TEETH,
Margaret Laurence's THE DIVINERS,

and a representative selection of poetry. The list provides richness and variety in various genres and experimental modes. The course will include some introductory lectures but will depend largely on informed class discussion. Students will write a couple of major essays and a few brief exercises. There will likely be a final exam. (Powers)

367. Shakespeare's Principal Plays. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001 A course exploring the range of Shakespeare's dramatic art through the study of individual plays. Combining close reading of dramatic text with attention to performance, we will consider Shakespeare's plays from the following perspectives: theatrical and intellectual contexts, changing concepts of character and action, developments of dramatic language, problems and possibilities of staging, the shifting borders of tragedy and comedy, dramatic conceptions of history, sexuality and the family, the self and its masks, interpretations on the modern stage. We will read:

Requirements include regular attendance, two papers, midterm and final examinations, brief critiques of three Shakespearean productions (film, video, or stage). Registered students are reminded that they must attend the first two class meetings in order to reserve this place in the class. Textbooks available through Shaman Drum Bookstore. (Garner)

Section 002 In English 367 we shall read a representative sampling of Shakespeare's best plays. "Representative" means attention to comedy, tragedy, history, and romance the kinds Shakespeare worked in. Here is a tentative syllabus:

I don't have a particular method of approach, and I don't concentrate on special themes or topics. The idea is to go through the plays as intensively as possible, with an eye to getting pleasure from them. No special background is required. You don't need to be an English concentrator. I would not want to discourage anyone who cares about literature from taking the course. But a friendly word of caution: the material is demanding, and maybe you will find the approach is demanding, too. If you don't mind extending yourself, this may be a good course for you, but not if grades are the end-all and be-all. Instruction will be by lecture/discussion. Assuming that the class turns out fairly large, it will be difficult to elicit informal discussion. I intend to try, however, and will count on student collaboration. You can expect spot quotation quizzes on the plays, two short papers, a midterm and a final. You must take all the quizzes to be eligible for a passing grade in the course. The course will depend on an averaging (not strictly quantified) of your written work, plus an estimate of your performance in class. The texts will be the Signet paperback series, one volume to a play. (Fraser)

391. Honors Survey: Medieval English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This course, the first in the English Honors sequence, focuses sharply on a series of major works from the Middle Ages. The purposes of the course are three-fold: to encourage, through discussion, a significant understanding of the meaning of the works we study; to enhance the students' ability to interpret literature; and to explore the relationships between the literary texts and their cultural contexts. The authors and works studied this term will include BEOWULF, Malory, Chaucer, SIR GAWAIN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT, EVERYMAN, ballads, and early drama. Requirements: several essays and a final examination. (Garbaty)

392. Honors Survey: Renaissance English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the literature of the English Renaissance. Although the course focuses on the literary masterpieces of the period, we will also study the historical and intellectual background and issues in critical interpretation. The course begins with seminal works in the humanist and Reformation traditions: Erasmus' In Praise of Folly and the Coverdale translation of the Psalms. Following this, we will read Sidney's Astrophel and Stella; Spenser's Epithalamion and the Mutability Cantos; Marlowe's Faustus; selections from Shakespeare's Sonnets and his Twelfth Night and Henry IV, part 1; Jonson's The Alchemist; selected poems of Donne and Herbert; and Milton's Lycidas and Paradise Lost. Requirements: weekly short (two page) papers and class participation. (Turner)

406/Ling. 406. Modern English Grammar. (3). (HU).

English 406 is an advanced survey of descriptive English grammar. The approach will be functional and theoretically eclectic. We will look closely at the formal and semantic motivations for basic grammatical categories and processes in English (word formation, "parts of speech," phrases, clauses, sentences, "transformations," and discourse connection), and we will discuss how these structures contribute to the expressive potential of the system. There will be daily practice in grammatical parsing weekly quizzes, and a final exam on the factual material. The course should be attractive to those professionally interested in English education, practical criticism, or further work in linguistic theory as well as those generally interested in becoming more articulate about the structure of our language. Texts: Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum, A CONCISE GRAMMAR OF CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH and John Algeo, EXERCISES IN CONTEMPORARY ENGLISH. (Cureton)

412. Major Directors. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

SECTION 001 DeSICA AND FELLINI. We will make a careful analytical study of major films spanning the careers of these two complementary yet contrasting Italian masters. Our focus will be on the cinematic "languages" and the dramatic themes of these directors, the relationship between what they say and how they say it, their styles, their content, and their contexts. I will post the exact schedule of films outside my office (2627 Haven Hall) before the beginning of the Fall Term. There will be one film per week, two lecture classes (one of these two hours), and mandatory small discussion groups, scheduled at your convenience. English 412 may be repeated if content is different from a previous election; there are no prerequisites. Nevertheless, the course is not "An introduction to the movies." Previous work in film theory, history, mechanics, critical analysis, and aesthetics couldn't hurt. Should film study may be new to, I will be happy to recommend preparatory reading before you leave for the summer vacation. The course will pay attention to meat and potatoes as well as to sauce and soufflé (and, while we're at it, to nuts and bolts; it isn't all culinary). An obligatory lab fee (ca. $20) covers the cost of seeing films. Some reading (Giannetti's UNDERSTANDING MOVIES or an alternate text if that is old news to you) and rigorous writing (two two-page papers; one five-page paper; one ten-page paper). Final exam. No "Incompletes." Illiterates will find no place to hide. Anyone who uses "media" with a singular verb flunks. (Bauland)

413. Studies in Film Genre. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

SECTION 001 THE HORRROR FILM. We will focus on the horror film as a specific genre of motion picture, discussing a number of films from diverse perspectives. We shall be primarily concerned with the psychological impact of these films on the audience and the way their cinematic techniques contribute to this impact but we shall also examine both the historical background to certain figures and plots as well as the influence of present society on their portrayal. These films will often be a starting point for an examination of what people fear and how they attempt to handle their fear through superstition, religion, and art. On Tuesday afternoons we shall discuss the psychological, cultural, and social themes of the course, or analyze one of the literary texts; we shall also introduce material relevant to the week's film. We shall view the film on the same day and discuss it in detail on Thursday afternoon, then we shall screen certain portions for close analysis. Among the films we shall view are:

Students will read a number of literary texts, write several short papers, and take a final examination. (Konigsberg)

417. Senior Seminar. Senior concentrator in English. (3). (Excl).

NOTE: ENGLISH 417 SHOULD BE ELECTED BY SENIOR ENGLISH CONCENTRATORS ONLY. English 417 along with the Core courses meets the Junior-Senior writing requirement for English concentrators ONLY. Please ADD the ECB MODIFICATION for 417 AT CRISP.

SECTION 001 See section 003 for description. (Maxson)

Section 002 We will spend the entire term reading most of the works of James Joyce, DUBLINERS, A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN, ULYSSES, and selections from FINNEGANS WAKE. (Most of the time, of course, will be devoted to ULYSSES.) You do not need any previous familiarity with the texts, but you should bring a commitment to reading "difficult" prose with at least the intensity and patience you devote to poetry. This is a seminar: class proceeds by discussion. Requirements (probably) will include some oral reports, two papers (one short; one long), and some variation on a final exam. (Zwiep)

SECTION 003 This course will offer a general study of feminist literary theory in both the Anglo-American and the French traditions. We will read works by Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar (including selections from THE MADWOMAN IN THE ATTIC), Rachel Blau DuPlessis (including selections from WRITING BEYOND THE ENDING), Elaine Showalter, Carolyn Heilbrun, Anette Kolodny, Nancy K. Miller, Nina Baym, Kate Millet (selections from SEXUAL POLITICS), Michele Barret and other theorists who take a materialist approach to feminist criticism, Black feminist criticism of Black women writers, and Black literary theory that brings structuralist and post-structuralist points of view to bear on the writing of Black women. In conjunction with certain of these essays, we will read poetry of Emily Dickinson, Olive Schreiner's THE STORY OF AN AFRICAN FARM, selected passages of D.H. Lawrence, Elizabeth Barrett Browning's "Aurora Leigh," Tillie Olsen's TELL ME A RIDDLE, Zora Neale Hurston's THEIR EYES WERE WATCHING GOD, and Gwendolyn Brook's MAUD MARTHA. For most of the second half of the course, we will look at selections from NEW FRENCH FEMINISMS (edited by Marks and de Courtivron), essays from Julia Kristeva's DESIRE IN LANGUAGE and REVOLUTION IN POETIC LANGUAGE, passages from Luce Irigaray's SPECULUM, and Monique Wittig's novel LES GUERILLERES, to get at some of the concepts, strategies, and politics underlying French feminisms. Students will write two 6-8 page papers, give a class report on a narrow segment of the syllabus, and take a final exam. (Maxson)

Section 004 Of all the poets of the seventeenth century in England, John Donne has proved to be the most interesting, relevant, and popular to the twentieth-century readers. We shall read together all his best poetry and also, more fully to understand him, some generous selections from his prose and from the varied criticism of his poetry from his own time to ours. We shall also place him in the context of fellow poets dubbed "metaphysical" and because it is a parallel response to problems that concerned him to some tragic drama of the age, especially Shakespeare's HAMLET. A true seminar, the course will depend heavily on in-put by its members. Each will deliver several oral presentations later to be written up as short critical essays in light of class discussion. A major seminar paper will develop each student's enlightened final view of Donne's poetry. No examinations. This section 0f 417 meets the pre-1800 requirement for English concentrators as well as the senior seminar requirement. (Creeth)

Section 005 VICTORIAN LITERATURE AND THE HUMAN BODY. This seminar will consider representations of physicality in works by Brontë, Elliot, Dickens, and Hardy. Our approach will be both historical and theoretical: we will attempt to situate such issues as the commodification of the body, its sexuality, labor, or pain in the context of 19th century legal, medical, economic, and aesthetic discourse, while at the same time working to establish a critical and theoretical framework for talking about the body in literature. Supplemental materials will consist of essays that address problems of physicality and/or sexuality from a variety of perspectives-feminist, new historicist, psychoanalytic, Marxist. Requirements will include two oral reports, one on historical readings, one on critical readings, one short paper (five pages) and a longer research paper (10-15 pgs.). (Vrettos)

Section 006 Chaucer: "For al so siker as IN PRINCIPIO, MULIER EST HOMINIS CONFUSIO,-Madame, the sentence of this Latyn is 'Woamman is mannes joye and al his blis'." A close study of how men saw women, and of the variety of female (and by extension male) characterations in Chaucer, with some information on their sources in patristic and courtly tradition. All readings will be in Middle English, and the discussion (in Modern English) will concentrate on tales emphasizing male/female interaction in the CANTERBURY TALES and the whole of the TROILUS AND CRISEYDE, Chaucer's masterpiece. Aspects of some "minor" poems may be included. Students will be evaluated on participation in class discussion, short reports, and longer paper. Text: THE RIVERSIDE CHAUCER, ed. Benson. This section of 417 fulfills the Pre-1800 requirement for English concentrators as well as the senior seminar requirement. (Garbaty)

Section 007 The relation between literature and ethics has a long and complex history. Beginning at least with Plato in the West, literature has been considered central to moral improvement and corruption. In non-Western cultures, it is also assumed that storytelling will guide the formation of virtue. But how exactly does literature contribute to moral character? Does moral character relate in any way to the notion of literary character? We will be following two lines of argument in this discussion: the use of literary material in moral philosophy, and the creation of ethical positions within literature. We may also shift gears slightly toward the end of the term to consider how Frank Capra's IT'S A WONDERFUL WORLD engages the tradition of moral philosophy. Works to be considered by Plato, Shakespeare, Kant, Austen, Isak Dinesen, Leskov, Tolstoy, Sartre, and Chinua Achebe. Requirements: class participation and two papers (10pp). (Siebers)

Section 008 William Blake's ILLUMINATED WORKS. This seminar studies the verbal/visual arts of William Blake's illuminated books, together with some of his other writings and pictorial works. The principal illuminated books to be studied are SONGS OF INNOCENCE AND OF EXPERIENCE, THE MARRIAGE OF HEAVEN AND HELL, and THE BOOK OF URIZEN. Written work includes classroom reports and longer paper. (Wright)

Section 009 AMERICAN DOCUMENTARY FILM. A close study of mainly United States documentary films, plus some photographs, written documents, and theater. Among the questions we will address are the nature and range of the form, the responsibility of the documentary artist, the relation of the documenter and documented, methods of empowering normally marginalized people to do their own documentary, access of documentary to mainstream and other distribution. Most of the following films will be studied:

Reading will include NOW LET US PRAISE FAMOUS MEN. Emphasis will be on discussion. There will be regular writing assignments and the final project will be small group production of video documentaries or other documents (Alexander) Note: There will be a lab fee required for this course, but we will use fewer texts. Therefore, the cost of this section will be no more than any other section of 417.

SECTION 010 EFFECTIVE PROSE: The primary subject of this seminar is the prose style of its participants; its secondary subject is the prose style of a few published authors chosen by members of the seminar, in both cases its purpose will be to help experienced readers and writers understand why prose works and why it doesn't. Such understanding supports the intent of this seminar, which is to enable its participants to be writers who please themselves by becoming editors who meet their own needs. (Fader)

Section 011: TRAGEDY AND THE TRAGIC EVOCATION: FORM, THEORY, THEATER, AND ETHICAL CONTENT. We will study the forms, thematic content, theories, theater history, and changing roles of tragedy in Western drama from Periclean Athens to the present day by reading representative tragedies from the genre's major eras: Classical, Renaissance, and Modern. We will also read theory and criticism of tragedy, mostly modern commentary but also critical masterworks of the past. We will try to determine how each age has made tragedy meaningful for itself and how the tragic evocation has managed to remain a viable literary and theatrical pursuit for 2,500 years. A common body of intensive reading will be the basis for class discussion. Each student will have an opportunity to lead discussion and present a short report, write a short paper, and write a long critical essay (which will surely require reading beyond the common body). The limited size of the class allows maximum participation in the exchange of ideas among people learning together and from each other, which is the nature of a true seminar. This class will require active participation in the discussion of texts. (Bauland)

Section 012: EMILY DICKINSON. This seminar will help us become better readers of Emily Dickinson, a poet of genius and one of the most influential and important figures in American literature. Our attention will center on the poems, and all who enroll should have gained some understanding of poetry through previous study. In order to appreciate the complexity of Dickinson's accomplishment, we'll read groups of poems from biographical, formalist, feminist, symbolist, archetypal, and historical-cultural perspectives. Using these methodologies, we'll consider Dickinson as a religious, philosophical, and dramatic poet. Sewall's engrossing biography will help us place the poems within the context of Dickinson's life and times, as well as her SELECTED LETTERS. We'll turn to Weisbuch's EMILY DIKINSON'S POETRY for illuminations archetypal personae; Miller's A POET'S GRAMMAR for analysis of formal methods; and to other texts for explorations of symbology, psychology, and gender. Getting to know Emily Dickinson is an intoxicating experience. Those who study her work often feel possessive, as if they alone understand her. Such enthusiasm leads to interesting writing and vigorous opinions. With that in mind, everyone will be asked to share short written exercises, give an oral report, and write a final paper. Regular attendance and participation in discussions are essential. (Fulton)

Section 013: ADMISSION BY OVER-RIDE ONLY. This cross-listed course is the methods course required of English concentrators who seek certification. Enrollment in Education 307 is concurrent. (Gere and Howes)

Section 015: ENGLISH VOYAGE NARRATIVES. More than mere adventure stories, accounts of sea travel in the 17th and 18th centuries present readers with an early global survey and an idea of England's place in the world. Depending on the credibility, detachment, and perspicacity of the narrator, English readers saw distant lands and seas as dangerous and hostile or inviting. Exploratory and commercial voyages of the period transport not only cargoes but English interests and customs. The narrators' portrayals of "natives" stand as models of cross-cultural interactions. The reading list for this course combines factual and fictional accounts (as indeed do many of the works). Major texts include GULLIVER'S TRAVELS, CAPTAIN SINGLETON, and COOK'S VOYAGES. (Artis)

423. The Writing of Fiction. Open to seniors and graduate students; written permission of the instructor is required. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

Section 001 ADVANCED FICTION. This is an advanced fiction workshop in the short story and novel for students who have experience writing fiction. You will be expected to write a minimum of 50 pages of fiction, attend class, read and critique others' writing, and attend readings by visiting writers. No exams or books, but you will incur some copying costs. Evaluation will take into account your meeting the above expectations. For admission, get on the waitlist at CRISP, and come to the first class with a sample of your fiction. Admission and overrides are granted only during the first week of the Fall Term. (Holinger)

427. Playwriting. Permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

English 427 is designed for the serious student of dramatic writing. Students are required to complete a minimum of one full-length play or two one-act plays by the end of the term. In addition, there will be a number of weekly assignments, designed to strengthen or enhance understanding of dramatic structure. This course is recommended only for those with experience and interest in writing for the stage. Those meeting the basic requirements must interview with Mr. Stitt to gain admittance. There will be a sign-up sheet posted in 2635 Haven Hall no later than April 6, 1987. Interviews will be held in September before the start of classes. Students should also put their names on the waitlist at CRISP. (Stitt)

430. The Rise of the Novel. (3). (HU).

The novel is at once innovative and traditional, and has been so from its beginning. We shall start by looking at some of the predecessors of the novel; it would be helpful for students to have some familiarity with the epic (ILIAD or ODYSSEY) and the romance (Dante's DIVINE COMEDY or Spenser's FAIRIE QUEENE). Such works form the idealistic foundation from which the novel often makes satiric departures, and there will not be time in the course to study them properly. In the course itself we will read both parts of Cervantes' DON QUIXOTE and works drawn from such early English authors of fiction as Defoe, Swift, Richardson, Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, Walpole, Goldsmith, Burney, and others. Students interested in women writers may make some special arrangement for the reading list in this course, as women were more than usually influential in the development of the novel. Writings will consist chiefly of brief shared notes on the reading, participation in a computer conference and a final examination. Class meetings will consist chiefly of discussion; all students are expected to be regular and active participants in class meetings. Students who cannot meet this expectation should not take this course. (Cloyd)

431. The English Novel from Dickens to Conrad. (3). (HU).

We will read eight major nineteenth century English novels in this course. That means, among other things, that students will have to do some serious reading during the long (i.e., summer) vacation. Our general theme as we study will be that of social criticism, which includes the function of the imagination in understanding the world we live in as well as a critical examination of the world. We will work with such things as techniques of narration and the craft of fiction as well as thematic issues, but we will not be concerned with the jargon of theoretical criticism. Our focus will be on literature and society, not on ourselves as readers. Daily scribbles, two papers, and a final exam. Class attendance and participation, serious thought, lots of reading, and good writing are required. Our novels are these:
Dickens, DAVID COPPERFIELD (1849-50; Penguin);
Trollope, BARCHESTER TOWERS (1857; Penguin);
Dickens, OUR MUTUAL FRIEND (1864-65; Penguin);
Eliot, MIDDLEMARCH (1871-72; Norton);
Hardy, THE MAYOR OF CASTERBRIDGE (1866; Penguin);
James, THE PRINCESS CASAMASSIMA (1866; Penguin);
Conrad, THE SECRET AGENT (1907; Anchor).

Please use the editions listed; books have been ordered through Shaman Drum Book Store, on State Street. We will study the novels in the order listed above. (Hornback)

432. The American Novel. (3). (HU).

Why do American writers express the subtlest philosophical issues through violent and melodramatic actions? Why do they create characters who aren't quite people, plots which interrupt themselves so often that they aren't quite stories, environments that are not the streets and houses we know, and endings that are not resolutions or answers so much as disturbing open questions? We will wrestle with these problems in an attempt to define what is unique about American fiction. At the same time, our primary focus will be on each work in terms of itself. The course will proceed ahistorically, by concerns rather than dates. This is a tentative listing of those concerns and the writers and works we will consider. Frontier as Metaphor: Hawthorne (Stories), Twain (HUCKLEBERRY FINN), James (DAISY MILLER), Barth (END OF THE ROAD). Thinking the Self into Being: Chopin (THE AWAKENING), Fitzgerald (THE GREAT GATSBY), Mailer (AN AMERICAN DREAM). Ontological Insecurity, or Anxiety and Power: Melville (BENITO CERENO and Moby-Dick), James (TURN OF THE SCREW), Faulkner (THE SOUND AND THE FURY). We will move forward and back in time to identify literary and experiential issues that have seemingly permanent status in American lives. The course will combine lectures and discussions. Two papers and a final examination will be required. (Weisbuch)

440. Modern Poetry. (3). (HU).

In this course we shall study the major poetry in English of the period 1900-1940. Our principal subject matter will be work by the most important poets Thomas Hardy, W.B. Yeats, T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, D.H. Lawrence, H.D., W.C. Williams, Marianne Moore, Robert Frost, Hart Crane, Wallace Stevens, W.H. Auden but we will also devote some time to special topics like Imagism, the poetry of The Great War, and the Harlem Renaissance, as well as to the social, historical, and literary backgrounds of modern poetry. The objective of the course is a clear understanding of the techniques and themes of modern poetry, which are especially significant because they continue to influence and inform the poetry of our own time. The format is lecture and discussion. Requirements include two papers, a take-home midterm, and a final examination. (Goldstein)

443/Theatre 321. History of Theatre I. (3). (HU).

See Theatre and Drama 321. (Ferran)

445. Shakespeare's Rivals. (3). (HU).

This course, which satisfies the requirement for a course in a subject before 1800, is a study of the chief dramatists of the English Renaissance. Among them will be such writers as Lyly, Greene, Marston, Dekker, Middleton, Jonson, Marlowe, Chapman, Webster, Tourneur and even an anonymous writer or two. Students will be expected to attend class regularly and contribute to the frequent class discussions. From time to time, I shall be presenting more or less formal lectures. Grades for the course will be based on each student's total effort in the class. Formal requirements will include at least one long essay and two briefer writing assignments, a midterm and a final examination, and participation in the work of the class. This work may include an end-of-term production of a selected play or of scenes drawn from a variety of plays. (Jensen)

447. Modern Drama. (3). (HU).

This course will consider the origins and development of modern drama with special attention to the problems of writing for a performing arts medium. Using the plays of Ibsen, Chekhov, Strindberg, Shaw, and Brecht, attention will be focused on the problems of enactment and staging, the uses of new theater space and technology, and the considerations of genre, style, and structure as they inform the dramatization of theme and idea. No previous experience as a reader of dramatic literature is necessarily required. Course assessment will be based on the writing of two term papers, a midterm, and a final examination. (Brater)

465/MARC 465. Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales. (3). (HU).

We will read most of the Canterbury Tales and some of Chaucer's other work. Class time will be largely devoted to discussion of these texts, which will of course be read in Chaucer's Middle English. There will be a final examination at the scheduled time. Undergraduates will do two or three shorter papers and graduate students will write one longer paper. The Canterbury Tales are, among other things, a dramatic anthology of various literary types. So, as an anthology, they point rather precisely out from Chaucer into late medieval literature, and as drama they point to the social life of 14th century England. It will be an important effort in the course to keep these two contexts actively in mind, while we keep the poem in central focus. (Lenaghan)

472. Twentieth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001 We will study the diversity of voices in American writing, not focus only on the classical canon. We will attempt to identify and understand themes and styles that tell us what unite us as a people and what divides us as a nation of diverse people with radically different economic, ethnic, racial, sexual, and education experiences. We will try to understand the uses and importance, if any, of literature in our country. We will test with each other our individual reactions to the reading, learning together to read and talk about our reading with increased sensitivity. Texts will include:
Cervantes' EMPLUMADA.
Walker's MERIDIAN.
Fitzgerald's GREAT GATSBY.
Gloria Naylor's LINDEN HILLS.

poetry by Rich and Denise Levertov. Kingston's WOMAN WARRIOR. Emphasis will be on discussion, both large and small group. The nature and timing of papers and exams will be decided together by teacher and the class. There will be opportunities for group and creative projects. (Alexander)

473. Topics in American Literature. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001. AMERICAN INDIAN LITERATURE. In Fall Term, 1988, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 498.001 (LeBeau)

Section 002. CHICANO LITERATURE. In Fall Term, 1988, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 498.002. (Zimmerman).

483. Great Works of Literature. (1). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

DAVID COPPERFIELD is one of the great books in this world. It is David's narration of his life: his recollection of his "personal history and adventures," his critical examination of his "experience and observations." Like Dante in the DIVINE COMEDY or Wordsworth in the PRELUDE, David examines both his world and himself through his imagination. The class will meet for one hour every week throughout the term. Regular attendance is expected for those who want to receive credit for the course. You will need to have finished reading the novel for the first time by the date of the second class meeting. Weekly scribbles and a final essay. (Hornback)

484. Issues in Criticism. (3). (HU).

This will be an introductory survey to the major developments in literary theory over the past two hundred years, with particular emphasis on the revolutionary innovations of the past two decades. Major areas to be covered include Romanticism, Modernism, New Criticism, Structuralism and Post-Structuralism Marxism and Feminism. Rather than just assimilating these various methodologies, however, we will continually apply theory to a set of basic questions about literature: What is a literary text? Who or what is an author? What is the difference between literature and propaganda? What are the differences between male and female writers/readers? Should the literary canon be revised or rejected? Expect to be challenged: Everything you have been taught is called into question by theory. There will be four short papers, a midterm and a final exam. Most of the reading will be assembled in a course pack. Junior English Honor students are discouraged from enrolling because of overlapping material. (Kulich)

489/Educ. D 440 (School of Education). Teaching of English. See School of Education Bulletin. (3). (HU).

ADMISSION BY OVER-RIDE ONLY. This cross-listed course is the methods course required of English concentrators who seek certification. Enrollment in Education 307 is concurrent. (Howes and Gere)

493. Honors Survey: Nineteenth Century English Poetry. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This course will study romanticism and its consequences through three generations of poets: first Blake, Wordsworth, and Coleridge; then Keats, Shelley, and Byron; and finally, Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Tennyson, and Arnold. Discussion and informal lecture will raise issues like the function of imagination, the role of the poet in society, the nature of literary "influence," and the tension between poetic form and visionary or emotional content. This course is part of the Departmental Honors sequence and normally open only to those enrolled in that program. Written work will consist mainly of a short paper or midterm, a longer paper, and a final exam. (Bornstein)

494. Honors Survey: Nineteenth Century English Fiction. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine a number of major novels in nineteenth-century England in order to understand some important developments in the history of fiction as well as the specific accomplishments of the individual authors. The class will also explore the novels in relation to important social, cultural, and intellectual issues of the period, while relating them to significant recent developments in cultural theory and narratology. The class will read:
William Thackery's VANITY FAIR,
George Eliot's MIDDLEMARCH,
George Meredith's THE EGOIST,
and Henry James' PORTRAIT OF A LADY.

Students will write two eight-page papers, and take a midterm and final examination. (Konigsberg)

496. Honors Survey: Thesis and Comprehensive Examination. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001 This course is restricted to students in the English Department's Honors Program and Alternate Honors Program. English 496 is used for the comination of thesis and comprehensive exam in Honors and for the thesis in Alternate Honors. (Garbaty)

SECTION 002 This course is to be elected by students writing a thesis in The Alternate Honors Program this term. (McNamara)

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