Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

The theme of this survey of the thought of the Renaissance and Reformation period will be "Humanism and religion." It will deal with such questions as divine and human justice, biblical interpretation, the place of non-revealed knowledge, and sin and forgiveness. We shall read major figures of the period 1300-1600, including Petrarch, Valla, Erasmus, Luther, Calvin, and Montaigne, as well as selected secondary works. Students will write four essays (three 4-6 pp., and 8-12 pp.) based on those readings. There may be occasional quizzes, but no midterm examination. Students who have not handed in all the essays, including the final essay, by the due date will take a final examination, those who meet the deadline will not. The course meets two hours a week, primarily for discussion of the readings. Students are expected to come to every class meeting and they will be graded on participation in discussion as well as on the essays (and quizzes and exams). (Tentler)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course is designed as a general introduction to modern European history since 1700 for those without previous college-level work in history. It is designed to meet the needs both of those looking for a general survey course to broaden their education and of those thinking of concentrating in history. While History 110 provides an excellent background for History 111, it is not a required prerequisite. Some of the themes emphasized in History 111 are: the breakdown of traditional monarchial, aristocratic, and church domination in the age of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; the intensification of nationalism and the reunification of Germany and Italy; the industrial revolution and the changing quality of European life (urbanization) and politics (the emergence of socialist and working-class parties); the middle-class domination of politics and its disintegration; the impact on popular thought of the new scientific advances of the nineteenth century; the expansion of the rival European powers overseas in the age of imperialism; the intensification of international rivalries and the First World War; the Russian Revolution and the emergence of the Communist challenge; the rise and fall of Fascism; the place of Europe in the post-imperialist world. The course is conducted in lectures and discussions, with readings in both textbooks and contemporary writings. One or two short papers are usually required. (Price)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

History 121 is an introduction to the civilization of China, Japan and Korea. The course is designed to provide an overview of changing traditions from ancient until modern times by focusing on broad trends which shaped the history of this vast and varied region. The course aims to provide a basis in comprehension from which to examine more specific problems in the history of East Asia at a later time. The approach is mostly historical but perspectives from other disciplines such as art history, anthropology, literature and religious studies are also incorporated. Readings of contemporary accounts and viewing of films and slides are important elements of this course, meant to promote intimate appreciation of these cultures. There is no prerequisite for enrollment. Requirements include midterm and final examination. (Tonomura)

151/Asian Studies 111. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

This is an introduction to the civilization of the Indian sub-continent, from its origins about 3000 B.C. to the present, where it comprises over a fifth of the world's people and its oldest living civilized tradition, its largest political democracy, and a major component of the Third World. The course progresses from origins and the Indus culture through the Aryans, Hinduism, casts, and classical India to the succession of empires from the Mauryas to the Mughals and the British, colonialism, independence, and partition. We then consider current problems and changes topically, regionalism and language, agriculture and rural development, population, urbanization, industrialism, and the rise of separate nation-states (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka). Lectures and varied readings (via Course Pack) are designed to stimulate class discussion, and there will be some use of slides and films. Art, literature, and religion will also be discussed. There will be a midterm, and a final exam. There are no prerequisites and no previous knowledge is assumed. (Murphey)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The purpose of the course is to illuminate a few major episodes and issues in American history, 1607-1865. Among these are the nature of Puritanism, the texture of colonial society, the causes of the Revolution, the party division of the 1790's, the nature of Jacksonian society, and the causes of the Civil War. There is no textbook assigned, the reading instead being in separate books each week. These books include works by major historians, collections of contemporary writings, a contemporary analytical work (Tocqueville's DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA), and a novel (UNCLE TOM'S CABIN). The major theme of the lectures is an assessment of one pervasive idea, "The growth and development of American individualism" although there will be excursions into some areas developed in the reading. There will be two hour examinations and a final. One or more of these will be the take-home variety. The principal purpose of the section meetings will be to develop issues arising from the reading. (Livermore)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

This course surveys the history of the U.S. since the end of the Civil War. It aims to familiarize students with what most historians now believe about the basic episodes in modern American history, including Reconstruction, Immigration, the Organization of Labor, the Darwinian Controversy, Populism, Imperialism, Progressivism, the Consolidation of the Capitalist Political Economy, the New Deal, World War II, the Atomic Bomb, the Origins of the Cold War, McCarthyism, and the Vietnam War. Format: Lecture, with sections taught by TA's (except for Honors section, taught by lecturer). Evaluation: midterm (20%), exercises in section (40%), final exam (40%). Assigned readings may include:
Twain, ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN;
Livesay, ANDREW CARNEGIE;
Lippman, DRIFT AND MASTERY;
Williamson, RAGE FOR ORDER; BLACK-WHITE RELATIONS IN THE SOUTH
SINCE EMANCIPATION;
Brinkley, VOICES OF PROTEST: HUEY LONG, FATHER COUGHLIN AND THE
GREAT DEPRESSION;
Fitzgerald, THE GREAT GATSBY;
Sherwin, A WORLD DESTROYED: THE ATOMIC BOMB AND THE GRAND ALLIANCE and;
Herring; THE LONGEST WAR: THE UNITED STATES AND VIETNAM, 1950-1975. (Hollinger)

197. Freshman Seminar. (4). (SS).

This seminar is concerned with the social history of the United States in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be upon examining the life, work, living conditions, and problems confronted by working people and families who lived during these years. Other social groups and other time periods will also be considered for comparative purposes and to better identify patterns of change. An opportunity will be provided to gain familiarity with methods of historical research and to work with unusual original source materials bearing upon the conditions of working people and other groups. These include a unique collection of computerized source material concerned with the living conditions of industrial workers and their families during the Guilded Age. Secondary studies will also be employed. Through these materials the seminar will provide a glimpse of the way people actually lived at the time. Instruction will be conducted through class discussions and "laboratory" work. Student evaluations will be based primarily upon a combination of brief examinations and papers. No special background or preparation is required. (Clubb)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Near East and Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. There are two hour examinations (an optional paper may be written for extra credit) plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading. (S. Humphreys)

210/MARC 210. Early Middle Ages, 300-1100. (4). (SS).

This course will survey the formation of Western European society from late antiquity to the twelfth century. It is intended as a broad introduction to the period and will trace demographic and economic decline and growth, changing social forms (tribalism, kinship, feudal ties, etc.) and the development of political and religious institutions. Considerable attention will be paid to early medieval culture, including popular religious life (saints, relics, and pilgrimage), literary and artistic expression, and political and social thought. Readings are drawn from both medieval sources and their modern interpreters. Lectures will be supplemented with class discussion of particular historical problems and texts. Evaluation will be based on a paper and the midterm and final examinations. (Hughes)

212/MARC 212. The Renaissance. (4). (HU).

This course will begin with a discussion of social and political life in communal Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. The rise of cities, the formation of city-states, establishment of communal governments, and the emergence of commerce and banking will be treated. Consideration will be given to literary and artistic developments in the age of Dante and Giotto. Education and the spread of literacy in cities will be examined. Next, the rise of humanism will be investigated and the writings of Boccaccio, Petrarch, and Salutati analyzed. Civic humanism, with its concern for the organization of state and society will be investigated in political writings from Bruni to Machiavelli. The theme of the "diginity of men" will be explicated in literature and the fine arts. Social changes of the 15th century and their impact on cultural and political life will be discussed. The effects of the crisis of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when Italy was subject to foreign invasions, will be dealt with. The course will then conclude with an examination of the effects of the Protestant and Catholic reformations on Italian social life and thought in the 16th century. (Becker)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (SS).

This course examines the wars that were fought in and around Vietnam from 1945 to 1975, with chief emphasis on the period of heavy American involvement starting in the mid-1950's. The course seeks to asses the origins, strategy, and impact of the U.S. intervention, and to relate that involvement both to U.S. domestic politics and to wider global concerns. At the same time the course will examine the development of Vietnamese society in the twentieth century, so as to explain the motivation and domestic appeal of the Vietnamese Communists. In short, the Vietnam War will be analyzed both as the longest and most controversial foreign war in American history, and as the climax to an Asian social revolution that began during the colonial period. Three lectures and one discussion section per week. Midterm, final exam, and optional term paper. (Lieberman)

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (4). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of early Chinese history, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, and lectures on literature and society in premodern China and Classical Opera (historical significance, intellectual and social themes and roles, and demonstrations). (Chang)

283. Survey of the History of Science. (4). (HU).

Mention of the history of science usually brings to mind the names of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and the like. These are the persons who are thought to have been responsible for the rise of modern science. But there is more to the history of science than great names. Present society not only has had its ideas but also its social institutions, its culture, its economic foundation, and its values shaped by the growing wave of scientism that began in antiquity and has crested in the twentieth century. In this course we will survey the history of science, looking at all the factors involved in the shaping of modern society, and with the ultimate objective of understanding our origins. The course is introductory. No background is expected, although some familiarity with Western Civilization would be helpful. (Steneck)

286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (4). (HU).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all majors, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantine's conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic & Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the 11th century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Considerable attention is given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam and a final are required. (J. Fine)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

306(406)/GNE 362/Rel. 358. History of Ancient Israel I: From Abraham to the Babylonian Exile. (3). (HU).

See General Near Eastern Studies 362. (Machinist)

316. History of Eighteenth-Century Europe. (4). (SS).

The course is designed both to cover the period and area, and to introduce problems of comparison of states' developments. The varying interactions with society of five or six states (at least France, England, Prussia, Russia, Poland) will be studied through lectures and reading. In particular, the aim is to understand why, in what has been called the age of the democratic revolution, that revolution took root in France rather than elsewhere. Students will read first in general works treating the eighteenth century, and then in more detail in the histories of France and two other countries that they will choose for purposes of making comparisons. There will be an hour exam, an essay of eight to ten pages, and a final examination. (Bien)

318. Imperialism and After: Europe 1890-1945. (4). (SS).

This course examines social, cultural and political responses to the disruptive forces of industrial development, war, revolution and depression experienced from 1890 to 1945 in both western and eastern European societies. At the heart of the course lie such questions as: Who holds the political power and on what basis have they acquired this power? How does the political system structure the decision-making process? Who is excluded from that process, in both its formal and informal incarnations? What is the balance of forces pressuring to change the system and who is struggling to preserve it? These questions will shape our approach to the distinctive issues of twentieth century European politics, including: the political mobilization of economically and socially disadvantaged groups (industrial workers, women, peasants, disgruntled strata of the middle classes), imperialism and the rise of European nationalist movements, the impact of two World Wars on state and society, and the emergence of fascism from the crises of liberalism and capitalism. A core text and additional readings required; other course requirements will include an hour exam (in class), a brief (5-page) review essay and a final exam. (Downs)

332/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/REES 395/Slavic 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395.

370/Women's Studies 370. Women in American History to 1870. (4). (SS).

This course is an introduction to the history of American women as a group, as individuals, and as members of different classes, races, religions, and ethnic communities. Using "work" as an organizing concept, it focuses particularly on the significance of gender in determining women's experience from the colonial period to 1870. (Karlsen)

386. The Holocaust. (4). (SS).

This lecture course will attempt to answer some of the most vexing historical problems surrounding the Nazi regime's systematic extermination of six million Jews during World War II. For example: What role did Christian hostility to Judaism play in the growth of genocidal racism in Germany? How did German political traditions prepare the way for Nazi authoritarianism? Why did the German people acquiesce in the Nazi program of mass murder? Why did the American and British governments refuse to come to the aid of European Jews? How did the European Jews behave in crisis and extremity? Was the Holocaust "unique"? There will be a midterm, a paper of 10-15 pages, and a comprehensive final. (Endelman)

389. War Since the Eighteenth Century. (4). (SS).

The course deals with the experience of war, mainly in Western societies (Europe and North America), from the appearance of permanent military forces in the 18th century to the present time. It emphasizes certain themes or problems: the relationship of armed forces to the societies they are supposed to defend; the effects of change political, social, economic, and technological - on warfare and military policy; the problem of using armed force purposefully, together with the related problem of the unexpected and unintended effects of warfare; and the relationship between military theory and military practice. The approach is comparative, stressing the commonalities of Western military experience during the last three centuries, and also identifying the differences that make the American military experience in certain respects peculiar. The course is not a history of military operations as such, but uses selected military operations in an illustrative way. There is a midterm examination, a critical book review essay, and a two-hour final examination. Required texts:
Michael Howard, WAR IN EUROPEAN HISTORY;
John Keegan, FACE OF BATTLE;
Peter Paret (ed.), MAKERS OF MODERN STRATEGY;
A.J.P. Taylor, HISTORY OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR;
Russell Weigley, THE AMERICAN WAY OF WAR. (J. Shy)

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

SECTION 001 MYTHS AND MODELS IN AMERICAN HISTORY. This colloquium examines the close connections among myths, models, morals, methodologies, and metahistories in the production of historical knowledge and understanding, It postulates that history-as-actual-past and history-as-written-text interpenetrate in such important essentials that history, historiography, and philosophy of history are often the same thing. The medium of the course will be United States history by way of example. Recent, well-received books in the field that exemplify clear models, morals, etc. in-and of-American history will be the subject of the weekly discussions and brief papers:
Lockridge, A NEW ENGLAND TOWN;
Boyer and Nissenbaum, SALEM POSSESSED;
Trachtenberg, INCORPORATION OF AMERICA;
Smith, VIRGIN LAND; and others.

The student will learn to read American histories in a new, more complex and active way and understand better the multiple perspectives and epistemologies fused in the narrative synthesis of the United States past. (Berkhofer)

SECTION 002 POLITICS, POWER AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN AMERICA, 1820-1920. What historical forces have helped shape the public sector in contemporary America? This course attempts to answer this question by combining the theoretical and empirical work of historians, political scientists, and sociologists to analyze the development of the public sector at local, state, and national levels in pre-New Deal America. The course will be conducted as a colloquium and, therefore, will be organized around weekly meetings to discuss assigned readings which will include both theoretical works and historical case studies. Among the former will be pluralist and neo-Marxist theories of power and the state, and collective choice theories and models of political mobilization. Historical case studies will focus on the relationships among socio-economic change, political action, and demands for the expansion of the public sector at critical moments in the nation's history. Of particular interest in the case studies will be the question of from where demands for the expansion of the public sector originated. Students will write and revise three papers of increasing length throughout the year. (McDonald)

Section 003 THE END OF THE ANCIENT WORLD. This undergraduate seminar will investigate the transformation of the Roman empire from the third century A.D. Emphasis will be on analyzing such important processes as the rise of Christianity, the establishment of barbarian kingdoms in the West, and the impact of the foundation of Constantinople in the East., and on reading and discussing the interpretations of such important modern historians as Edward Gibbon and Henri Pirenne. Classes will be discussions based on the readings, which will include original sources in translation. Final grade will be based on participation in class discussions and three papers. No prerequisites, although some familiarity with history of Roman empire would be helpful. (Van Dam)

SECTION 004 THE PRESIDENCY IN THE 1970's: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES OF THE FORD ADMINISTRATION. For this upper division writing and research seminar, students will focus on the history of the 1970's and specifically upon Gerald R. Ford and his presidential administration. The seminar will meet as a class for lecture/discussion during the first weeks of the term at the Gerald R. Ford Library on North Campus. Students will than meet individually with the instructor and staff of the Ford Library as they research and write a report on selected topics utilizing the document resources of the Ford Library. Students should have a survey knowledge of recent American history. Evaluation will be based on discussion, oral presentations to the class, written reports on assigned readings, and a research paper, with the emphasis being on the latter. Objectives of the course are: (1) Provide an overview of the office of the president and presidential decision-making; (2) Examine the White House and how it functions in the creation of the Documentary record; (3) Provide a summery review of the presidency of Gerald R. Ford; and (4) Learn how to conduct research and write a seminar paper. Research topics will focus on economics, energy and environment, social issues, and political campaigns of the 1970's. (Daellenbach)

Section 005 TWO CULTURES OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY IRELAND. The history of Ireland in the eighteenth century (1691-1800) is a history of two peoples, the dominant Anglo-Irish minority and the Catholic Gaelic majority. Each of these two peoples has a culture quite distinct from the other, with differences of language, literature, social life. This course attempts to reflect upon this prime fact of the Ireland of the period and to trace out the consequences of this fact in historiography and historical knowledge. Readings in several texts will be assigned, to enable communal discourse; additional readings will be individually directed toward a term project. There will be weekly short papers, in addition to the term paper just indicated; there will be a final examination. The manner of the course will follow from its being a colloquium electable by concentrators in History. (McNamara)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

SECTION 001 SOLDIERS, DIPLOMATS, MERCHANTS, AND MISSIONARIES: THE AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT IN MODERN JAPAN. This course concerns one aspect of the encounter between the United States and Japan. It deals with Americans who went or were invited to Japan and who played a part in changes experienced by the Japanese in the last 150 years. It focuses on individual Americans from different walks of life government representatives, military figures, businessmen, government advisers, travelers, missionaries, teachers and explores their motives for going to Japan, their activities, and the consequences of their activities as a way of examining the broader involvement of Americans of modern Japan. These aims will be pursued in three ways: discussions of assigned readings (available in a course pack), oral presentations of biographical accounts of two designated Americans involved in Japan, the submission of written biographical sketches of these same individuals, and the results of one quiz based on the readings. (Hackett)

Section 003 CHRISTIAN MISSIONS IN CHINA. The course will treat 1) the efforts of the missionaries from the 16th century to the middle of the 20th century to evangelize China and 2) the various ways Chinese accommodated, transformed, absorbed or rejected these efforts. The focus will be on the interaction of Christianity with Chinese culture and religion, and on the complexities introduced from the mid-19th century by the conjuncture of Christian evangelism and Western powers in China. Some previous instruction in Chinese history is desirable. Classes will consist of weekly discussions of assigned reading. Each student will be required to write two short papers and one extended research paper. Evaluation will be based on these papers and participation in the discussions. (Young)

SECTION 005 The theme of this survey of the thought of the Renaissance and Reformation period will be "humanism and religion." It will deal with such questions as divine and human justice, biblical interpretation, the place of non-revealed knowledge, and sin and forgiveness. We shall read major figures of the period 1300-1600, including Patrarch, Valla, Erasmus, Luther, Calvin, and Montaigne, as well as selected secondary works. Students will write four essays (three 4-6 pp., and one 8-12 pp.) based on those readings. There may be occasional quizzes, but no midterm examination. Students who have not handed in all the essays, including the final essay, by the due date will take a final examination; those who meet the deadline will not. The course meets two hours a week, primarily for discussion of the readings. Students are expected to come to every class meeting and they will be graded on participation in discussions as well as on the essays (and quizzes and exams). (Tentler)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. (Karlsen)

402. Problems in Roman History I. (4). (HU).

A survey of the Roman Republic, from the foundation of Rome in 753 B.C. to the establishment of the Principate by the emperor Augustus. Topics to be discussed include: Etruscan; assimilation of Italy; overseas expansion; social problems in Italy; the breakup of Republican institutions; and the rise of Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Augustus. Classes will include lectures and discussions of the assigned readings. Readings will include translations of original sources, and books about Roman imperialism, social conflicts, and other issues. Final grade will be based on participation in class discussions and either two tests and a paper or three tests. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. (Van Dam)

416. Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (4). (HU).

This is a lecture course which discusses and attempts to account for changes in the configuration of European thought from the advent of Romanticism (1750) to the "anti-positivist revolt" in the 1870's. This course considers the content of the determinative ideas in culture and society, and an attempt is made to provide an explanation for the process of ideological change. There is heavy emphasis on the transition from the enlightenment to romanticism and the emergence of realism and naturalism. Roland N. Stromberg's EUROPEAN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY SINCE 1789 (third ed.) will serve as the text. The student will be expected to read Ernst Cassirer's THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT, M.H. Abrams' NATURAL SUPERNATURALISM, Hegel's PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY, J.S. Mill's ON LIBERTY, Marx-Engels' THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO and J. Barzun, DARWIN, MARX AND WAGNER. There will be regular class discussions of these texts and participation will constitute 1/4 of the grade. There will be a midterm examination and a final examination. There will be no term paper. (Tonsor)

430. Byzantine Empire, 284-867. (4). (HU).

A lecture course which provides a survey of the history of the later Roman Empire from the reforms of Diocletian that paved the way out of the crisis of the third century, through Constantine's move east and conversion to Christianity (entering Byzantine period), Justinian, Heraclius on through the Amorion Dynasty which came to a close with the murder of Michael the Sot in 867. The course will stress political history, giving considerable attention as well to religious history (conversion to Christianity, the great theological disputes over the relationship between God the Father and Jesus Christ as well as the relationships between the human and divine natures in Christ culminating in the Church councils of Nicea and Chalcedon, the rise of monasticism and Iconoclasm), administrative reforms (Diocletian's and Constantine's reforms, the reforms of the seventh century culminating in the Theme system), demographic changes and foreign relations (Goths, the Slavic and Bulgar invasions, relations with the Bulgars, relations with the Persians and Arabs in the East and later with the Franks and Charlemagne). No background is assumed: all that is sought is student interest. Freshmen and sophomores are welcome, and in past years freshmen have taken and done very well in the course. The textbook for the course is Ostrgorsky's HISTORY OF THE BYZANTINE STATE take into consideration special interests, and a special reading list has been drawn up for those interested in Church History. Requirements: A midterm written hour exam One 12-15 page paper (which can be used to replace the hour exam if the student chooses and takes on a more major project) and a final examination. Paper topics are tailored to individual interests. (J. Fine)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (SS).

Beginning with the reign of Peter the Great (1682-1725), the Russian Empire embarked on a long and difficult process of economic and social development within the framework of tsarist autocracy. A multinational empire dominated by the Russian landed gentry, who lived off the labor of enserfed peasants, Russia in the 18th and 19th centuries steadily lagged behind the more rapidly evolving Western European states. The autocracy itself tried to bridge the growing gap between Russia and the West through reforms, even as its own creature, the bureaucracy, isolated the ruling elite from much of Russian society. A reformist and later revolutionary opposition to the monarchy and its social order worked relentlessly to bring down the Romanov state. By the early 20th century tsarism proved to be unable to resist any longer the social forces it had done so much to create. (Suny)

442/GNE 442. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Team taught by Professors Luther (NES) and Lindner (History), this is the first course in a two-course introductory sequence (442 and 443) that covers Near Eastern history from the era of Muhammad to the present. Our purpose is to introduce you to (and give you some practice in) the methods of studying the Near East as well as to some of the content of Near Eastern history; we expect no previous background in the field. This course begins with the background and rise of Islam and ends in the heyday of the Ottoman Turkish and Safavid Persian empires, circa 1600. Although the basic organization of the course is chronological, we will discuss topics in such areas as politics and governance, religion (formal and "folk," including theology and mysticism), law, foreign relations and war, art and architecture, literature, economics, and social life. The classes will include lectures by (and probably discussions between) the instructors, and there will also be weekly class discussion of the assigned readings. In addition to the final examination, students will be expected to prepare two three-page exercises based on the readings, which will consist of modern scholarly works and translated medieval sources. (Luther and Lindner)

451. Japan Since 1800. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is Arikiso Hane, MODERN JAPAN: A HISTORICAL SURVEY, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1986). Other reading assignments will be organized in a course pack. (Hackett)

454. The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A.D. (4). (HU).

India is among the world's oldest and most long lived civilizations. In this course we will examine its evolution, from the ancient civilization of the Indus Valley (c. 2300-1700 B.C.) to the beginnings of the classical period. Topics will include the arrival of Indo-European languages, the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism, the formation of the Mauryan empire, relations of India with Greeks and Central Asian nomads, and the structure of family life and the caste system. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of the participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautmann)

460. American Colonial History to 1776. (4). (SS).

A different course every term it is taught, in general "Colonial America" focuses on the people of the time, often encountered speaking in their own voices, and on their broad cultural characteristics and problems as the nation moved toward the Revolution. One paper and an exam are the usual assignments, but quizzes are possible. Standards are high, and it is not unusual to find that students are asked to re-write papers which are not clear (with a 2/3 grade penalty). So, lucid, precise, well-organized writing skills and the use of evidence is, if not a prerequisite, something we hope to achieve. (Lockridge)

462. The United States in the Early National Period, 1789-1830. (4). (SS).

This course is an intensive examination of the major political currents in the period 1789-1830. Examples of these topics are the formation of a national government under the Constitution, the gradual and increasingly bitter party division during the 1790's, the foreign policy issues leading to the War of 1812 and the uneasy experiment with one-party politics after the War. The reading consists of major monographs on these topics. There is no text. The one midterm examination will be a "take-home" and for the final examination there will be a choice between the "take-home" and standard two-hour forms. (Livermore)

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

474/Social Work 517. History of Aging. (4). (SS).

This course is designed for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students interested in a broad overview of the history of age and aging. It will trace the continuities and changes in the meanings and experience of growing old(er) in the United States from the colonial era to the present. Attention will be paid to the significance of gender, race, ethnicity and class on the life course. Special efforts will be made to synthesize the data and themes of social and political history in order to assess the evolving impact of social-welfare programs established in both the public and private sectors on people at different ages. (Achenbaum)

490. The Left in Europe, 1917-Present. (4). (SS).

The aim of the course is to explore the development of the Left as a distinct political tradition in the period after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the present day, in context of national political cultures. The main focus of discussion will be the development of communist parties and the international communist movement, together with the changing relationship between communist and social democratic parties. Close attention will be paid to the theoretical contents of these traditions, to the changing sociology of the Left, to the problem of trade unionism, and to the general relationship between socio-economic conditions and radical politics. The course will be organized in relation to a succession of critical periods: the First World War, the revolutionary years of 1917-23, the rise of fascism, the Second World War, and the contemporary situation. It will end with a discussion of current options. Readings will be drawn from a range of literature rather than a single text. (Eley)

513. Great Britain From 1832. Hist. 111 or 221; or permission of instructor. (4). (SS).

A survey of British history from the 1830's to the 1950's emphasizing the character of 19th century middle class liberalism, the rise of socialism and the trade union movement, the problems and limitations of great power status and the decline of Britain's power position since 1918. Attention is also given to the Irish question and to religious divisions within Britain. The course is given in lectures and involves about 100 pages of reading (text, articles, documents) per week. History 111 or 221 is recommended as background. There will be a final, two hour exams (the second optional in some cases) and an optional term paper. (Price)

528. Modern Italy, 1815 to the Present. (4). (SS).

Italy has adapted to the modern world in a way that gives it a special appeal to almost everyone who encounters Italian society and culture. This course explores that adaptation and that appeal. The great art, beautiful scenery, exciting cities, attractive life style, and good food that tourists admire are rooted in a past that remain vibrant in the present. The economic development that today makes Italy one of the world's wealthiest countries follow upon a history of late industrialization and a long period of relative poverty. Italy's stable democracy, which includes short-lived governments and the largest Communist party in any nation with free elections, has evolved in the nation that invented fascism and only achieved political unity in the nineteenth century. Through lectures and discussions this course will study Italian history from the impact of the French revolution to the present day, including the movement for the national unification (the Risorgimento), the social and political system that followed, the origins and nature of Italian Fascism, and the shape of contemporary society. It will give particular attention to regional differences, popular and formal culture, foreign influences and foreign views of Italy and Italy's significance for understanding modern society. In addition to one hour examination and a final, each student will choose a special project for oral presentation or a term paper. (Grew)

536(440)/GNE 570. The Formation of Islamic Civilization, A.D. 500-945. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 570.

542. Modern Iran and the Gulf States. (4). (SS).

This course will cover the history of modern Iran from the late 18th century to the present, with some attention also to developments in Kuwait, Bahrain and other Gulf states. Topics include attempts at military and bureaucratic reform on the part of Iran's government in order to confront the challenge of the West, economic history, political protest, religious and cultural change, the uneven development of the Pahlavi period of 20th century Iran, and the Islamic Revolution and its aftermath. The impact of oil on the region in the post-war period will be assessed. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a midterm exam, a paper, and a final. Texts to be used are:
Abrahamian, IRAN BETWEEN TWO REVOLUTIONS,
Bonnie and Keddie, ISLAMIC RESPONSE TO IMPERIALISM,
Shariati, MAN AND ISLAM, and
Southgate, MODERN PERSIAN SHORT STORIES.

That is original texts of interest, recent synthetic histories, and topical articles will be used. This is a lecture course. (Cole)

551. Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (4). (HU).

In this course, we shall seek the origins of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, which was so powerfully rooted in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely for antecedents and shall hear testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, bandits and warlords, cultural iconoclasm and conservative reaction, nationalism and women's liberation, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Mao's social vision and the People's Republic as a model of development.

Some familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful. Those entering the course without background should be ready to do some catch-up work. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write three short papers and take a final exam. (Young)

558. U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (4). (SS).

An examination of American foreign policy to 1914, with special emphasis on the formative years (1775-1823) and America's entry into world politics (1898-1914). Hour exam, term paper, final. (Perkins)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (SS).

A study of the origins and development of and growth of business. The course traces the beginnings of business enterprise in Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the antitrust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920's, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, postwar business developments and the current business trends. (Filgas)

582. History of Criminal Law in England and America. (4). (SS).

This course traces the history of the criminal law in England and America from the medieval period to modern times. It deals with political and social theories regarding the institutions and ideas of the criminal law and with the relationship between society and legal norms. Among the subjects included in the scheme of the course are: the history of the criminal trial jury, its relationship to other institutions of the criminal law and its role with respect to the interaction of social attitudes and the formal processes of the criminal law; the use of the criminal law for counteracting disintegration of basic social institutions; political trials; theories of punishment; the development in the United States of constitutionally protected rights of defendants in criminal cases. This course is intended for students interested in Anglo-American history, for those interested in government and law, for those interested in the history of the relationship between social institutions and theories of criminal sanctions and for those interested in the origins and development of the central ideas and institutions of American constitutional and legal history. Course requirements: one short paper based on documents, a midterm and a final examination. (Green)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (SS). May be elected for credit twice.

This course examines the history of the area known as Burma from the earliest times to the present. It seeks to chronicle the origins of Burmese culture and to identify elements of continuity and innovation during the long monarchical period, the era of British colonial rule, and the current era of independence. The course will analyze not only political, but also religious, economic, and social aspects of Burmese civilization which is at the same time one of the most intriguing and little known in Asia. No formal prerequisites. Weekly seminar. Grade will be based on class presentations and on a research paper. (Lieberman)

594. Coinage and History. Juniors, seniors and graduates. (3). (Excl).

This course will provide you with an introduction to the many ways coins can help in the study of history, economics, archaeology, the study of the Mediterranean world in the classical and medieval (Christian and Muslim) eras, and art history. Using the collections of the Kelsey Museum, we will meet each week to examine the methods of numismatic analysis (frequency tables, iconography, non-destructive content analysis, die studies) and to apply them to specific questions that you might wish to answer in your own special field of study. Each student will be expected to prepare a report on a research topic chosen in consultation with me. The class will meet as a seminar; and although there will be some lecturing, I expect that much of the work will be done through seminar discussion and actual work with the coins. The University of Michigan has long been a major center for numismatic research into the ancient and medieval eras, and this course is an attempt to bring to undergraduates some of the value of that work. (Lindner)


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