Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 190 or 192. Psychology 190 is offered as a natural science course and stresses experimental psychology. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This is a course in cognitive psychology intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles, motivation, anxiety; learning in groups; and self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 190 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about biological and cognitive areas of psychology. It does NOT emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It DOES cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week. Sections are taught by graduate teaching fellows who have responsibility for their own sections.

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, emotion, personality, and others. Each section differs somewhat in content, instructional methods, and evaluation. Students originally register for a Time Slot ONLY (sections 001-009). Students should check the Final Edition of the TIME SCHEDULE for day/time/place of the MANDATORY meeting for their time slot section (001-009). At this meeting, instructors will explain their approaches to the course material and their methods of evaluation. The students will then "apply" to get into the section they most prefer by making four choices and submitting the proper form to their first choice instructor. Section requests will be fulfilled whenever possible. STUDENTS SHOULD READ ALL NOTATIONS IN THE TIME SCHEDULE REGARDING PSYCH 171. If a student is unable to attend either the first meeting of his/her registered section (001-009) or the Wait List meeting, he or she MUST CALL THE OFFICE (764-9179 or 764-9279) PRIOR TO THE MEETING TO RETAIN THEIR SPACE IN THE COURSE OR ON THE WAIT LIST. Wait List (section 099) students MUST attend the Wait List Meeting listed in the Time Schedule to be placed in an open section.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170 or 171 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 190 or 192. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one-term survey which integrates material from Psychology 170 and 171. The course serves as a basic preparation for most advanced level courses in psychology. The aim of the course is to acquaint students with the major approaches psychologists use to understand people and the aspects of human thought, feeling, and action that psychologists have studied. Lectures and readings first present the major ways of thinking about psychological issues (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and biological) and then address the nature of thought, emotion, development from infancy through death, and interactions of individuals with family, social, and cultural forces. Discussion sections offer students the opportunity to discuss and critically examine what they are learning, to analyze case studies, and to participate in more experiential forms of learning. Students must keep Wednesday evenings open for course-wide examinations and occasional films from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. The final course grade is based on two course-wide examinations and additional work (group presentations, research papers, etc.) assigned in section. (Westen)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 172, or 190. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

SECTION 001 and 004 This course is intended to provide an in-depth overview of psychology, with an emphasis on the links between psychological research and the "great ideas" or "great questions" addressed by thinkers over the ages who have applied prodigious minds and sensibilities to psychological subjects. Among the questions we will consider are the following: (1) How do we know what we know? (2) To what extent is human personality and action influenced by nature vs. nurture? (3) How is individual behavior affected by group membership? A variety of class formats will be used, including lecture, discussion, films, and class demonstrations. In addition to a textbook, students will read a second book and a course pack consisting of readings (essays, journal articles, short stories, autobiographical accounts, etc.) corresponding to the topics presented in the textbook. Other course requirements include frequent quizzes, frequent short papers (five-six pages), and a comprehensive final examination. (Landman)

Section 002. This course provides an even-handed treatment of the subject matter of psychology (Freud's psychoanalytic theory, social interaction, child development, learning, thinking, perceiving, statistical reasoning, nervous system and behavior). The emphasis is on the scientific aspects of psychology: What do we know, what is the evidence for what we know. Format: lecture, discussion, some films. (Relatively hard-nosed text, one short paper requiring no library research). Exams require knowledge of subject matter plus reasoning. (Weintraub)

Section 003. This course is designed to explore contemporary psychology. It will cover a broad area of topics: Part 1 presents a general introduction to Psychology (definitions, history, methods). Part 2 is designed to give an overview of four different levels on which psychological phenomenon can be studied. First, the biological perspective will be discussed (evolution, genetics, nervous system). Second, some basic processes, namely perception, learning, information processing and motivation/emotion are studied. Third, the individual is in the center of attention (development, personality, clinical approaches). Finally, individuals in their social context will be considered (social cognition; intra- and intergroup processes). Part 3 of this course is devoted to the application of psychological knowledge to one specific problem, the adaptation to the transition from high school to college. This problem will be analyzed on the four different levels that were presented in part 2 of this course. Grades are based on two papers (one empirical group project, one literature review), five quizzes (spaced approximately biweekly) and one final exam. The text used is Gleitman, PSYCHOLOGY, 2nd edition, plus readings in a course pack. The format of the class is lecture and discussion. (Inglehart)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 55 agencies in which you can provide direct service to children in day care settings, adolescents in after-school programs, handicapped children and adults, retarded and emotionally impaired, agencies dealing with women's issues, physically ill adults and children, persons legally confined to institutions including mental health and criminal; social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Most sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Final Edition of the Time Schedule for proper credits, lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Information regarding registration, field work and course information for the Fall Term, 1988, will be available at a Mass Meeting on Monday, March 28, 1988. No room has been assigned as of this date. For information, call the Outreach Office at 764-9179 or 764-9279. Psychology majors electing two separate sections in Psychology 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R.D.Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

SECTION 001 WORKING WITH CHILDREN. Directed experience with children aged 18 months 5 years at the University of Michigan Children's Center for approximately 6-10 hrs/week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a naturalistic setting. (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology.

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS).

This course surveys the field of Psychobiology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Psychobiology is an area of study concerned with physiological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; psychological and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning, memory, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Psychobiology courses. (Berridge)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May not be elected for credit more than once.

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. MAY NOT BE ELECTED FOR CREDIT MORE THAN ONCE.

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include work-related attitudes; motivation; leadership; decision-making; group-behavior; organizational design; organizational change; quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be a general lecture and one group discussion section. The discussion section will review the materials of the readings and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the readings and lectures. (Carlopio)

368/Anthropology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

See Biological Anthropology 368. (Wrangham)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Hesse, Lessing, Eliot and Feild. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

372. Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides a critical overview of problems and perspectives addressed by community psychology. Consistent with underlying paradigms of the area, the course emphasizes understanding of social problems from the perspective of person-environment interactions and an ecological and general systems approach. In this framework, it examines the nature of community and community systems, aspects of helping and helping services, dynamics of social services institutions and community mental health, and emerging models of social and community intervention. Through widely varied readings, guest presentations, and class projects, the course explores issues of pro-active and preventive social programming, self-help and social support, empowerment and community action, and community-based research and social change. Student learning and grading will be based on active class participation, a series of short papers, and one major term project. Students are encouraged, but not required, to participate in volunteer field-work related to course content, and will be allowed to utilize that experience in addressing course requirements. (Kieffer)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

SECTION 001. This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social interference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams, classroom contributions, and through a series of short papers. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. (Manis)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001. An intensive introduction to the clinical and research literatures on the family in contemporary American society. Designed especially for students interested in clinical work with families, the course will examine family process, assessment, and intervention from the conceptual vantage point of general systems theory. Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and discussion. (Olson)

SECTION 020. After an examination of the historical, cultural and socio-economic contexts for the significance of marriage and the family, various theoretical positions will be examined including psychodynamic, social role, social exchange, and family systems approaches. Special topics of focus will be: communication, power, sexuality, and conflict. The life cycle of marriage from initial attraction through marriage among the elderly will make up the second part of the course with some special attention to divorce and its consequences. Lectures with occasional movies will take place on Tuesdays and discussion plus project planning will occur on Thursdays. Two examinations (short answer plus longer essays) and a paper based on a taped interview with a couple will be the major basis of evaluation. (Veroff)

400. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory psychology; intended for freshmen and sophomores. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402 and 500, 501, 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND BEHAVIOR. This course will begin by examining how and why animals have evolved to take advantage of rhythmic changes in their environment, such as the lunar cycle, daily light/dark cycle and the annual change in seasons. We will discuss internally-generated biological rhythms that are coordinated with changes in the environment, including the sleep/activity cycle, daily body temperature cycle, annual reproductive cycle and meal patterns. The course will cover the physiology of the nervous and endocrine systems which provide the connection between the outside environment and the animal's internal rhythms. Finally, we will examine some aberrations in human biological rhythms; for example, sleep disorders, jet-lag and seasonal depressive illness. (Lee)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 475 or 575; and permission of instructor. (See LSA Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 475 or 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning April 4. Enrollment is limited to eighteen students who are graduating seniors. Non-graduating seniors may place their names on the waitlist which will be used to fill any remaining spaces after graduating seniors have been accommodated. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward at the VA or the University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examinations, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

430. Comparative Animal Behavior. Introductory psychology or introductory biology or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course presents a broad introduction to animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Topics include Darwin's theory of evolution, the relationship between genes and behavior, the evolution of group-living, and social interactions between close genetic relatives (e.g., parent-offspring, siblings), mates, and other conspecifics. Terms such as aggression, territoriality, and mating systems are considered in light of how they have evolved and how they contribute to daily survival and reproductive success. Examples from a wide variety of animal species are used to help emphasize various points. A lecture format is used, and students are encouraged to question and comment during class. Grading is based on two in-class essay exams and a term paper. The class is open to sophomores and is well suited for any student interested in animal behavior, biological psychology, or the relationship between evolution and social behavior. (W. Holmes)

431. Physiological Psychology. Psych. 331 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will cover a range of topics at a level appropriate for students who have a serious interest in brain and behavior, the behavioral neuroscience, or developmental psychobiology. Students should have taken Psychology 331 (Introduction to Psychobiology) or have had some background in biology and behavior. The class format will be lectures with opportunity for discussion. A textbook will be assigned, plus some supplementary reading. Grades will be determined by performance on a midterm and final examination. (Valenstein)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course surveys psychological perspectives on the question, "Why do people act as they do?" Major topics include psychoanalytic and humanistic theories about human motives, physiological and cognitive mechanisms regulating motivated behavior, and ways of studying major dimensions of social motivation (achievement, affiliation, intimacy, and power). Special attention will be paid to issues such as: competition vs. cooperation, intrinsic vs. extrinsic motives, the optimal or best level of motivation, the differences between motives and values as regulators of behavior, and the role of motivation in society. (Winter)

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).

This course is intended for undergraduate psychology majors and others interested in complex mental processes. It fulfills the Group I requirements for a Psychology bachelor's degree. Among the topics covered by the course are human memory, representation of knowledge, attention, reasoning, problem solving, decision making and intelligence. The course's approach is a scientific one, emphasizing the formulation and evaluation of precise theoretical models through experimental data. Some coverage is also devoted to practical issues regarding human cognition and mental processes. Class meetings consist of lectures and discussions. Reading assignments are drawn from various textbooks and include a systematic course pack. Class attendance is mandatory. Grades will be based on performance in three hourly exams, a set of take-home exercises and short papers, and class participation. The total work load has been rated as "moderate" by past students. (D. Meyer)

444. Perception. Psych. 170, 172, 192 or 310. (3). (NS).

This is an advanced undergraduate lecture course that focuses on basic perceptual phenomena and theories. At its most general level, human perception concerns the questions of how and why human beings conceive of, and experience immediate reality on the basis of sensory experience and information. Topics covered include: Psychophysics, sensory transduction, Gestalt organization, constancy and contrast effects, expectation, selective attention, perceptual learning, and symbolic representation. While the course has a natural science orientation, social, humanistic, philosophical and esthetic perspectives are also considered. The instructor assumes some sophistication on the part of the students, however, no particular knowledge base is assumed. Grades will be based entirely on writing assignments. Four short papers (five pages) and one longer paper (ten pages) will be required. There will be no exams. The course grade will be the average of the grades on the papers, with the longer paper receiving twice the weight of a short paper. (Pachella)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This section will survey the field of personality psychology, with a major focus on CURRENT research and theory, rather than on the grand historical theories. Special attention will be given to the following issues (1) what are the basic PHENOMENA of personality (e.g., actions, feeling, cognitions, emotions)? (2) how do we determine which phenomena are IMPORTANT and which are trivial? (3) what UNITS should we employ to organize the basic personality phenomena? (4) what are the CAUSAL ORIGINS of personality in evolution, genetics, physiology, socialization, maturation, life-history, culture, and immediate situations? (5) how do features of persons INTERACT with features of the environment? A wide variety of methods will be covered including self-report, observer report, mechanical recording devices, laboratory tests, life history data, and act data. A key theme throughout the course will be understanding human personality within an EVOLUTIONARY CONTEXT. (Buss)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001 The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with major psychological research and theory on the processes by which the child becomes a social being. Attention is given to the influence of the family, and particularly the parents, and also to the influence of the school, peers, and the community. Topics include the development of attachment, peer interaction, moral development, sex roles, and the stability of personality. The role of social change and its impact on development will be considered. (Mangelsdorf)

455. Cognitive Development. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course is a survey of cognitive development from infancy to adolescence. Topics include theories of cognition, information processing, language development, intelligence, memory development, concepts and categories, and the acquisition of academic skills. The course is intended for those students who want a more in-depth analysis of the above topics than is presented in Psychology 172 or 457. Students are expected to read approximately 50 pages per week (textbook and research articles), attend lectures, and engage in active discussion of topics. Grades will be based on three exams and a paper.

456. Human Infancy. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course covers phenomena of human development and maturation from conception to the third year of life. Topics include physical growth, elements of early attachment and relatedness, cognitive development, emotional expression and communication, the growth of personal and interpersonal competence, the role and status of infancy in the family and society, and careers centered on early human development. Sessions will include lectures, audio-visual presentations and discussions. Exams: Two plus a final. (Horner)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001. This course is a survey of child development from birth to adolescence. Physical growth, cognitive development, language development and social and personality development are examined. Students are expected to read approximately 50 pages per week and to attend lectures and weekly discussion groups. Grades are based on three hourly exams and a short paper. (Mangelsdorf)

Section 020. This course provides an introduction to the main themes and issues associated with children's development spanning the period from birth through adolescence. In addition to presenting the most salient knowledge that is available regarding development through adolescence, the course focuses on: (a) the main theoretical orientations that guide alternative ways of thinking about and describing the nature of human development; (b) the strengths and weaknesses of principal methods and strategies that are used to study the psychological developments of children; and (c) psychological patterns that distinguish the behavior of children at different developmental stages. The primary method of teaching is lecture; provision will be made for class discussion. A textbook will be used along with a course pack of supplementary readings. Student evaluations will be based on a total of four examinations and one paper. (Zimiles)

459. Psychology of Aging. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course covers major behavioral changes throughout adulthood, particularly in old age. Special emphasis is given to such topics as changes in biological functioning including sensation and perception, and changes in cognitive processes including intelligence, learning, memory, and in problem-solving. In addition, psychosocial aspects of adulthood are discussed. These include family roles, personality, coping mechanisms, psychopathology and treatment, and dying, death and grief. The course also considers environmental facilitation of psychological adjustments to both normal and pathological processes in old age, with special emphasis on dementia. Students do assigned readings, class exercises, projects, and take two examinations. Projects primarily include interviewing two people throughout the term and writing a research review paper. (Weaverdyck)

475. Abnormal Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course overviews abnormal psychology, emphasizing psychological explanations of such problems in living as anxiety, depression, drug abuse, and sexual dysfunction, as well as their treatment by psychological means. There are two lectures and one discussion per week. Grades are based on examination performance and activities assigned in discussion sections. Books include Davison and Neale's ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY and Kesey's ONE FLEW OVER THE CUCKOO'S NEST. Readings may be assigned. (Peterson)

Section 020. This course will review the etiology and psychodynamics of a broad range of psychopathology and problems of living including (but not limited to) schizophrenia, personality disorders, depression, and substance abuse. Emphasis will be placed on diagnosis and psychological treatment. The course will be conducted in a lecture/discussion format, emphasizing class participation. Grades will be based on examinations, several short papers and discussion activities. The texts will likely include Davison and Neale's ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY and a course pack. (Leary)

482/Soc. 482. Personal Organization and Social Organization. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on the interaction of social roles and personality. Selected life roles such as marriage, parenthood, and work are studied not so much from the point of view of their sociological significance but of their impact on people's motivations, attitudes, and feelings. The course first examines the general analytic problem of thinking about personalities in interaction with social systems. Then it examines each of the three life roles. Empirical findings rather than theoretical analyses are highlighted and sex difference in these roles are emphasized. A course pack of varied articles and chapters from books plus WORLDS OF PAIN are read and discussed. Course requirements allow a choice of writing integrated essays or a short answer examination. Two such evaluations are required. An empirical research effort is also required as a term project. Students select a life role (e.g., a specific occupation or a husband/wife or mother/father role) and obtain firsthand data on how that role affects the experience of people in that role. Group projects are encouraged but are not mandatory. (Veroff)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001. An extremely difficult and unusual course. Not suitable for many students. Each student selects a group of people of particular interest. Usually people in a neighborhood that is very different from the sort of neighborhood she grew up in. Sometimes, alternatively, people whose lives have special relevance to her, such as people practicing a profession she plans. The student must then create in-depth prolonged meetings with a small number of these people and write up each week these meetings and her reflections on them. This journal is checked every two weeks. The course also will deal with about five books. Last term these were one technical book on attitudes, three sociological books of participant observation, and one novel by Lessing and Achebe. Real investment of time: about ten actual hours/week, EVERY week. NOT for students with a high need for structure from an authority figure. NOT for the uncurious. (Ezekiel)

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 DREAMS AS MODELS OF PERSONAL CONFLICTS AND RESOLUTION. The purpose of the course is to review historical developments in the conceptualization of the meaning of nocturnal dreams from the late 19th Century to the present. The major emphasis will be on the use of dreams to explicate personal problem solving hence clinical data will be made the focus the aim of developing students' ability to read, interpret, and understand the meaning of dreams (their own and others') the main practical skill developed. In the course of the term, issues from psychopathology, personality, psychotherapy, creativity, literature and development will be discussed in respect to dream material which presumes the student has some degree of familiarity with these fields and topics. The classes will involve discussions of readings in which students will be expected to take active roles. The course readings will consist of Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams" and a course pack. The particular discussion of readings will be announced in class each week as well as on a course reading list. Course evaluations will be determined by quality of participation in the class, one or two exams (announced in class) and by (largely) a course paper on dreams (outline to be discussed) which will focus on a series of dreams of one's own or someone else in regard to cognitive structure, psychodynamic content and adaptive problem solving strategy. (Wolowitz)

SECTION 002 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF LIVES. This course addresses the shaping of lives from two convergent directions the social-psychological and the psychodynamic. On the one hand, the progress of a life is determined by the person's social and cultural situation (family, social class, subculture, gender-role, economics). On the other, a life story manifests a continuity of tendencies and themes that have the stamp of individuality. Against cultural changes, these subjective factors assert their striving for sameness. Students will learn to interpret biographical and autobiographical materials in social-psychological terms. Class discussion of theory, research, and case materials will be the medium of instruction. Students will be evaluated on the basis of one group and one individual project and class participation. (Rosenwald)

SECTION 003. THE DEVELOPMENT AND STRUCTURE OF THE SELF. This course examines major psychological conceptions of the self. It is organized around such topics as the self as meaning-maker, identity achievement in young adulthood, the emerging self of infancy, the integration of self, the gendered self, the moral self, the self and social institutions. It is designed for a group of 20-25 students who have a general background in psychology. It will emphasize the critical examination of a relatively small number of texts. The class format will be centered in discussions of assigned readings, and will regularly require brief prepared reactions to them to open class discussion. Student evaluation will be based on class participation, a paper, a midterm and a final examination. (Fast)

Section 004. CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY. Psychological analysis of human behavior from the perspective of research conducted in non-Western cultures and among ethnic groups within Western cultures. Emphasis is placed on theories in research concerned with human development, socialization and cognition. The students will be required to select a topic such as cross-cultural studies of bullying, sleeping patterns, different types of memory, sex role development, privatization of family life, language development, emotionality, alcoholism and drug abuse; or a theoretical analysis from another culture of such topics as psychotherapy, mother-child relations, the role of the group, or the function of thought. (Stevenson)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 BEHAVIORAL BIOLOGY OF WOMEN. What does it mean to be a woman? This course approaches this question by beginning with an even more fundamental question: What does it mean to be FEMALE? Evolutionary theory will provide a framework for comparing human females with females in other animals, especially primates. These comparisons illuminate the evolutionary origins of universal features of human female behavioral biology, including, for example, menstrual cycles, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause. To understand how such universal biological features affect individual women, the course will examine the relationship between mind and body (psychology) and the ways particular cultures influence a woman's experiences and sense of self (anthropology). The course will introduce students to recent and innovative research on women in the fields of biology, psychology, and anthropology. Students will consider the relevance of this information for their own lives and for current social and political issues, such as fertility, birth control, eating disorders and body imagery, premenstrual syndrome, women's friendships, and competition between women. The course will include two one and one-half hour lectures each week plus an hour of discussion section to be arranged during the first week of classes. A substantial amount of reading will be assigned. Grades will be based on three examinations and participation in a computer conference discussing issues raised by the course. (Smuts)

Section 005 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE HUMANITIES. This course will explore the contributions of psychology to the study of the humanities. It will begin with a survey of pioneering work, drawn largely from psychoanalysis Freud, Jung, Jones, Rank and Sacks and literary criticism Burke, Hyman, Wilson, Trilling. It will then move to the study of contemporary texts, authors, and controversies, chosen to represent current approaches and disputes. Specific topics will reflect the interests of the class members. Among the possibilities: PSYCHOHISTORY AND ITS CRITICS, e.g., Erikson vs. Bainton on Luther; Hitler and the Nazis, from Langer to Lifton; the history of anorexia (Bell), and the Salem Witch Trials (Demos). LITERARY BIOGRAPHY AND CRITICISM; e.g., Edel on James; the Yale school (Bloom, Brooks, et al.), Lidz on Shakespeare; recent studies of narrative and metaphor. THE GRAPHIC ARTS, e.g., Kris, Arnheim, Gedo, PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES, e.g., Schwartz on Rousseau; Wolheim on the person; the psychology of moral virtue (Kohlberg, MacIntyre, et al.). Some attempt will be made to appraise the influence of new approaches in both psychology and the humanities: the object-relations school, cognitive theory, structuralism. The connections between creativity and psychopathology will also be considered. (Adelson)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

This course initiates the student to the process of creating new knowledge about judgment and decision making in the behavioral sciences in general. Essentially, class members are co-investigators on research projects that address two original problems of current interest in the field. The problems examined differ from one term to the next. An illustrative problem is understanding the foundations of people's typical overconfidence in their answers to factual questions, e.g., "Which is farther north, New York or London?" Each student participates fully in all phases of the research process, from the conceptual analysis of the given problem and review of the pertinent literature through the collection and analysis of data, and the interpretation and reporting of results. Classes consist mainly of intensive discussions of relevant articles and of design and interpretation issues. Grades are based on students' reviews of articles, their contributions to the execution of various aspects of the class projects, their written reports, and their participation in discussions. The course assumes prior completion of a course on behavioral decision making, e.g., Psychology 522. It satisfies one of the advanced laboratory requirements for a concentration in psychology. (Yates)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies - contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

513. Advanced Laboratory in Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 523. (3). (Excl).

This course involves the student in a series of demonstration projects designed to show diverse approaches to the measurement of human traits, ranging from intellectual abilities to personality characteristics, interests, and attitudes. In addition, projects are undertaken in test design and construction, item analysis, validation, reliability determination and in the multivariate analysis of trait structure. Several extensive data sets have been put on computer files and students are introduced to MTS and Midas procedures and carry out psychometric analyses on these data. (Norman)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300; and Psych. 382 or prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. "I want to help change the world. What can I learn from the lives of others who have wanted to create change?" In this course, each student chooses a group that is working at political change or social change. The student uses her (or his) ears and eyes; she does observations; she creates semi-structured interviews. She reflects on her field experiences, asking herself: (1) What are the lives that lead people to this group? (2) In the implicit thinking of this group, what are the processes by which change occurs? For this group, what are people like, how does one reach people? The student composes a paper every two weeks, discussing her field experiences and her reflections on them. The course requires about three hours of field work a week and about six hours a week at the typewriter, thinking and writing. The ideal student is hungry to explore because she has a deep need to understand social and political developments - that are not casual interests. The ideal student is highly independent and fairly adventurous. The course is rewarding for students who think reality is exciting, who have active minds and social passions. (Ezekiel)

Section 002. This course teaches the basic techniques for designing and carrying out research in social psychology. The primary emphasis is on experimental methods, but, there will be some coverage of survey, observational methods, and simulations. The goal of the course is to teach students how to evaluate research and how to do it. The course will cover sources of error; choosing appropriate research questions, treatments, control groups, settings, and measures; ethical issues and writing up research. Social psychology is a prerequisite. The course does not require statistics. Students will be evaluated on the basis of several short exercises and a final project. For the final project students will plan and carry out a research study as a member of a small group, and will write it up individually (10-15 pages). Methods of instruction will be lectures and discussion, particularly discussion of the research exercises and plans for the final projects. (Ellsworth)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459. (3). (Excl).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, social-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Several different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects) off-campus. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402 or 300, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an opportunity to carry out research in personality. There are weekly in-class discussions during the first part of the course leading up to the design and execution of a small group research project. Course requirements include several short papers and a final paper which is a formal presentation of the final research project and its results.

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (NS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What do we take into account and ignore when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? How do we reconcile conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how the alternatives are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is flawed to the extent that we expose ourselves to the risk of serious errors. The course considers when those errors should and should not occur. It also discusses ways of preventing such mistakes. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in such fields as medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in which students participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. Psychology 522 satisfies the psychology concentration Group 1 requirement. Grades are based on demonstrations, two-three assignments, two quizzes, and a final examination. Course grades typically average around "B." (Yates)

523. Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300. (3). (Excl).

This course considers methods for assessing human traits (abilities, interests, attitudes, personality characteristics, etc.) and the uses of such assessments in practical decisionmaking and scientific theory testing. Tests, inventories, questionnaires, rating scales and other procedures will be evaluated in terms of their reliabilities, validities, and other relevant criteria. Introductory psychology and elementary statistics are the relevant prerequisites and an advanced laboratory (Psych. 513) is offered concurrently for those wishing additional practical work in this area. Student evaluation will be by means of objective (multiple-choice) exams and a term paper. Methods of instruction will include lectures, demonstrations and discussion. (Norman)

533. Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

This course surveys current knowledge of the human brain and its role in mental processes, such as perception, attention, thought, language and memory, and learned behavior skills. Special topics include left vs. right-brain functions, sex differences in brain function and rehabilitation of cognitively impaired individuals with brain damage. Evaluation based on hour exam and final exam. Lecture and discussion. (Butter)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (Excl). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

This course provides the opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly lectures and discussion sessions are included as well. The placements include settings in which children reside who have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness (including acute and chronic), or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, critiques of readings, case reports, and final essays integrating information from the various portions of the course. (Hagen)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (SS).

SECTION 001. This course examines the adolescent period, largely from the points of view offered in personality, clinical, and social psychology. Although the course emphasizes the normal processes of adolescent development, for example, the achievement of ego identity, and the growth of mature modes of thinking and reasoning, it will also give close attention to such characteristically adolescent phenomena as delinquency and eating disorders, especially anorexia and bulimia. We will also try to understand the extraordinary increase in severe pathology among adolescents during the last two decades. There is a two-hour seminar discussion once each week; and the class members will also meet in groups of five or six once every two weeks. There is a term paper and a final essay examination. (Adelson)

Section 010. Designed to educate the student about (1) the application of scientific inquiry to the domain of human behavior and development; (2) some principles of developmental and social psychology; and (3) the specific effects on human behavior of ADOLESCENCE, a period of rapid biological, psychological and social change. Intended as a contribution to students' liberal education; to provide them with concepts which may enrich their appreciation of a broad range of scientific and cultural materials; and to help them lead more self-conscious lives. Approach to adolescence is bio-social. Adolescence will be treated as a particular instance of interaction between sociological, psychological and social development, centering about the attainment of adult sexuality, increasing cognitive skills, and preparation for taking adult roles in the individual's society. Students must already have successfully completed at least one course in child or lifespan development or in the socialization of the child. Evaluation will be based on written work; take-home essay examinations and a term paper. Reading will include a textbook, a course pack of theoretical and empirical papers on adolescence. One lecture (or film) and one discussion section per week. (Gold)

559. Personality Theory. Psychology 452 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

The first half of the course will be devoted to a brief overview of a number of personality theories. For the remainder of the course, each student will select a single theorist and read extensively from his or her original works. Throughout the second portion of the course, students will draw from the writings of their theorists in an effort to shed light on several personality case studies. Finally, each student will prepare a written analysis of a single case study from the perspective of his or her chosen theorist. The course favors students who are prepared to do a great deal of reading and to immerse themselves in the resources of the library. Course grades will be based on brief quizzes given during the first half of the course, reading logs maintained during the second half of the course, contributions to classroom discussions and case analyses, and the final written case study. (C. Morris)

569/Anthropology 569. Attachment: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It considers intimate relationships, and especially the bond between mother and child, from an evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspective. The course will focus on attachment theory, an influential approach to human relationships that integrates concepts and data from evolutionary biology, animal behavior, psychiatry, developmental psychology, and cultural anthropology. The readings will include research articles and reviews on evolutionary theory, naturalistic and experimental studies of attachment behavior in nonhuman primates, and studies of human attachment behavior, including anthropological data from non-Western societies. The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with research on attachment from a variety of different perspectives and to evaluate the usefulness of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human social behavior. An equally important goal is to promote interchange among students with backgrounds in different areas. To facilitate this goal, the course will use a seminar format and everyone will be expected to participate in discussions. Grades will be based on class participation and four short essays that require creative synthesis of course materials. The reading load will be heavier than average and enthusiasm and commitment are important prerequisites to successful participation in this course. Prerequisites include: (1) background in either evolutionary theory/animal behavior or developmental psychology AND (2) permission of instructor. All students must be interviewed by the instructor and obtain an override BEFORE CRISP in order to enroll in this course. (Smuts)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

574. The Clinical Perspective. Psych. 452 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3) (Excl).

Psychology 574 is a small seminar (limit of 20) for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, papers, clinical diagnostic interviewing, and a final) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate his knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2)to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. (Lohr)

575. Theory of Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, and 558. (3). (SS).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

576. Experimental Contributions to Clinical Psychology. Junior or senior concentrators; others by permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys selected issues in clinical psychology in view of current research evidence: e.g., animal models of psychopathology, clinical judgment, effectiveness of psychotherapy, social support, stress and coping, causes of schizophrenia, sex differences in depression, and so on. Some prior coursework in clinical psychology (e.g., PSYCH 475) is strongly recommended, as is background in statistics and research design. A seminar format is followed. Grades are based on written assignments, seminar presentations, and class participation. (Peterson)

578. History of Psychology. Two advanced concentration courses. (3). (Excl).

The course will cover the intellectual history of the discipline of psychology. It will concentrate on its modern period from 1850 to the present but its intellectual roots before that will be reviewed. Students should be juniors or seniors with a background in either psychology, philosophy, science or intellectual history. The course is open to graduate students as well. Grading will be based on class participation and on a long paper which will center on the tracing back through time or the development of the work of a current psychology department faculty member. Each student will choose a faculty member, interview them, read their current work and trace their intellectual, methodological and content mentors from the past. Readings will be extensive and tailored to each student's project as well as a base of common background texts. The format will be as close to seminar style as the number permits. (Brown)

590. Senior Honors Research I. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. The purpose of the course is to guide students (1) in formulating their individual research for the Honors thesis, and (2) in designing procedures for carrying out this research. There will be a seminar for the discussion of common problems plus individual tutorials. The students will be evaluated on the basis of a term paper describing their progress in respect to the above two issues. (Zajonc)

SECTION 002. The main event in Senior Honors is thesis production. (Get thee to your tutor, get rolling, get finished). The goal is a thesis that makes one justifiably proud. Early on, each student will present thesis background and design to the class. Possible class discussion topics: school/job decisions and statistical tests that students intend to use. Drafts of segments that can later be incorporated into the thesis will be submitted periodically. However, the main order of business (and class work will not interfere) is get thee to your tutor... (Weintraub)

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