100. Principles of Sociology. Open to freshmen and sophomores. Juniors and seniors must elect Soc. 400. No credit granted to those who have completed 400. (4). (SS).
SECTION 001. To introduce you to the history, the theories, and the
findings of this discipline is the main purpose of this course. The first
part of this course (THE CLASSICAL TRADITION) explores the life and major theoretical contributions of the four founders of sociology: A. Comte, K.
Marx, E. Durkheim, and M. Weber. Each one of them provides us with an interpretation
of the world we now know as "modern capitalism." They explain
how this social system emerged from earlier social forms and how they envision
its future expansion or demise. The second part (CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS)
examines the legacy of these writers for current sociology and for the understanding
of contemporary society. We will address such controversial issues as: Why
do people conform? Who do they violate the rules of society? Why some people
have so much more wealth than others? What is the nature of prejudice and discrimination? Why and how do people rebel? A midterm, three two-page essays, class participation, and a final exam will determine your grade. (Sommers)
SECTION 009. This course will introduce the student to sociological analysis by considering the differing traditions of inquiry that exist within the discipline. Such traditions lead us to ask different kinds of questions and give us different understandings of the world in which we live. Moreover, such traditions shape our view of human possibilities, of what constitute ethical or just social arrangements, as well as what we simply accept as inevitable or "natural." Examples of the kinds of questions we will ask in the course are: why does poverty exist, and what would have to be done to eradicate it? How much inequality is a good thing? What are the causes of racism? How can we understand the kinds of changes occurring in families, between men and women, in contemporary American society? Course requirements, in addition to readings and lectures, include a midterm and final exam, participation in discussion sections, and possible several small exercises given by the teaching assistants. (Blum)
Section 020. This course is designed to introduce students to the sociological perspective. Rather than offering a broad survey of the field, we will seek to understand and critically evaluate the major theories that have been advanced by sociologists to explain certain key social processes and institutions of modern society. While the course will focus on the contemporary United States, comparative and historical perspectives will also be utilized. Grades will be based on three exams. (Kimeldorf)
101. Person and Society: An Introduction to Sociology Through Social Psychology. (4). (SS).
This course introduces students to sociology by drawing on the concepts and perspectives of Social Psychology. It seeks to develop more systematic ways of viewing and understanding social life. Readings, films, and lectures will be used to present and illustrate a variety of useful conceptual frameworks. Three broad content areas will be examined: How people organize their experience of the social world, how they become socialized, and how they interrelate and influence each other. Specific topics include: Social perception and cognition, the development of personal identity and especially gender identity, processes of inter-personal influence and attitude change, conformity and social control. The course will meet for three hours of lecture each week. Grades will be based on a short paper plus a midterm and final. (Modigliani)
102. Contemporary Social Issues: An Introduction to Sociology. (4). (SS). May be repeated for a total of 8 credits.
SECTION 001 – SOCIAL ISSUES: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY THROUGH SOCIAL INEQUALITY. In this introduction to sociology, we will examine the pervasive influence of inequality in the organization of social life. The course begins with an introduction to the concept of inequality, as it applies to differentials in economic well-being, prestige, and differentials in economic well-being, prestige and power. We then examine the various forms that such inequalities take in relations between social classes, whites and Blacks, and men and women. How much and in what ways does it affect someone's life to belong to one social group rather than another? The next part of the course considers different theories about the causes and significance of economic, racial, and gender inequality. Here, we examine a broad array of theories and compare their implications for the meaning of social inequality in its various forms. The course concludes with an examination of the belief systems that accompany different kinds of inequality. How do people who enjoy the privileges or suffer the disadvantages of inequality interpret their experience? There will be three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion weekly. Written work will consist of two in-class examinations and one assignment in the discussion section. (Jackman)
Section 009:INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY THROUGH STUDY OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS. After exploring sociological theories of social movement, we will proceed with an examination of three social movements in the United States. These include the labor movement, the women's movement, and the Civil Rights movement. The final part of the course will examine the revolutionary movements that are occurring in the Third World and the U.S. response. We will focus mainly on the Central American countries. There will be a midterm and a final examination. (Parsa)
Section 018: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY THROUGH THE STUDY OF GENDER AND THE FAMILY. This course is intended to introduce students to basic sociological concepts and theories using issues in family and gender as primary illustrative materials. Although other aspects of social organization will be discussed (for example, class structures), the main focus will be on the social roles and relative power of the sexes, and the structure and functioning of family systems. Classes will be devoted to lectures, interspersed with discussions and films or videos. Students will also attend a weekly discussion section. Grading will be by examination and short written assignments. (K. Mason)
195. Honors in Principles of Sociology. Open to freshmen and sophomores admitted to the Honors Program, and to others with a grade point average of at least 3.2. Credit is not granted for Sociology 195 and Sociology 100 or 400. (4). (SS).
This course is an Honors course equivalent to Sociology 100. It provides a general introduction to Sociology for Honors students. The precise emphasis and content will vary with the instructor.
202/Pilot 189. Contemporary Social Issues I. (3). (SS).Credit is granted for a combined total of 8 credits elected through Soc. 202, 203, and 401.
SECTION 001 – INTERGROUP RELATIONS AND CONFLICT. The purpose of this course is to introduce students to major theoretical and empirical frameworks for understanding and identifying problems in group relations. These "groups" and "intergroups" are broadly defined to include race and gender and class, but also sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, nationality and others as well. The course will include some practical exercises and experiences with skills in dealing with concrete intergroup conflicts. This course would be particularly useful to students who are genuinely interested in the relations between groups that have a history of conflict and potential conflict, and are ready to be challenged by intriguing and controversial ideas. It is also of value to those who are willing to examine their views and to actively seek ways to confront problems of intolerance, ethnocentrism, and discrimination. The course will meet twice a week; one hour lecture and a two-hour discussion section. (Sfeir-Younis)
210. Elementary Statistics. (4). (SS).
The purpose of the course is to provide literacy in the evaluation of quantitative evidence as it relates to the world of alternative, testable ideas. Students are familiarized with a variety of descriptive statistics (interpretation of tables, measures of association, regression, etc.), inductive statistics (theory of sampling, significance tests) and the empirical origin of statistical data (surveys, censensus, observational studies). Several forms of decision-making based on quantitative and non-quantitative evidence are compared and contrasted. No special background or preparation is needed. Students capable of handling arithmetic have all the mathematical skills required for the course. Problem sets are routinely assigned to illustrate the concepts of the course. Additionally, the course will provide students with an introduction to "statistical packages" easily used on microcomputers. NO PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE WITH THIS TECHNOLOGY IS NECESSARY. This will provide an opportunity to analyze and discuss some real data sets. Course grades are determined by performance on three major exams (including the final) and some quizzes given in the discussion sections. The new format generates four credit hours from two lectures and two hours of discussion per week. (Goldberg)
212. Sports and Society. (3). (SS).
American society has had a long love affair with sport. The number of sport participants has increased tremendously over the last decade, as has the proliferation of sports facilities and organizations. Larger proportions of our population than ever before are now directly and indirectly participating in sports activities. Spectator participation in the traditional sport events such as baseball, football and basketball has also increased as has the hours of exposure to these events on television where twenty-four hours of sports broadcasting is now easily available on cable sports channels. Not only is there increased media exposure to the traditional sports events, but now tennis, golf and gymnastics also enjoy national as well as international prominence. It is also apparent that American society's attitude towards sports participation has expanded to more fully include minorities and women. Age no longer is seen as much of a constraint to participation as it once was. There are now programs available from the cradle to the grave. Given the fact that sport is an integral part of our society most of our knowledge of sport comes mainly from hearsay, observation, and sports journalism which has until recently not been too critical. In this information environment, the sports myths which have been perpetuated have remained unchallenged. In this course the linkages between sport and society will systematically be examined within the respective functionalist and conflict theoretical frameworks accepting the premise that sports is a microcosm of society. Among the issues covered in this course using these theoretical approaches are: the manner in which sport is linked to social institutions, the role of sport in the process of socializing youth with American values, the degree to which sport is segregated, the role that sport plays in upward mobility, the ways that sport shapes character, the relationships between sport and education, the role of the media in sport, and the political economy of sport, to name a few. These issues will be identified and examined in this course to clarify the relationships that exist between sport and society and the impact that these relationships have on the various segments of American society. (Deskins)
302. Introduction to American Society. (3). (SS).
An introduction to the dynamics of American society from a political economy perspective. The course is divided into two inter-related sections. In section one, we will examine the social structure of the United States by mapping out the relationship between the dominant class, the state, and large corporations. In section two, with this analytical "map" in mind, we will explore how these same social forces have shaped our nation's foreign policy since World War II. The course will be broadly comparative and will utilize both historical and contemporary approaches. Grades will be based on three exams. (Kimeldorf)
303. Racial and Cultural Contacts. No credit granted to those who have completed 503. (4). (SS).
There are major social and economic divisions between racial, ethnic, language and religious groups in the United States. This course will focus upon racial issues, although some attention will be devoted to ethnic, linguistic and religious divisions. The lectures and readings will describe the origins and persistence of racial prejudice and discrimination. They will also treat legal, social and economic differences between Blacks and whites; how these differences have changed since the settling of America and why. Attention will be given to the social movements and forces which seem likely to lead to future racial change. This class will meet on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Lectures will be presented on Mondays and Wednesdays. Some of the Friday session will be used for discussion, for tests or for films. Grades will be based upon three in-class tests and a final examination. These will include both multiple choice questions and brief essay questions. A paper WILL NOT be required. The readings include economic, sociological and psychological descriptions of racial issues and prejudice, decisions of the Supreme Court and various accounts of racial strife written by novelists and journalists. (Farley) racial, ethnic, language and religious groups in the United States. This course will focus upon racial issues, although some attention will be devoted to ethnic, linguistic and religious divisions. The lectures and readings will describe the origins and persistence of racial prejudice and discrimination. They will also treat legal, social and economic differences between Blacks and whites; how these differences have changed since the settling of America and why. Attention will be given to the social movements and forces which seem likely to lead to future racial change. This class will meet on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Lectures will be presented on Mondays and Wednesdays. Some of the Friday session will be used for discussion, for tests or for films. Grades will be based upon three in-class tests and a final examination. These will include both multiple choice questions and brief essay questions. A paper WILL NOT be required. The readings include economic, sociological and psychological descriptions of racial issues and prejudice, decisions of the Supreme Court and various accounts of racial strife written by novelists and journalists. (Farley)
310. Introduction to Research Methods. Soc. 210. (4). (SS).
SECTION 001. This course teaches the essentials of reasoning with quantitative data. You learn how to translate arguments about social life into arguments with consequences for counted data. You do exercises on all of the phases of quantitative analysis: How to make an argument, how to translate the argument into a set of assertions about relationships among variables, how to assess the match between data and argument, and how to present the results in coherent fashion. You read examples of research and criticize them, carry out small exercises with real data using the microcomputers, and learn to use some of the statistics you were exposed to in Soc. 210. You also learn word processing on microcomputers so that you can do your papers efficiently. Even if you are not a sociology concentrator you are welcome to take this course; you will not be handicapped by lack of background either in sociology or statistics. (W.Mason)
Section 002. This course is designed to acquaint students with an array of methods used to understand social phenomena, so that they become more critical consumers of published research results and gain hands-on experience with a variety of techniques. Topics include the scientific method and the nature of causation, research design and measurement, methods of observation including survey research and field research, and testing hypotheses. The course combines lectures and labs in which students will learn to carry out specific aspects of a research project. Evaluation is based on exams and a series of short papers in which students write up the results of their research. A course in elementary statistics is desired background. (Hermalin)
330. Population Problems. (3). (SS).
This course is intended for a wide range of students who might be interested in learning about the current population situation and the range of problems associated with it. There are no prerequisites for the course, nor is any special background required – although average ability to read tables and interpret quantitative material will be assumed. The course focuses specifically on social and economic problems associated with population matters. Family planning and other related population programs and policies are discussed. The course is a complement rather than an alternative to Soc 430 (Introduction to Population Studies) which deals with the determinants of behavior. Soc. 330 presents a variety of views concerning the ways population is perceived as a problem and what should be done about it. The focus of the course is international, dealing both with less developed and more developed countries. Attention is given to population growth, urbanization and migration; population and development; adolescent pregnancy; population and food; age structure, aging and associated problems; and population policy and programs, especially those related to the reduction of birth rates. The course is run as a lecture with in-class discussions encouraged. Films and other audio-visual aids are used. Grades are based largely on in-class exams. Written assignments and class participation are given some additional weight. (Knodel)
331. Population Trends in the United States: Their Economic and Social Consequences. (3). (SS).
This course examines both historical and contemporary demographic trends in the United States from an ecological perspective. The causes of changes in population growth and distribution as well as their implications for the economy and the social structure are considered. "American demographics" is one of the more frequently used terms to roughly describe the contents of the course. There are no prerequisites. (Goldberg)
389. Practicum in Sociology. Permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in sociology. (2-4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a total of 8 credits.
Project Community – the practicum in sociology – provides opportunities for experiential learning through community service in more than 30 institutions and agencies. These include schools, health care facilities, and prisons. In addition to the fieldwork, students meet weekly for a seminar in which experiences in the community and theory in the course pack are compared, bridged, and integrated. Papers serve to further stimulate reflection on one's experiences and to enable the student to develop critical analysis skills. Journals function to help the student further tap the learning potential inherent in study which meshes theory with experience. Interested students must come either to the Information Fair scheduled right before the beginning of pre-registration or to the Project Community office (2205 Michigan Union) thereafter in order to make an informed project choice. (Chesler)
392/REES 395/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/Hist. 332. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).
See REES 395.
400. Sociological Principles and Problems. For juniors, seniors, and graduate students with no background in sociology. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (3). (SS).
This is a general introduction to sociology primarily for upper division students for whom this may be the only sociology course they take. It provides a survey of the field, covering its basic perspectives, theories and methods of analysis. Major substantive will be on processes of socialization, class, race, gender, and modern bureaucratic organization. It will also illustrate the discipline's approach by examining the condition of the modern world community, marked by the rise of industrial capitalist society, a plethora of new states and new international organizations, and a striking imbalance in the division of wealth. Readings will be from a course pack. There will be a midterm and final examination, and students will write two or three brief (2 page) critiques of presentations given during the term. (Ness)
405. Theory in Sociology. No credit granted to those who have completed 305. (3). (SS).
Sociological theory is examined in its historical formation and contemporary frameworks. Although we briefly consider sociological theories precursors in the Scottish Moralists, Rousseau, Hegel, and Tocqueville, we focus on the classical sociological writings of Marx and Engels, Weber, Durkheim, Simmel and Mead. Students are expected to read original texts and offer brief summaries and critiques of essential writings. The final third of the course is devoted to a discussion of contemporary theoretical discourse emphasizing the following themes: (1) structure and agency in sociological explanation; (2) the logics of positivist and interpretative theory; and (3) the possibilities for a post-modern critical theory. A final paper analyzing one or more of these issues in a classical text is required. (Anspach)
420. Complex Organizations. (3). (SS).
Large organizations are a hallmark of modern society. They are one of the dominant forms through which people produce goods, deliver services, socialize and educate the young, coerce enemies et cetera. As employees, owners, clients, patients, inmates, or students, most of us live our lives in the shadows of organizations. The purpose of the course is to present an overview of theories and research about the relation of organizations to society and to each other, the internal structure of organizations, and the dynamics of change. Organizations are treated in historical context. Two examinations will be given. A paper drawn from field research will also be required. (Zald)
428. Social Institutions of Communist China. (3). (SS).
The course is a general and systematic introduction to the way Chinese society is organized today, and how it has changed since 1949. The main topics covered are the historical background, political and legal institutions and values, economic institutions, village life, the family, educational institutions, cities and stratification. No previous background on China is assumed, and the course attempts to present as thorough an understanding of contemporary Chinese social organization as possible, given the amount of time available. Readings cover a variety of points of view, and include some options for students with particular interests. The course includes a midterm and final examination, with a term paper substitutable for the final. The course attempts to understand Chinese society by frequent comparisons with traditional China, with the Soviet Union, and with other developing societies and their problems. (Whyte)
435. The Urban Community. Credit is granted for only one course from Soc. 335, 435, or 535. Does not meet sociology doctoral requirements. (3). (SS).
In this course an examination of the spatial and social factors affecting location, organization and functioning of cities is made. Although both the internal arrangements and external connections of cities are analyzed, heaviest emphasis is placed on the examination of the internal arrangements of cities within the context of social and spatial processes. Throughout the course contemporary urban problems found in the American city will be utilized as examples. Exercises, a paper and two examinations will be scheduled. (Deskins)
442. Occupations and Professions. (3). (SS).
This course will provide a critical look at the American occupational structure and its historical development. We will consider differing theoretical perspectives on the social division of labor and its relation to the class structure as we examine the major occupational categories and their characteristics. Central issues will include: how the labor process has changed over time, what the impact of occupationally-based politics or workplace politics has been, and the persistence of race and gender-based segregation of work and divisions within the labor force. In addition to those occupations and professions included in the paid labor force, we will also briefly consider the importance of unpaid housework within the social division of labor. The course will conclude with a discussion of occupational mobility. Grades will be based on midterm and final essay exams. (Blum)
444. The American Family. (3). (SS).
This course focuses on the American family, especially how it has changed over time. Topics include the formation of new family units (dating and courtship), childbearing patterns, the roles of men, women and children in the family economy, childrearing practices, and patterns of household formation and dissolution. Historical as well as contemporary readings are contained in several books and a course pack (there is no textbook per se). Classes are devoted primarily to lectures, with discussion interspersed and occasional films. (K. Mason)
445. Comparative Family Systems. (3). (SS).
This course is designed to introduce students to materials on how family life varies around the world. The first half of the course uses primarily cross-cultural materials dealing with pre-industrial societies. The second-half of the course is concerned with how modern changes (industrialization, urbanization, revolution, etc.) affect family life and a consideration of recent changes in family life in America. Along the way students will be presented with a variety of theories and studies designed to explain how and why family life varies; why the position of women is higher in some societies than others, why some societies allow more freedom of mate selection than others, and so forth. The course takes primarily a lecture format, with interruptions and questions encouraged. The readings include some common theoretical and descriptive studies, and sets of choices of books describing family life in particular cultures that students can work on as case studies. (Whyte)
447/Women's Studies 447. Gender Roles and Status. (3). (SS).
This course will examine the lives of men and women in American society and the unequal relations between them in the spheres of the economy, personal life, culture and politics. Emphasizing the interplay between the personal and the political ("macro" and "micro"), the course will explore the ways in which social institutions structure and restrict the lives of men and women. (Anspach)
450. Political Sociology. (3). (SS).
An examination of the relationship between economy and the polity with particular emphasis on social classes and class conflict. The course will examine the historical development and political effects of the core economic institution of the contemporary world, the large and often multinational corporation, in two related contexts. (1) The rise of the capitalist world economy and its impact on third world societies through colonialism, imperialism, and dependent development. The growth of revolutionary political movements in Southeast Asia, Southern Africa and Latin America and local elite responses to these movements. (2) The development of the concentrated corporate economy, including the development of multinational corporations, in the United States in the twentieth century. An examination of the political and social consequences of corporate concentration and control including political capitalism in the oil industry, oligopoly, surplus and the rise and fall of the American automobile industry, defense contractors and the military industrial complex. Readings include Edwards et. al., THE CAPITALIST SYSTEM; Moore, SOCIAL ORIGINS OF DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY; Gunder Frank, LATIN AMERICA; UNDERDEVELOPMENT OR REVOLUTION; Baran and Sweezy, MONOPOLY CAPITAL; and Mills, THE POWER ELITE. (Paige)
454. Law and Social Organization. (3). (SS).
Law and social organization will introduce students to the connections between concepts of justice, law, and social change. The course will focus on a number of social movements – e.g., the Civil Rights movement – and will ask how and why social groups so often appeal to the law in the pursuit of social justice. Questions the course will ask include: What exactly is social justice? Why do we have so many competing ideas of justice? Is justice inherently a matter of law? And from where do these ideas of justice derive? The sociological, historical, and philosophical roots of competing ideals of justice will be explored, and we will analyze the vision of society and its moral character that these ideals reflect. Emphasis will be put on the question of whether concepts of social justice conflict with the practical demands of economic efficiency. The course will then go on to analyze the relationship between law and politics, and the varying social impact of different legal decisions, legislative acts, and legal practices. Finally we will examine how social movements with their different interpretations of justice and their often conflicting claims to legal rights have influenced politics and social change. Evaluation will be based upon one or two midterms, a final exam or paper, and class participation. (Somers)
465/Psych. 488. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (SS).
An advanced undergraduate or graduate level course that addresses the broad question: how do people become social deviants? Films and simulation games will be used to concretize various types of deviance and deviance-producing processes, and readings will provide theoretical frameworks as well as further case material. Discussions will be the primary vehicles for bringing these elements together, with lectures playing a smaller role. Substantively, the course has two major parts. The first will examine in detail the social processes by which individuals are "officially" designated deviant: specifically, how social rules are created, enforced, and adjudicated by legislatures, the police, and the courts. The second will examine some major theories about the causes of deviant behavior by focusing on a series of more specific types of criminal activity: e.g., theft, delinquency, violent crimes, corporate crimes. Evaluation will be based on a midterm, a final and a 10-12 page paper. (Modigliani)
467. Juvenile Delinquency. (3). (SS).
This course will examine juvenile delinquency in the United States. Specific topics will include the nature and extent of delinquency, biological, psychological, and sociological theories of the causes of delinquency, the history of delinquency prevention and juvenile court, the handling of delinquents by the police and juvenile court officials, and various types of prevention and treatment programs. There will be two, ninety minute lectures each week. Grading will be based on two midterms, a paper and a final exam. (Rauma)
468. Criminology. (3). (SS).
This course will be a survey of recent work in the field of criminology. Topics will include theories of crime causation, the sociology of law, the police, the courts, the prison system, and the history of punishment and imprisonment. There will be two lectures and one discussion each week. Grading will be based on two midterms, a final exam, and work completed in the discussion section. (Rauma)
482/Psych. 482. Personal Organization and Social Organization. (3). (Excl).
See Psychology 482. (Veroff)
486/Psych. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
See Psychology 486. (Ezekiel)
530. Introduction to Population Studies. Soc. 100, 195, or 400. Open only to graduate students. Undergraduates admitted by permission of instructor. Credit is not granted for both Soc. 430 and 530. (4). (Excl).
This course is an analysis of how the population of the world and of major countries arrived at their present positions. The basic demographic processes which determined demographic change – fertility, mortality and migration – are each treated as to their measurement, history, and present status. There is special consideration of the demographic transition from high to low birth rates and death rates. The processes determining fertility levels are analyzed separately for less and more developed countries. The pattern of migration is studied with special reference to the United States. Finally, there is a consideration of the age-sex structures resulting from various combinations of demographic processes and how they affect projections of the U.S. and the world. (Knodel)
587/Psych. 516. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402 or 300; and Psych. 382 or prior or concurrent enrollment in Soc. 486. (3). (Excl).
See Psychology 516. (Section 001 - Ezekiel; Section 002 – Ellsworth)
590. Proseminar in Social Psychology. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. Some background in social psychology is desirable. (3). (SS).
This course provides graduate-level coverage of social psychology as a broad interdisciplinary area, but with emphasis on the sociological side. Students will read and discuss a set of primary works that deal with the social sources of individual action, with the social construction of reality, and with social interaction, as well as with a series of special topics such as the self, socialization, and the nature of attitudes and their relation to behavior. Several papers are required; there is no exam. Advanced undergraduates with good background in sociology or psychology are permitted to take the course provided they have the approval of the instructor. (Schuman)
591. Special Areas of Social Psychology. Soc. 590 or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).
This social psychology seminar, intended for graduate students and advanced undergraduates (with permission of instructor), will be concerned with two broad questions. How do people become social deviants? And, how do punishments get fitted to deviant acts? Broadly speaking, social deviance is conduct perceived to fall outside the bounds of what a collectivity considers tolerable. The course questions will be pursued using two derivative but more specific conceptions of deviance: (1) acts/actors that violate the laws of a collectivity; (2) acts/actors that are reacted to punitively by the collectivity. The first conception will lead to an examination of the social and psychological factors that might motivate actors to behave in ways that are collectively prohibited. The second will lead to an examination of the organizational processes through which a collectivity designates certain actors as deviant and, accordingly, punishes them. These issues will be pursued in the context of three specific classes of crime: street crime, corporate crime, and rape. For each class we shall seek to understand both how these criminals become deviant, also why the degree of punitive reaction varies as it does from one to the other. In addition to a term paper approximately 25 pages in length, class participation and discussion leadership will also be expected. (Modigliani)
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