Romance Languages and Literatures

Courses in French (Division 371)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school MUST take the Placement Test to determine the language course in which they should enroll. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction in high school. It is strongly recommended that students who began French at another college or university also take the Placement Test.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (FL).

Students with any prior study of French must take the placement test. If, as a result of this test, they are assigned French 101, they should enroll in sections 001-013. Only students with no previous study of French may enroll in Sections 014-019. (These special sections are offered in Fall Term only. Permission of the Comprehensive Studies Program is required for enrollment in Section 020. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced toward the end of French 101, with an increased amount in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying grammar, writing exercises and compositions, and laboratory work (l l/2 2 hours per week) on pronunciation, structural exercises, dialogues, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations, listening comprehension and speaking tests.

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103 or 102. It is STRONGLY suggested that transfer students see H.Neu or M.P.Hagiwara for advice re placement in the appropriate course.

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves at a rapid pace, covering about 60 percent of the French 101 materials by midterm, and about 60 percent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet five times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 percent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102.

205. French Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 102, or 103, or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 205 is offered in Fall Term). It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must take the placement test. The sequence French 231/232 is built upon the work done in French 101/102. It presents intensive and comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, discuss it in class, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on subjects of intellectual interest, to understand conversations on such topics, and to read unedited French text at sight with a high degree of direct comprehension. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, writing exercises, and laboratory work (30 minutes per week). There are weekly quizzes as well as midterm and final examinations. Both courses also have listening comprehension and speaking tests, and 232, in addition, has an outside reading test.

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to increase the reading proficiency gained in French 111. It begins with an intensive and comprehensive review of grammar and idioms, followed by special work for sight-reading. Toward midterm students select several articles or a book in their field of specialization for outside reading, and they complete their reading on their own with frequent consultation with the instructor. Classes meet in sections of 18-20 students. They meet four times per week. There are weekly quizzes, course-wide midterm and final examinations.

Other Language Courses

305. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 305 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 205/206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and attendance, homework and active participation in classroom activities determine the credit/no credit grades.

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 360. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of readings on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, to practice speaking French and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet three times a week in section. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (listening comprehension program), simulations, one novel, one play. Bi-weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. (Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to develop communication in spoken French and to increase familiarity with French culture and social life. Also, through an analysis of interviews with French people from all walks of life, students are able to distinguish among various styles of expression and to understand how language reveals social class, political leanings, and other relevant cultural characteristics. Although there is no formal teaching of French grammar, some class time is devoted to grammatical difficulties as revealed through the weekly essays. Classes meet three times each week and are taught in French. All sections take three common examinations. Laboratory activities, two novels, simulations, bi-weekly essays. (Gabrielli)

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c) development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the term, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. (Muller)

372. Problems in Translation. French 371 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to the problems of translation from English into French as well as from French into English. The aim of the course is to introduce students to the basic prerequisites of translation, helping them to develop a proper attitude toward the original and the target language, and to give them some practical training. Basic tools of the art are discussed. Linguistic theory is not the main goal of the course, however, some class time may occasionally be devoted to theoretical problems. Students work on a variety of texts on different levels: newspaper articles or magazines, technical texts, literary texts. Students are evaluated on the basis of their class work each time (contribution to class), homework, quizzes, and a final examination. The course is viewed as a continuation of French 371. (Mermier)

380. Intermediate Business French. French 361 and 362. Students may be permitted to take 380 and 362 concurrently. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the LANGUAGE of business transactions in France. It deals with both written and spoken commercial French. It is partly built around a fictitious company: EUROSPORT, whose activities are divided into themes dealing with various aspects of the business world: banking, advertising, claims and disputes regarding products, organization and hierarchy of the enterprise, applying for a job in France. The writing will concentrate on commercial correspondence and will stress the formal nature of written business French. There will be occasional translation exercises and one simulation. Students will write two medium length papers and take a final exam. Coursepack. NO AUDITORS. To respond to student demands, the maximum enrollment has been increased to 45. If the course is full, the second meeting will be divided into TWO RECITATION SECTIONS, meeting twice a week, while the first one will be A LECTURE. (Section 001 Gabrielli; Section 002 Belloni)

Civilization

384. Civilisation française. French 361. (3). (HU).

This course attempts to give the student a sense of the complexity of French history. It focuses on a few key periods: The Gallo-roman period, the Medieval times, the Renaissance, the age of Louis XIV, the enlightenment and the industrial revolution. It is less the sequence of events that interest us than the evolutions of institutions and "mentalities," the daily life: work habits and leisure activities, and the transformations of the society. The course pack contains a great variety of documents. The reading concentrates on "souvenirs" and "memoirs"; a few highly representative novels with a strong documentary value are also read (Stendahl, Balzac, Zola). Three classes per week. The course is conducted in French. Three papers and a final exam. (Carduner)

Literature

387/388/389 INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LITERATURE.

The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course's basic objectives are to familiarize students with the study of literature in French and to help them read texts critically and creatively. A further goal will be to acquaint students with some more or less representative masterworks from an important period of French history and a major segment of the French literary tradition. Works studied will come from several genres: comedy, tragedy, fable, fiction, autobiography. We will be asking ourselves about the nature of literary rhetoric and literary forms, and also trying to understand the relations between literary works and the social and historical circumstances of their production and reception. Authors studied will include (but not be limited to) Molière, Racine, LaFontaine, Madame de Grafigny, Rousseau and the elusive (male or female?) author of the LETTRES PORTUGAISES. Classes will be above all discussions, with only occasional lectures. Several short writing assignments (including both critical papers and creative exercises in style and writing); oral midterm; no final. (Paulson)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course is an introduction to four of the principal writers of nineteenth-century French literature. We will study selected works of Balzac, Flaubert, Zola and Maupassant. We will also read poems from LES FLEURS DU MAL by Baudelaire. Emphasis placed on the analysis of narrative techniques, imagery and structure. A typical assignment consists of reading some twenty pages in a work. These pages are then discussed in class. Students are required to write five to six papers in French of three to four pages in length. Each paper is corrected for grammar, construction, choice of vocabulary and, of course, for content. The final grades are based on the results of the written work and on student participation in the classroom. There is no final exam. The course is given in French. (Gray)

453(487/488). Literature of the Seventeenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

This course, conducted in French, will focus on the pre-classical period, on those writers who react against the baroque incursion and who begin to define the direction that 17th century literature will finally take. To this end, attention will be paid to the transitional poets at the beginning of the century (namely Malherbe, Regnier, Saint-Amant), and, more especially, to the tragedies of Corneille and the comedies of Molière. Careful reading of texts under discussion is expected. Students will be required to write four papers in French and to participate in discussion. The final grade will be based on the results of written work and on student participation. There is no final exam. (Gray)

454(481/482). Literature of the Eighteenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

The course will focus on a study of the eighteenth century French novel. We shall be looking at how the emergence and consolidation of that genre made the novel the most important literary form in eighteenth century France. We shall read and discuss a number of major works, placing them in their historical, cultural, and literary contexts so as to arrive at a command of the principal characteristics of the period. Readings will include Montesqier's LES LETTRES PERSANES, Prevost's MANON LESCAUT, Voltaire's CANDIDE, Rousseau's LES CONFESSIONS, Diderot's, JACQUES LE FATALISTE, and Laclos' LES LIAISONS DANGEREUSES. Each student will be expected to participate actively in class discussions, present an expose, and write two papers. There will be a midterm and a final examination. (Kavanagh)

456(475). Symbolism. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001. SYMBOLISM. "To say that literature has its own language, one which does not coincide with its natural language but is superimposed on that language, is merely another way of saying that literature possesses an exclusive, inherent system of signs and rules governing their combination which serve to transmit special messages, nontransmittable by other means" (Jurij Lotman). The course attempts to uncover the "signs" and "rules" (and agrammaticalities) of the more-than-denotative language of symbolism. Nearly all of the exploration takes place in poetry; after brief reference to Baudelaire as precursor, the class undertakes analysis of poems by Verlaine, Rimbaud, Laforgue, Mallarme, and Valery. In four or five short papers (original analyses of poetic texts) students have the opportunity to hone their skills with traditional EXPLICATION DE TEXTES, and/or with the more precise, if sometimes more reductive, techniques of discourse analysis. Readings, lectures, and discussions in French. Final examination. (Nelson)

457(451/452). Introduction to Twentieth-Century French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU).

Le cours porte essentiellement sur la generation nee vers 1870, et dont les annees de maturite se situent donc dans le premier tiers du vingtieme siecle. Les ecrivains choisis pour representer cette generation sont: Paul Claudel, Andre Gide, Colette et (mais par le biais de quelques poemes seulement) Paul Valery. Nous etudierons aussi l'oeuvre poetique du Guillaume Apollinaire (1881-1918) et l'apport du Surrealisme avec les MANIFESTES et des poemes d'Andre Breton. Les devoirs (au nombre de trois) seront rediges en francais par les etudiants qui se specialisent dans cette langue; les autres sont autorises a s'exprimer en anglais. (Muller)

460(442). Topics and Themes in French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 LITERATURE OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY. Courtly literature as a forum for the cultural transformation of twelfth-century France. Focus on the relationship between poetic technique and social meaning. Attention to the impact of writing on an oral culture, and of non-literary social concerns on literary practice. Readings, in modern French translation, will include the CHANSON DE ROLAND, Beroul's ROMAN DE TRISTAN, one or two LAIS of Marie de France, a selection of lyric poetry, and Chrétien de Troyes' CHEVALIER DE LA CHARRETTE. The course will be conducted in French. (Graham)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with parallel emphasis on conversation. Text, workbook and lab manual required; Italian 101 covers the first half of the text Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm, and a final examination.

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden student knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also emphasized. The course covers the second half of the text with workbook and lab manual; a cultural reader supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm, and a final examination.

111. First Special Reading Course. (4). (Excl.).

FIRST SPECIAL READING COURSE. Italian 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a thorough reading knowledge of the language. Most of the grammar of the language is covered and reading of both fictional and critical materials is required. Open to graduates, seniors, and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Italian 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirements for the doctorate. Italian 111 and 112 may not be used to satisfy the LSA foreign language requirement. (Olken)

Other Language and Literature Courses

205. Italian Conversation for Non-concentrators. Italian 102 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Italian 205 emphasizes fluency and self-expression in conversational Italian. This course is for students who have had a least two (2) terms of Italian and are interested in acquiring a certain facility with the spoken language. Class work consists of reading materials from various sources (magazines, newspapers, short stories, etc.) which will be discussed in class. Use of the language laboratory will provide additional conversational material on various aspects of Italian life. Class will meet twice a week. There are no examinations, and the grading is on a credit basis only. Success in the course is determined on the basis of attendance, homework and participation in classroom activities.

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a brief review of grammar, and the elements of composition are stressed. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

359. Italian Culture and History to the Eighteenth Century. (3). (HU).

The course treats the general period from the late Middle Ages to the 18th century, focusing on literary works which best represent the social political life of Italy. The first part of the course will provide a concise historical background from the fall of the Roman Empire to the COMUNI, and will trace the development of the Italian language, from Latin to Saint Francis, preparing students to analyze and understand the many aspects of the Italian Renaissance. Selected and representative poetry of the Sicilian School, Cavalcanti and Guinizelli comprise the first literary readings, followed by selections from Petrarch's sonnets and Dante's VITA NUOVA. The problem of the language will be developed through a reading of chapters from the DE VULGARI ELOQUENTIA, and selected cantos from the DIVINE COMEDY will deal primarily with the political and social life in Florence. The ASCENT TO MOUNT VENTOUX will be read to present Petrarch as one of the first representatives of Humanism. Selections from the DECAMERON are illustrative of Boccaccio's attention to social questions, in particular, the role played by women and the problem of religion. Artistic life of the Renaissance will be analyzed, through discussion of representative artists in various fields. (Donatello, Cellini, Pier della Francesca, Girlandaio, Botticelli, Pollaiuolo, Raphael, Bellini, Giorgione, Titian, Brunelleschi, Bramante, Palladio, with the treatises of Leon B. Alberti, Castiglione, and Della Casa to introduce the general atmosphere of the period). Leonardo, Michelangelo and Galileo will be studied individually. The syllabus will conclude with a general overview of the 17th century. Students will be required to write two or three short papers during the term. (Mazzola)

361. Intermediate Italian. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

All the basic skills of the language will receive attention in this course, the primary goal of which is the improvement and refinement of oral, reading and writing proficiency. Review of difficult points of grammar will be taken up when necessary, but the major concentration will be on class discussion of short reading materials ranging from newspaper and magazine articles, short fiction and poetry to polemic essays on contemporary cultural, political and social topics. Short essays will be part of the regular assignments, as will occasional prepared oral presentations, translations, and dictations. The variety of the materials covered will be as broad as possible to introduce students to the several different writing styles and manner of presentation of the language. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly.

415. America and Italy. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (1). (HU).

Both the myth and the reality of America were central and vital as inspiration and model in Italian literature and general culture during the 1930's-1950's. Constrained by a disastrous economy, many Italians migrated permanently or temporarily to America, while Fascist censorship until the mid-1940's caused Italian writers and thinkers to look beyond the Atlantic as translators and critics of American writers, from Melville, Poe, and Anderson to Faulkner, Steinbeck, Saroyan, and Caldwell, among others. Images of an open frontier, the land of milk and honey, and stunning technical advances were absorbed at several levels of Italian literary expression, as were themes of resignation when the myths failed to inform reality. The works of such writers as Elio Vittorini, Cesare Pavese, Carlo Levi, Dino Buzzati, and Mario Soldati reflect the importance of American ideas and ideals in Italy at the time, and the manner in which they affected Italian style and expression. Selected short readings from these and American authors will constitute the syllabus of the course. Lectures and class discussion, short papers and one examination. (Olken)

432. Italian Literature in Translation. A knowledge of Italian is not required. Not open to Italian concentrators. (3). (HU).

A general introduction to the major narrative fiction of Italian literature during the 19th and 20th centuries, including novels, short stories, and plays that reflect prevailing cultural tendencies and specific moments of aesthetic innovation. Nineteenth century Romanticism will be presented by Alessandro Manzoni's THE BETROTHED, and Naturalism (Verism) by Giovanni Verga's THE HOUSE BY THE MEDLAR TREE, MASTER DON GESUALDO, and selected short stories. Twentieth century readings will include plays by Luigi Pirandello, and novels and short stories by Alberto Moravia, Elio Vittorini and Italo Calvino. Lectures and class discussion, short papers and examinations. (Olken)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

101. Elementary Portuguese. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to give students the ability to understand the Portuguese of everyday life when spoken at a moderate speed, to be understood in typical situations of everyday life, and to read non-technical Portuguese of moderate difficulty. The course covers units 1-10 of MODERN PORTUGUESE by Ellison et al. Because of the nature of the text and accompanying tapes, and the nationality and training of the present staff, students will learn the variety of Portuguese spoken in Brazil by educated speakers. Classroom work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structure through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, writing exercises and time in the lab. Grading will be based on three hourly quizzes, oral exercises, homework, class participation and a final exam. Portuguese 101 is offered only in the Fall Term. (Warshai)

231. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 102 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Second year Portuguese is designed to develop and enhance the work done in Portuguese 101/102. (See description above). It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history, and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. The required texts at the moment are King and Suner, PASA A FRINTE! and selected short stories and other materials made available as hand-outs. Classroom work involves an intensive grammar review, the study of finer points of Portuguese grammar as made necessary from daily observation of students' writing and speaking performances, oral presentations and discussion of short stories and texts from newspapers and magazines. Homework involves studying grammar, preparing oral presentations, and writing guided essays. Grading is based on quizzes given every other week, oral presentations, essays, class participation and a final exam. Portuguese 231 is only offered Fall Term. (Warshai)

301. Readings in Luso-Brazilian Culture. Permission of instructor. (3). (FL or HU).

A study of contemporary Brazilian culture and society. We will read literary works, articles from magazines and newspapers, song lyrics and other kinds of texts to gain an understanding of the current cultural and social scene. Film, television and popular music will be included as well. We will also look at the historical background to contemporary developments. Special attention will be given to developing students' writing and speaking skills. Requirements: brief oral presentations on topics from our readings; several short (three-five page) papers; active participation in class. Since the course will be taught in a discussion format, grades will be determined by performance in class, as well as by presentations and papers. (Wolff)

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

300. Introduction to the Romance Languages. French, Spanish, or Italian: five terms at college level or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The purposes of this course are to discuss the relationships which exist among the various Romance languages, to acquaint students with the methods and objectives of Romance linguistics, and to attract students to a specialization program. Following a brief introduction to the methodology of linguistic analysis, the grammatical structures of French, Spanish, Italian, and Rumanian are compared. The course is conducted in English, and all required reading is in English. Students who can read other languages are encouraged to pursue certain topics in these languages. The text is a course pack supplemented by handouts. In recent years, students have come to the course with knowledge of several Romance languages and of general linguistics. This adds to the interest of the course, but should not discourage the student who knows only French or Spanish. (Leonard)

455/Spanish 455/Educ. D455. Teaching Spanish/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

See Spanish 455. (Gonzalez-Widel)

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading Spanish. Grade based on three departmental exams, quizzes, written work, and daily oral work. (Spanish 101 AND 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 100.)

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish 102 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere.

205. Spanish Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities which are of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week, and the most important qualities necessary to participate successfully are a willingness and a desire to learn. Grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. THIS COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS.

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature, history, and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on two oral exams and a series of exams designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, history, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on three exams, designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation.

251. Collegiate Fellows Seminar: From Orality to Literacy, Languages and Cultures in Contact. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001 From Orality to Literacy; Languages and Cultures in contact in the New World. The course addresses one of the most fundamental issues of Liberal Education; the cultural and intellectual heritage of the world's non-English speaking majority. Students taking this course will achieve a critical understanding of the nature of language and its function in our conception of reality and of ourselves. We will look into the biological foundation of language, into the differences between oral and written expressions and its impact in the organization of society. We will use this distinction to reflect on the understanding of our own tradition and on the understanding of the differences with other cultures and traditions. Thematically, the course will focus on the confrontation between the Western cultural heritage and the cultures of the New World during the conquest and colonization of America. The "origin" of Spanish American and Anglo American cultures and traditions will be brought into focus. Students interested in linguistics, anthropology, history, English and foreign languages and literatures, Latin American studies, Latino studies, philosophy, religion and comparative are encouraged to register. The course will mix lectures and recitations. Students are expected to make oral presentations and participate in discussions. A bi-weekly two to three page report is expected. A couple of "position" papers (five to seven pages) will be requested. Reading material includes a selection of Plato's work on language and writing; a selection of early Spanish reports on indigenous Mesoamerican cultures (FLORENTINE CODEX); indigenous pictographic CODICES and poetry; and the Mayan-Quiche's (south of Mexico and Guatemala) myth of origin (POPOL VUH. THE MAYAN BOOK OF THE DAWN OF LIFE AND THE GLORIES OF GODS AND KINGS). Reading material, lectures and discussions in English. (Mignolo)

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have already received credit for high school or college Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (4).

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors; and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate. (Dworkin)

Other Language Courses

305. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this one credit hour course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to increase the linguistic skills (phonological, morphological, and syntactical) necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. THIS COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS.

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used, centered on a grammar-based course book. The student will do readings in Spanish, prepare discussion topics, revise and extend grammar, prepare exercises and translations, and expand vocabulary. Ample time is allotted to class discussion of the readings, and to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on weekly translations, tests, exams, and participation in discussion. (Anderson)

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 361. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects. (Section 001 Fraker; Section 002 Hafter; Section 003 Vaquero; Section 004; Wolfe)

363. Problems in Language Translation. Spanish 361; Spanish 232 with permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course begins with translations of short items from newspapers on a variety of fields, essays, historical texts, short stories, criticism and poetry. Students are required to read a number of essays on the theory and problems of translation to become aware of the nature of translation. The course is divided into two parts, the first will deal with Spanish-English translation. During this period students will learn the techniques of translation going from the less to the more known language. This period is used to sensitize students to the dual task of the translator, to interpret correctly the original and to be faithful to the demands of the target language. Thus, alternatives in nuances, words, the need to rearrange sentences are investigated in a language that they control. Once this process of initiation is completed, translations into Spanish are undertaken. Students must prepare daily translations and participate in the discussions to search the most appropriate rendering of the original. (Casa)

455/Rom. Ling. 455/Educ. D455. Teaching Spanish/Applications of Linguistics. Permission of concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

Theoretical and practical aspects of second language acquisition with special reference to the acquisition of Spanish by speakers of English. Principles of syntactic, semantic, morphological, and phonological analysis applied to practical problems in teaching and learning Spanish. Among the topics included in the course are: theory; analysis of learning problems; course design; textbook analysis; testing; techniques for teaching and learning (a) listening, (b) speaking, (c) reading, and (d) composition skills. Knowledge of Spanish and English is required. (Gonzalez-Widel)

Literature

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

We will be doing a kind of practical anthropology, exploring the very unfamiliar world of the older literary text. We will study some examples of traditional epic and ballad as well as some works of high literature, prose and poetry. (Fraker)

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

The Enlightenment, Romanticism, Realism, the Generation of '98, and the years around the Spanish Civil War are the periods represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, and an effort is made to show how they exemplify their historical and cultural context. Representative authors who may be studied are Larra, Zorrilla, Espronceda, Becquer, Galdos, Unamuno, and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of quizzes, a term paper, and a final examination. The course is conducted in Spanish. (Hafter)

375. Civilización de Espa a (Spanish Civilization). Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (HU).

This course will focus on some current issues that confront Spanish democracy. Social, economic, political and cultural aspects of Spanish life will be discussed. For example, what do the Spanish people think about abortion or the relationship between the Church and the State? How has the Spanish economy changed since Spain's entry into the Common Market? Are the Spanish people satisfied with their monarchy and the present socialist government? What do the Spaniards think changed when Spain joined NATO. How did the cultural life improve after the death of the dictator Francisco Franco? The objective of the course is to discuss the contemporary problems as well as the historical origins of these and other questions and to expose students to the perspective that the current democracy introduced. The course will cover information about these issues through readings and lectures. The goal is to stimulate critical thinking by the students and discussion in the class. (Calvo)

420. Literary Movements in Twentieth-Century Spain. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001. CHILDHOOD AND THE POST-CIVIL WAR NOVEL. In this course we will be examining the significance and imagery of childhood in selected novels of the Post-Civil War period in Spain. Among the novels to be studied: Miguel Delibes' EL CAMINO, Sanchez Ferlosio's INDUSTRIAS Y ANDANZAS DE ALFANHUI, Rosa Chacel's MEMORIAS DE LETICIA VALLE, Rafael Dieste's HISTORIAS E INVENCIONES DE FELIX MURIEL, Ana Maria Matute's PRIMERA MEMORIA, AND Ana Maria Moix'S WALTER, POR QUE TE FUISTE? The course requirements include a midterm, final exam and term paper. Given in Spanish. Lecture and discussion. (Valis)

432. Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation. Open to students at all levels. A knowledge of Spanish is not required. May not be included in a concentration plan in Spanish (or teaching certificate major or minor). (3). (HU).

Major works of Brazilian fiction from Machado de Assis to the contemporary scene (1885-1985). We will read short stories and novels by writers such as Machado, Clarice Lispector, Jorge Amado, Rubem Fonseca and Guimaraes Rosa. Close readings of the texts, with emphasis on literary experiment and innovation, the relation of literature to its socio-historic moment, issues in narrative theory, and portrayals of women and minorities. As part of our study of the national and international context of Brazilian fiction, we will also reflect on the "image" of Brazil publishers give United States readers: what factors determine whether a work will be translated, and how are Brazilian works how is Brazil - "marketed?" All readings will be in English: students who wish to read the texts in the original should consult the instructor. There will be two short papers (three-five pages) and one longer (seven-ten pages) papers. Students will also be asked to give an oral presentation, or to lead class discussion on one of the works. Grades will be based on papers, presentations and class participation. The course will be taught as a discussion/seminar. (Wolff)

461. Middle Ages. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-387 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The aim of this course will be to understand and enjoy Spanish Medieval Literature. The course will center around three masterpieces: POEMA DE MIO CID, LIBRO DE BUEN AMOR and LA CELESTINA, and in relation with them we will read some other works that will enhance our knowledge of the content and artistic value of the main texts. There will be lectures on historical and ideological matters, but the course will proceed mainly through discussion. Two ten to fifteen page papers will be expected, as well as two oral reports and one final exam. Students will be evaluated on the basis of papers (25%), oral reports (25%), final exam (40%) and class discussion (10%). (Vaquero)

462. Golden Age. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

A consideration of the major exponents of Spain's Golden Age. Topics to be covered are: the problem of Renaissance in Spain, the influence of Petrarchan poetry, the beginning of the picaresque mode, the fusion of religious and love poetry, the development of the short-story, characteristics of Golden Age drama. Students are required to write papers on three of these topics as well as take a final examination. Topics will be introduced by background lectures. Individual works will be analyzed in class discussions and student presentations. The following authors or works will be read: Garcilaso de la Vega, Alfonso Valdes, LAZARILLO DE TORMES, Fray Luis de Leon, San Juan de la Cruz, Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderon de la Barca. Supplementary readings on other authors complete the course. (Casa)

485. Don Quijote. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

A close study of Cervantes' ideology and its artistic expression.

488. Latin American Narrative of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (HU).

This course will examine various narrative traditions currently prevalent in Spanish America: short story, novel, and testimonial. To be discussed in a broadly cultural context, these narratives will be studied for their divergent perspectives on contemporary society and culture in Spanish America. Some attention will be given to problems of narrative theory. Four short (three-five page) papers will be assigned in addition to midterm and final examinations. Readings, discussion, and writing in Spanish. (Adorno)


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