Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

This course will describe and analyze the way in which Mediterranean culture became a European culture and by 1715 had provided the basis for a worldwide Atlantic civilization. The emphasis in the course will be cultural and intellectual with due attention to the transformation of society, the agricultural and technical-mechanical changes in European society, the transformation of the art of war and the ratianization and transformation of the economic order. An analysis of the role of religion, the development of political participation and parliamentary politics, the growth of the universities, state-building and bureaucratic centralization will be especially stressed. No special previous knowledge is necessary for success in the course. There will be a single text and a single book of course readings. Grades will be an average of midterm and final examinations, class recitations and the evaluations of a series of short papers to be assigned in the course of the term. There will be two discussion sections per week. (Tonsor)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course is designed as a general introduction to modern European history since 1700 for those without previous college-level work in history. It is designed to meet the needs both of those looking for a general survey course to broaden their education and of those thinking of concentrating in history. While History 110 provides an excellent background for History 111, it is not a required prerequisite. Some of the themes emphasized in History 111 are: the breakdown of traditional monarchial, aristocratic, and church domination in the age of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; the intensification of nationalism and the reunification of Germany and Italy; the industrial revolution and the changing quality of European life (urbanization) and politics (the emergence of socialist and working-class parties); the middle-class domination of politics and its disintegration; the impact on popular thought of the new scientific advances of the nineteenth century; the expansion of the rival European powers overseas in the age of imperialism; the intensification of international rivalries and the First World War; the Russian Revolution and the emergence of the Communist challenge; the rise and fall of Fascism; the place of Europe in the post-imperialist world. The course is conducted in lectures and discussions, with readings in both textbooks and contemporary writings. One or two short papers are usually required. (Price)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

History 121 is an introduction to the civilization of China, Japan and Korea. The course is designed to provide an overview of changing traditions from ancient until modern times by focusing on broad trends which shaped the history of this vast and varied region. The course aims to provide a basis in comprehension from which to examine more specific problems in the history of East Asia at a later time. The approach is mostly historical but perspectives from other disciplines such as art history, anthropology, literature and religious studies are also incorporated. Readings of contemporary accounts and viewing of films and slides are important elements of this course, meant to promote intimate appreciation of these cultures. There is no prerequisite for enrollment. Requirements include midterm and final examination. (Tonomura)

151/Asian Studies 111. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

This is an introductory survey of Indian civilization. The course will cover the beginnings of Indian civilization in the Indus Valley (from about 2300 B.C.), the arrival of Sanskrit-speakers and the formation of classical Indian civilization, its spreading influence over wide reaches of Asia, and its successive encounters with Islamic and European civilizations, leading to the formation of the independent nation states of the present: the Republic of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The development of Hinduism and Buddhism, the family and caste system, Indian achievements in the arts and sciences, and contemporary economic and political problems will be among the topics covered. The course is intended to be an introduction, and no prior knowledge of India will be expected. Requirements will include short essays, a midterm and a final examination. (Trautmann)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This course deals with the history of the part of North America that became the United States, from before European contact to the end of the American Civil War. Focal points are the interaction of native, European, and African people; the emergence of political structures and cultural patterns under British colonial rule; the nature and impact of the American Revolution; and the origins and nature of the Civil War. Two lectures and two discussion sections each week, at least one essay, one hour examination, and a two-hour final examination will emphasize the problems of explaining and understanding this formative period of American society. A comprehensive textbook plus extensive reading in primary evidence (eyewitness accounts), from Cotton Mather to Abraham Lincoln, provide the basis for study of the period. (Shy)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 has three basic objectives. First, we expect you to gain a better understanding of some of the social, cultural, political, economic, and demographic forces that have shaped the American experience since the Civil War. Lectures, discussion sections, and readings will focus on transformations in the labor force and workplace, changes in family life and community networks, and the shifting scope of the public and private sectors. Second, the staff wants you to refine basic skills that can be applied throughout your undergraduate education. There will be a midterm and final examination and several short papers. Finally, the course is designed to give you some direction as you think about where you are heading and why. (Achenbaum)

197. Freshman Seminar. (4). (Excl).

This seminar is concerned with the social history of the United States in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be upon examining the life, work, living conditions, and problems confronted by working people and families who lived during these years. Other social groups and other time periods will also be considered for comparative purposes and to better identify patterns of change. An opportunity will be provided to gain familiarity with methods of historical research and to work with unusual original source materials bearing upon the conditions of working people and other groups. These include a unique collection of computerized source material concerned with the living conditions of industrial workers and their families during the Gilded Age. Secondary studies will also be employed. Through these materials the seminar will provide a glimpse of the way people actually lived at the time. Instruction will be conducted through class discussions and "laboratory" work. Student evaluations will be based primarily upon a combination of brief examinations and papers. No special background or preparation is required. (Clubb)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Near East and Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This is a Collegiate Fellows course, emphasizing critical thinking. See page 3 of this COURSE GUIDE for a complete list of Collegiate Fellows courses.

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. There are two hour examinations (an optional paper may be written for extra credit) plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading. (S. Humphreys)

212/MARC 212. The Renaissance. (4). (HU).

This course will begin with a discussion of social and political life in communal Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. The rise of cities, the formation of city-states, establishment of communal governments, and the emergence of commerce and banking will be treated. Consideration will be given to literary and artistic developments in the age of Dante and Giotto. Education and the spread of literacy in cities will be examined. Next, the rise of humanism will be investigated and the writings of Boccaccio, Petrarch, and Salutati analyzed. Civic humanism, with its concern for the organization of state and society will be investigated in political writings from Bruni to Machiavelli. The theme of the "diginity of men" will be explicated in literature and the fine arts. Social changes of the 15th century and their impact on cultural and political life will be discussed. The effects of the crisis of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when Italy was subject to foreign invasions, will be dealt with. The course will then conclude with an examination of the effects of the Protestant and Catholic reformations on Italian social life and thought in the 16th century. (Becker)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (Excl).

This course examines the wars that were fought in and around Vietnam from 1945 to 1975, with chief emphasis on the period of heavy American involvement starting in the mid-1950's. The course seeks to asses the origins, strategy, and impact of the U.S. intervention, and to relate that involvement both to U.S. domestic politics and to wider global concerns. At the same time the course will examine the development of Vietnamese society in the twentieth century, so as to explain the motivation and domestic appeal of the Vietnamese Communists. In short, the Vietnam War will be analyzed both as the longest and most controversial foreign war in American history, and as the climax to an Asian social revolution that began during the colonial period. Three lectures and one discussion section per week. Midterm, final exam, and optional term paper. (Lieberman)

220. Survey of British History to 1688. (4). (SS).

This course is an introduction to English history from the Anglo-Saxon conquest until the Revolution of 1668. Its focus is necessarily on the main developments and most momentous events in the millennium of history it covers. The first half of the course deals with the formation and consolidation of the English nation and the shocks it endured in the Middle Ages. The development of the monarchy and the Church, the nature of English feudalism and the massive demographic calamities of the fourteenth century are among the themes that will be discussed. The second half of the course covers the dissolution of medieval institutions and society and the creation of a new kind of state and culture. The Chief developments that will be discussed are the Tudor reforms in government, the Protestant reformation, the growth and redistribution of the population and the expansion of the economy. Attention will also be given to early modern social life and popular beliefs. The course will end with a discussion of the political revolutions of the seventeenth century and their significance. (MacDonald)

251. Modern China. (4). (SS).

History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. (A. Feuerwerker)

274/CAAS 230. Survey of Afro-American History I. (4). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 230. (Dykes)

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (4). (Excl).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. The course will study four different historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation and public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Indians, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries; and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. We will focus on American history, although comparisons will be drawn to other societies. The course is a basic introduction No background in medicine or history is assumed. Classes are taught in lecture format, and will include a variety of audio-visual sources. Reading assignments will range from modern histories to poetry and old medical journals. There will be two essay-style examinations, and frequent short quizzes. This is a rewarding but demanding course intended for those willing to sustain high levels of intellectual effort throughout the term. Those who miss the first meeting without advance permission will be dropped from the course. (Pernick)

286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (4). (Excl).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all majors, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantine's conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic & Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the 11th century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Considerable attention is given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam and a final are required. (J. Fine)

287/REES 287/Armenian Studies 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (4). (Excl).

This course explores the social, political, and intellectual history of the Armenian people from their origins as a nation to the present day. Emphasis is placed on the periods of Armenian statehood and the connections of the Armenians with the imperial powers which ruled them. The history of revolutionary movements and the establishment of an independent and later Soviet republic are discussed. The course is taught through lectures and discussions. Readings will include works by Der Nercessian, Garsoian, Hovannisian, and Matossian. Students will be required to write a paper on a topic to be approved by the instructor. (R. Suny)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

307/GNE 363/Rel. 359. History of Ancient Israel II: The Formation of Classical Judaism. May be elected independently of Hist. 306. (3). (Excl).

See General Near East 363. (Machinist)

318. Imperialism and After: Europe 1890-1945. (4). (SS).

This course examines social, cultural and political responses to the disruptive forces of industrial development, war, revolution and depression experienced from 1890 to 1945 in both western and eastern European societies. At the heart of the course lie such questions as: Who holds the political power and on what basis have they acquired this power? How does the political system structure the decision-making process? Who is excluded from that process, in both its formal and informal incarnations? What is the balance of forces pressuring to change the system and who is struggling to preserve it? These questions will shape our approach to the distinctive issues of twentieth century European politics, including: the political mobilization of economically and socially disadvantaged groups (industrial workers, women, peasants, disgruntled strata of the middle classes), imperialism and the rise of European nationalist movements, the impact of two World Wars on state and society, and the emergence of fascism from the crises of liberalism and capitalism. A core text and additional readings required; other course requirements will include an hour exam (in class), a brief (5-page) review essay and a final exam. (Downs)

332/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/REES 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395 (Szporluk)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (Excl).

History 366 will examine via talks, books, films and discussion sections - -America's wars of the past 90 years, with emphasis on those that have engaged this society since 1940. The stress will fall on individual perceptions of war's purposes and meanings as they are revealed in autobiography and fiction and on the patterns of personal experience in combat as they alter from war to war. In larger historical perspective, the following themes will receive attention: American society's patterns of response to situations of conflict; methods of mobilizing the nation for war; the experience of the homefront; American images of ally and enemy; and the role of technology in altering the nature of war. There will be little discussion of tactics or the technical processes of war-making. Students are asked to select one of the lecture sections, and to register as well for one of the discussion sections scheduled to meet an additional hour each week. There are no history-course prerequisites for History 366. (Linderman)

370/Women's Studies 370. Women in American History to 1870. (4). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the history of American women as a group, as individuals, and as members of different classes, races, religions, and ethnic communities. Using "work" as an organizing concept, it focuses particularly on the significance of gender in determining women's experience from the colonial period to 1870. (Karlsen)

383. Modern Jewish History to 1880. (4). (Excl).

This lecture course offers a survey of Jewish history in western and eastern Europe, America, and the Middle East from the mid-seventeenth century to the 1870's. It begins with the emergence of western European Jews from cultural and social isolation, discusses their acquisition of the full rights of citizenship, and traces their efforts to modernize Jewish ritual and belief to make them more compatible with their new situation. The focus then shifts to eastern Europe, where traditional values and patterns of behavior persisted until the end of the nineteenth century. The lectures on eastern Europe will focus on the religious and social character of Jewish life in Poland and Russia, the development of Hasidism, and the first glimmerings of enlightenment (haskalah) in the mid-nineteenth century. The course will conclude with a look at the growth of the Jewish community in America before the mass migration from eastern Europe and, turning elsewhere in the diaspora, with a brief survey of the Jewish communities of North Africa and the Middle East. There will be an essay-type midterm, a ten-page paper, and a comprehensive final. (Endelman)

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

This is a Collegiate Fellows course, emphasizing critical thinking. See page 3 of this COURSE GUIDE for a complete list of Collegiate courses.

SECTION 001 MYTHS AND MODELS IN AMERICAN HISTORY. This colloquium examines the close connections among myths, models, methods, morals, methodologies, and metahistories in the production of historical knowledge and understanding. It postulates that history-as-actual-past and history-as-written-text interpenetrate in such important essentials that history, historiography, and philosophy of history are often the same thing. The medium of the course will be United States history by way of example. Recent, well-received books in the field that exemplify clear models, morals, etc., in-and of-American history will be the subject of the weekly discussions and brief papers:


Assigned papers will be short analyses of the books from a specific perspective in line with the larger goals of the course. The student will learn to read American histories in a new, more complex and active way and understand better the multiple perspectives and epistemologies fused in the narrative synthesis of the United States past. (Berkhofer)

, SECTION 002 POLITICS, AND THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN AMERICA 1830-1930. How did the public sector in America take the shape that it did? This course attempts to answer this question by combining the theoretical and empirical work of historians, political scientists, and sociologists in order to analyze the development of the public sector in Pre-New Deal America. It therefore combines a review of theories and models which have served to frame and inform inquiry into this topic with historical case studies of the development of the public sector in this period. Case studies of public sector activities will include education, social welfare, and economic regulation. Students will meet weekly to discuss reading assignments of about a book a week. Brief papers will be written weekly and, in addition, there will be a midterm paper of five to eight pages and a final paper of 15-20 pages. Both of the longer papers will be done in drafts. (McDonald) |QL2| SECTION 003 AMERICAN THOUGHT AND CULTURE. This reading-and-discussion seminar is addressed to American intellectual life during the decade of the "fifties," construed to extend through about 1963. We will approach the topic through some of the period's major works of fiction, social theory, historical scholarship, political argument, and literacy criticism. Assigned readings are likely to include many of the following:


The course is designed for, but not restricted to, students who have completed History 563, "Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865." The emphasis will be on the close, critical analysis of the reading assignments, which will average one book per week. (Hollinger)

SECTION 004 "THE PRESIDENCY IN THE 1970'S: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES OF THE FORD ADMINISTRATION." For this upper division writing and research seminar, students will focus on the history of the 1970's and specifically upon Gerald R. Ford and his presidential administration. The seminar will meet as a class for lecture/discussion during the first weeks of the term at the Gerald R. Ford Library on North Campus. Students will then meet individually with the instructor and staff of the Ford Library as they research and write a report on selected topics utilizing the document resources of the Ford Library. Students should have a survey knowledge of recent American history. Evaluation will be based on discussion, oral presentations to the class, written reports on assigned readings, and a research paper, with the emphasis being on the latter. Objectives of the course are: 1) Provide an overview of the Office of the President and presidential decision-making; 2) Examine the White House and how it functions in the creation of the documentary record; 3) Provide a summary review of the presidency of Gerald. R. Ford; and 4) Learn how to conduct research and write a seminar paper. Research topics will focus on economics, energy and environment, social issues, and political campaigns of the 1970's. (Daellenbach)

Section 005 CULTURE AND SOCIETY IN MODERN EUROPE. Culture has enormous prestige in modern European society, vast resources have been spent on it, hundreds of thousands of people have devoted themselves to its creation and maintenance. Looking at the different arts and at different countries and the changing position of the artist or writer, this course will ask what people mean by culture and why it has become the subject of such public concern. Such questions will be addressed concretely in the discussions of assigned readings (with separate topics each week) and three papers on related subjects selected by the student. (Grew)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

SECTION 001 JAPAN IN WORLD WAR II. This course will examine the causes, course, and consequences of Japan's involvement in World War II, from the Manchurian incident in 1931 to the surrender aboard the MISSOURI in 1945. We will examine different aspects of the war through a text, Ronald H. Spector's EAGLE AGAINST THE SUN: THE AMERICAN WAR WITH JAPAN (Free Press, 1984), and readings in a course pack. Classes will be devoted to specific themes based on assigned readings and the presentation of oral reports on designated topics. Students will be evaluated on their contributions to discussions and their oral reports, but special weight will be given to two written reports (eight to ten typewritten pages). (Hackett)

Section 003 1911 IN CHINA: WHAT SORT OF REVOLUTION? The Chinese Revolution of 1911, which overthrew the Qing dynasty and ended the two-millennia - old imperial system of government, has acquired a new prominence in historical thinking about the nature of modern China's transformation. As the career of Mao Zedong and the rise to power of the Chinese Communist Party are being drastically re-evaluated, China's earlier republican revolution seems ever more significant. Yet there is conspicuous lack of agreement on the proper measure of its significance. In this course we shall study the event and its context and examine a range of interpretations in an attempt to arrive at our own framework of understanding. We shall be interested in similar events elsewhere and the possibilities for theorization arising from comparisons. The work for the course will consist of weekly reading assignments (accounts of the revolution, analyses of it, translated documents, comparative studies), discussion at weekly meetings, the writing of a short paper and a longer research paper, and the taking of a final exam. (Young)

SECTION 004 HEALTH AND DISEASE IN THE AGE OF VICTORIA, 1830-1900. The Victorian Era began with a devastating cholera epidemic, and ended with the revolutionary discoveries that shaped modern medicine. This course will examine the history of health and disease in Britain and the United States during this age of unprecedented medical and social change. Topics will include: the health effects of industrialization, immigration, urban growth, feminism, and colonialism; the influence of health and medicine on society, the arts, and politics; medical attitudes towards aging, sexuality, and race; the growth of the organized healing professions; natural healing, hospitals and mental asylums, anesthesia, antisepsis, and evolution. No background in history or medicine is required, although a previous introduction to either would be helpful. Class will be discussion format, with occasional brief lectures. Students will be expected to read and discuss thoughtfully about 200 pages per week, drawn from a variety of different sources. A 15 page paper based on original historical research, a weekly journal, and a 5 page book review paper are required of each student . No written exam. This is a rewarding but demanding course intended for those who are able to sustain high levels of individual effort on a weekly basis. Those absent from the first class without advance permission WILL NOT be allowed to remain in the course. (Pernick)

Section 008 STATE AND SOCIETY IN EARLY MODERN RUSSIA. Russia was known in the early modern period (fifteenth through seventeenth centuries) as an autocratic society ruled by a centralized administration under all-powerful Tsar. In reality, the tsars lacked the means and power to enforce total control over society but managed to govern over a stable and successfully expanding state nonetheless. The colloquium explores how the role of ideology and social values, kinship and religion, political culture and social control, in order to understand the interactions between state and society, and the problem of centralized power and its limits in early modern conditions. Readings include a variety of contemporary sources and modern interpretive analyses. There will be several papers but no exams. No knowledge of Russian is expected. (Kivelson)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. (J. Fine)

403. Problems in Roman History II. (4). (Excl).

A survey of the Roman empire, from its establishment by Augustus in the later first century B.C. to Constantine's conversion to Christianity in the early fourth century A.D. Topics to be covered include: emperors, senate, provinces and cities, imperial finances, early Christianity, barbarian invasions. Classes will include lectures and discussions of the assigned readings. Readings will include translations of original sources and books by modern authors. Final grade will be based on participation in class discussions and three essay tests. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. (Van Dam)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (Excl).

A history of Russia from Peter the Great to 1917, with emphasis on society - transformations and continuities in elite and popular cultures, autocratic and opposition politics, economic and social structures. Lectures and discussion section. Students will read and interpret political documents and fiction, in addition to secondary works. Requirements: participation in discussion sections, one short essay, midterm exam, final exam. Optional: a second larger paper. (Burbank)

442/GNE 442. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Team taught by Professors Luther (NES) and Lindner (History), this is the first course in a two-course introductory sequence (442 and 443) that covers Near Eastern history from the era of Muhammad to the present. Our purpose is to introduce you to (and give you some practice in) the methods of studying the Near East as well as to some of the content of Near Eastern history; we expect no previous background in the field. This course begins with the background and rise of Islam and ends in the heyday of the Ottoman Turkish and Safavid Persian empires, circa 1600. Although the basic organization of the course is chronological, we will discuss topics in such areas as politics and governance, religion (formal and "folk," including theology and mysticism), law, foreign relations and war, art and architecture, literature, economics, and social life. The classes will include lectures by (and probably discussions between) the instructors, and there will also be weekly class discussion of the assigned readings. In addition to the final examination, students will be expected to prepare two three-page exercises based on the readings, which will consist of modern scholarly works and translated medieval sources. (Luther and Lindner)

451. Japan Since 1800. (4). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is Arikiso Hane, MODERN JAPAN: A HISTORICAL SURVEY, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1986). Other reading assignments will be organized in a course pack. (Hackett)

456. Mughal India. (4). (Excl).

This course surveys the history of the Muslim Mughal Empire which ruled parts of what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. The course will begin by looking at the historical background, from the Arab conquest of Sindh to the rise of the Muslim empires of Central Asia, such as that of the Timur the Lame. The course will then look at the period of the Great Mughals 1525-1707, examining political, cultural, and social history as well as relations with neighbors such as Safavid Iran. It will proceed to eighteenth century, when the Mughal empire suffered political decentralization and was conquered by Iran briefly, then lost territories to Afghanistan, the Hindu Maratha Federation, and the British East India company. Finally, attention will be paid to the rise of post-Mughal successor states such as Shi'i-ruled Awadh and Sikh-ruled Punjab, and to the economic and social impact of British imperialism. (Cole)

460. American Colonial History to 1776. (4). (SS).

The course varies greatly from year to year . Usually, a casual exploration of colonial America from New England down to Virginia, always asking how this seemingly contented collection of colonies could so suddenly, from 1763 to 1776, reject the ties that bound them to England and declare independence. An exploration of the colonial origins of an American consciousness and character. Two textbooks and six other books (some fairly entertaining); alternate lectures and discussions. Two quizzes, an 8-10 page paper, and a final examination. (Lockridge)

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups and women in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Review sessions will be scheduled. (S. Fine)

476. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (4). (Excl).

This course will examine the colonial period in Latin American history from the initial Spanish and Portuguese contact and conquest to the nineteenth-century wars of independence. It will focus on the process of interaction between Indians and Europeans, tracing the evolution of a range of colonial societies in the New World. Thus we will examine the indigenous background to conquest as well as the nature of the settler community. We will also look at the shifting uses of land and labor, and at the importance of class, race, gender, and ethnicity. The method of instruction is lecture and discussion. Each student will write a short critical review and a final paper of approximately 10 to 12 pages. There will be a midterm and a final. Readings will include works by Inga Clendinnen, Nancy Farris, Karen Spalding and Charles Gibson, as well as primary materials from Aztec and Spanish sources. The text will be Lockhart and Schwartz, EARLY LATIN AMERCA. (Scott)

487/Engl. 416. Women in Victorian England. (4). (Excl).

See English 416. (Vicinus)

489. Catholic Church in Modern European History. (4). (Excl).

Lectures, discussions, and independent projects explore the complex interaction of the Catholic Church with some of the major developments of modern European history from the French Revolution to the present. Topics include the Church's participation in the social changes (and problems) brought about by industrialization and urbanization; its response to universal education and mass communication; its relations with different social classes; its reaction to such new intellectual theories as evolution, positivism, and modernism; its great conflicts with the state, especially in Germany, France, Italy, Great Britain, and Spain; Catholic contributions to culture; and Catholic political activities in revolutions, nationalist movements, liberal and fascist societies, and Christian Democratic parties. Some background in European history is helpful. (Grew)

490. The Left in Europe, 1917-Present. (4). (Excl).

The aim of the course is to explore the development of the Left as a distinct political tradition in the period after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the present day, in context of national political cultures. The main focus of discussion will be the development of communist parties and the international communist movement, together with the changing relationship between communist and social democratic parties. Close attention will be paid to the theoretical contents of these traditions, to the changing sociology of the Left, to the problem of trade unionism, and to the general relationship between socio-economic conditions and radical politics. The course will be organized in relation to a succession of critical periods: the First World War, the revolutionary years of 1917-23, the rise of fascism, the Second World War, and the contemporary situation. It will end with a discussion of current options. Readings will be drawn from a range of literature rather than a single text. (Eley)

512. From Oligarchy to Reform: Georgian Britain, 1714-1832. Hist. 111 or 221; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

British political, social and economic history from the accession of the House of Hanover to the Reform Bill of 1832: the classic constitution and the domination of the landed interest; the Augustan stability and the destabilization factors in the reign of George III; the challenges of the American and French Revolutions; the agricultural and industrial revolutions; new religious currents; the emergence of a successful reform movement and a new political synthesis. (Price)

516. History of Ireland to 1603. (4). (Excl).

A survey of the political, social, and cultural history of Ireland from earliest times until the fall of the Gaelic order. The course is conducted mainly by lecture. Students will write two brief papers and a longer one, and have a final examination. There are prerequisites for the course through a prior course in later Irish history, or in Irish literature, or in ancient or medieval European history would be helpful. (McNamara)

530. History of the Balkans from the Sixth Century to 1800. (4). (Excl).

A general survey of the Balkans (including Medieval Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and the relations of these states with Byzantium and Hungary) from the arrival of the Slavs in the 6th and 7th century through the Turkish period. The reading list consists of monographs, articles and a few translated sources. The reading list can be altered (with permission of the instructor) and to accommodate special interests. There will be an hour exam a paper (topic to be chosen by student with permission of the instructor) of about 15 pages and a final examination. Students who prefer to write a major paper (ca. 25 pages) can skip the hour exam. (J. Fine)

551. Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (4). (Excl).

In this course, we shall seek the origins and lineaments of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, so powerfully footed in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely in the preceding century and more for antecedents and predisposing social change. We shall examine the testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, trends in Confucian thought and the role of popular culture, nationalism and women's liberation, cultural iconoclasm and neotraditionalism, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Maoism and its debunking. Previous familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful but is not required. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write two short papers and take a final exam. (Young)

558. U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (4). (Excl).

This course examines American foreign policy to 1914. Special emphasis is given to the formative years 1775-1823 (diplomacy of the American Revolution, the Constitution and its meaning, the War of 1812, the Monroe Doctrine), to the expansion of the 1840s, and to the years of America's entry into world politics 1898-1914 (expansionism and imperialism, the Spanish-American War, the Open Door, the diplomacy of Theodore Roosevelt, the Mexican Revolution). Hour exam, term paper, final. (Perkins)

571. American Institutions and the Development of the Family. (4). (Excl).

This course will analyze the American family from the colonial period to the present. It will trace changes in the family from a pre-industrial society to a post-industrial one. The approach is topical and will cover such issues as the use of birth control and abortions, childbearing practices, adolescence, role of women, old age, and death and dying. Particular attention will be placed on analyzing the impact of changes in American institutions on the development of the family. Course format consists of lectures and classroom discussions with an emphasis on a critical reading of the assigned materials. The grading will be based upon the midterm and final examination. Some of the reading will include:





582. History of Criminal Law in England and America. (4). (Excl).

This course traces the history of the criminal justice in England and America from the medieval period to modern times. It deals with political and social theories regarding the institutions and ideas of the criminal law and with the relationship between society and legal norms. Among the subjects included in the scheme of the course are: the history of the criminal trial jury, its relationship to other institutions of the criminal law and its role with respect to the interaction of social attitudes and the formal processes of the criminal law; the use of the criminal law for counteracting disintegration of basic social institutions; political trials; theories of punishment; the development in the United States of constitutionally protected rights of defendants in criminal cases. This course is intended for students interested in Anglo-American history, for those interested in government and law, for those interested in the history of the relationship between social institutions and theories of criminal sanctions and for those interested in the origins and development of the central ideas and institutions of American constitutional and legal history. Course requirements: twelve-pg., take-home, midterm essay based in part on documents, and a final examination. (Green)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

This course examines the history of the area known as Burma from the earliest times to the present. It seeks to chronicle the origins of Burmese culture and to identify elements of continuity and innovation during the long monarchical period, the era of British colonial rule, and the current era of independence. The course will analyze not only political, but also religious, economic, and social aspects of Burmese civilization which is at the same time one of the most intriguing and little known in Asia. No formal prerequisites. Weekly seminar. Grade will be based on class presentations and on a research paper. (Lieberman)

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