Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 190 or 192. Psychology 190 is offered as a natural science course and stresses experimental psychology. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This is a course in cognitive psychology intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles, motivation, anxiety; learning in groups; and self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which would enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 190 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course presents material about biological and cognitive areas of psychology. It does NOT emphasize psychotherapy and mental illness, which are included in Psychology 171. It DOES cover topics such as perception, memory, animal behavior, and the human brain as a biological system. The course meets four hours per week, two hours in lecture and two hours in discussion sections taught by graduate teaching assistants.

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

Students must register for the Lecture (section 001) as well as one of the Discussion sections (sections 002-013). This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, motivation, personality, and others. The course meets four hours a week, two hours in discussion sections taught by graduate teaching assistants. If a student is unable to attend the first lecture or discussion class for which they are registered, they must notify the Introductory Psychology office IN WRITING prior to beginning of classes to reserve their space in the course.

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170 or 171 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 190 or 192. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one-term survey which integrates material from Psychology 170 and 171. The course serves as a basic preparation for most advanced level courses in psychology. The aim of the course is to acquaint students with the major approaches psychologists use to understand people and the aspects of human thought, feeling, and action that psychologists have studied. Lectures and readings first present the major ways of thinking about psychological issues (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and biological) and then address the nature of thought, emotion, development from infancy through death, and interactions of individuals with family, social, and cultural forces. Discussion sections offer students the opportunity to discuss and critically examine what they are learning, to analyze case studies, and to participate in more experiential forms of learning. Students must keep Wednesday evenings open for course-wide examinations and occasional films from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. The final course grade is based on two course-wide examinations and additional work (group presentations, research papers, etc.) assigned in section. (Westen)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 172, or 190. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend four hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

SECTION 001. This section introduces psychology by covering topics like the brain and nervous system, sensation, perception, consciousness, motivation, emotion, learning, memory and cognition, intelligence, development across the lifespan, personality, psychopathology, clinical psychology, social cognition and attitudes, interpersonal relations, group processes, and sexuality. Each topic will be organized in terms of issues of enduring concern to psychologists. Nuts and bolts of the course: lecture, discussion, and perhaps several films; textbook and course pack; short-answer exams; one paper. A good time will be had by all. (Peterson)

Section 002. This course is intended to provide an in-depth survey of psychology, with an emphasis on the links between psychology and other disciplines, including philosophy, biology, medicine, law, and literature. Through exposure to the thought and writing of scientists and non-scientists who have applied their minds and sensibilities to the same subjects, we will consider some questions that have important implications for modern life, including the following: (1) How accurately do we perceive, remember, and think? (2) To what extent are intelligence, personality and action influenced by nature versus nurture? (3) What is the proper relationship between reason and emotion? (4) How are the thought and behavior of individuals affected by group membership? A variety of class formats will be used, including lecture, discussion, films, labwork, and class demonstrations. Readings include a textbook, two additional books (THE INSANITY DEFENSE AND JOHN W. HINCKLEY, and BORN RED: A CHRONICLE OF THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION) and a course pack consisting of diverse readings (essays, short stories, autobiographical accounts, etc.) that correspond to the topics presented in the textbook. The final grade is based on your performance on frequent quizzes, frequent papers, and a comprehensive final examination. (Landman)

Section 003. This course is designed to explore contemporary psychology. It will cover a broad area of topics: Part 1 presents a general introduction to Psychology (definitions, history, methods). Part 2 is designed to give an overview of four different levels on which psychological phenomenon can be studied. First, the biological perspective will be discussed (evolution, genetics, nervous system). Second, some basic processes, namely perception, learning, information processing and motivation/emotion are studied. Third, the individual is in the center of attention (development, personality, clinical approaches). Finally, individuals in their social context will be considered (social cognition; intra-and intergroup processes). Part 3 of this course is devoted to the application of psychological knowledge to one specific problem, the adaptation to the transition from high school to college. This problem will be analyzed on the four different levels that were presented in part 2 of this course. Grades are based on two papers (one empirical group project, one literature review), five quizzes (spaced approximately biweekly) and one final exam. The text used is Gleitman, PSYCHOLOGY, 2nd edition, plus readings in a course pack. The format of the class is lecture and discussion. (Inglehart)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl).Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 55 agencies in which you can provide direct service to children in day care settings, adolescents in after-school programs, handicapped children and adults, retarded and emotionally impaired, agencies dealing with women's issues, physically ill adults and children, persons legally confined to institutions including mental health and criminal; social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. Most sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Final Edition of the Time Schedule for proper credits, lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Information regarding registration, field work and course information for the Fall Term, 1988, will be available at a Mass Meeting on Monday, March 28, 1988. No room has been assigned as of this date. For information, call the Outreach Office at 764-9179 or 764-9279. Psychology majors electing two separate sections in Psychology 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. (R.D.Mann)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309. The field practicum course offers an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation.

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology.

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS).

This course surveys the field of Psychobiology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Psychobiology is an area of study concerned with physiological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; psychological and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning, memory, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Psychobiology courses. (Berridge)

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include work-related attitudes; motivation; leadership; decision-making; group-behavior; organizational design; organizational change; quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be a general lecture and one group discussion section. The discussion section will review the materials of the readings and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the readings and lectures. (Carlopio)

368/Anthro. 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

See Anthropology 368. (Wrangham)

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Hesse, Lessing, Eliot and Feild. There will be short papers assigned weekly. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. (R. Mann)

372. Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of the problems and perspectives addressed by community psychology. It reviews the history and context for community psychological approaches, discusses ecological and systems concepts employed by this perspective, and presents a wide range of interventions and programs that have been developed from within this framework. Students are expected to gain a greater understanding of the larger external forces that shape their own behavior and lives, and learn how these forces can be modified. Course requirements include one or more short analyses, a term paper and midterm and final examinations. Miller)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams, classroom contributions, and through a series of short papers. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. (Manis)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001. An intensive introduction to the clinical and research literatures on the family in contemporary American society. Designed especially for students interested in clinical work with families, the course will examine family process, assessment, and intervention from the conceptual vantage point of general systems theory. Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and discussion. (Olson)

Section 030: This course will examine the clinical and research literature concerning the contemporary family. We will begin with the history of marriage as a cultural institution and trace the development of the modern family. The course will also focus on alternatives to marriage and the nontraditional family (e.g., divorce, single parent families, remarriage families, families headed by gay partners, etc.). Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and will be evaluated on the basis of examinations and short papers. (Leary)

400. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory psychology; intended for freshmen and sophomores. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402 and 500, 501, 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND BEHAVIOR. The course begins with an examination of the adaptive significance of circadian, seasonal and lunar rhythms. A detailed examination follows concerning the generation and control of circadian rhythms. Within this context we discuss sleep/wake rhythms, feeding patterns, timing of reproductive behavior, the early development of rhythms and a variety of human disorders including jetlag, depression and the effects of age. In the latter third of the course, we will examine the generation and control of seasonal rhythms, which include reproductive cycles, bird migration and hibernation. This course approaches the study of rhythmic behavior from a variety of viewpoints: modeling of rhythmic control systems, neural and hormonal mediation of the environment and behavioral interactions between individuals. The lecture is taught concurrently with Psych 908. Recommended that students have taken at least one other Biopsychology course such as Psych 331 or an equivalent course in Biology. (Lee)

Section 010. This course will provide a basic introduction to the neuropsyhopharmacology of drugs of abuse and addiction. The acute and long-term effects of selected drugs of abuse on neuronal function, behavior, mood and cognition will be explored. Material from studies with humans will be integrated with preclinical studies on the biopsychology of drug abuse, with a strong emphasis on basic neurobiological approaches in non-human animals including detailed coverage of synaptic transmission and the distribution, regulation and integration of brain neurotransmitter systems. Examples of drugs to be discussed include the psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, methylphenidate), hallucinogens (e.g., LSD), barbituates, benzodiazepines, opiates, PCP, alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and selected 'designer drugs' (e.g., MDA, MDMA). This course will have a natural science orientation and a background in the natural sciences is recommended. Prerequisites include Psych 331 and introductory biology (introductory chemistry is recommended). A lecture format will be used, with required readings from texts and original journal articles. Student evaluation will be based on exams. (Robinson)

SECTION 020. This section is a Collegiate Fellows course, emphasizing critical thinking. See page 3 of this COURSE GUIDE for a complete list of Collegiate Fellows courses. It will provide an introduction to cognitive psychology. The topics to be covered include various aspects of the psychology of human memory, thinking (including problem-solving and reasoning), and perception. The course will emphasize not only the content material represented by these topics, but also the process by which researchers develop theories and collect evidence about relevant issues. Students are required to have taken an introductory psychology course that included material on psychological experimentation. Performance will be evaluated via three objective examinations that will stress knowledge of the material and understanding of the relationship between theory and data. Readings will be drawn from a text and several primary sources that will be collected into a course pack. The course will include lecture, discussion, demonstrations, in-class experiments, and practice on problem-solving exercises. (Jonides)

401. Special Problems in Psychology as a Social Science. Introductory psychology; intended for freshmen and sophomores. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402 and 500, 501, 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW. The psychology of the criminal justice process from arrest to parole. Relations between psychological research and the law in such areas as eyewitness testimony, jury decision making, child custody, mental illness, homosexuality, discrimination, and capital punishment. (Ellsworth)

Section 002 CHILDREN AND GOVERNMENT POLICY. Many children in the U.S. today live precarious lives. One in four is poor; one in five is at risk of becoming a teen parent; one in six has no health insurance; one in seven may not complete high school. This course will address children's current status and how public policy attempts to better children's lives. Many factors contribute to the policy-making process, and an explanatory model incorporating these will be introduced. Of special interest will be how social science research affects policy, but we will also discuss the role of historical precedent, governmental structure, public values, national priorities, techniques of advocacy and, none the least, politics. In applying the model, we will track whatever child policy issues emerge in the fall of 1989. Some social science background is required. A course pack will provide readings. The course will include lecture, but a seminar-like, collaborative effort will be expected. Evaluation rests on student participation, two non-cumulative tests and a few small reports. (Thomas)

414. Advanced Laboratory in Behavior Modification. Prior enrollment in Psych. 474. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 00l: Students will participate in addressing real behavioral problems in community programs for clinical and at-risk populations and will learn basic steps in organizing a study of a behavioral intervention. Students will have the opportunity to choose from a range of settings such as educational, vocational, residential, and inpatient programs. Students will assist key staff (some behavioral psychologists) in the design and evaluation of behavior change strategies. Student roles will likely include observing, recording, and analyzing changes in target behaviors as well as summarizing pertinent literature. Coursework is likely to include a number of staged, written assignments on the placement experience that will lead to a final paper in journal article format and essay exam. (Cohen)

Section 002. This course will provide an opportunity to learn more about the techniques of behavior modification and how to carry out research of outcome of a behavior modification project. Students will develop and carry out a study or experiment. A focus of the course will be understanding some of the differences between traditional behavior modification approaches and cognitive-behavioral approaches to change. The students in the beginning will look at typical methods of assessing outcome. There will be weekly class discussions. Requirements will include a short paper summarizing the proposed project, a class presentation, and a write-up of the project. (Davis)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 475 or 575; and permission of instructor. (See LSA Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 475 or 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning April 4. Enrollment is limited to eighteen students who are graduating seniors. Non-graduating seniors may place their names on the waitlist which will be used to fill any remaining spaces after graduating seniors have been accommodated. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric ward at the VA or the University Hospital. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examinations, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. (Heitler)

430. Comparative Animal Behavior. Introductory psychology or introductory biology or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course presents a broad introduction to animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Topics include Darwin's theory of evolution, the relationship between genes and behavior, the evolution of group-living, and social interactions between close genetic relatives (e.g., parent-offspring, siblings), mates, and other conspecifics. Terms such as aggression, territoriality, and mating systems are considered in light of how they have evolved and how they contribute to daily survival and reproductive success. Examples from a wide variety of animal species are used to help emphasize various points. A lecture format is used, and students are encouraged to question and comment during class. Grading is based on two in-class essay exams and a term paper. The class is open to sophomores and is well suited for any student interested in animal behavior, biological psychology, or the relationship between evolution and social behavior. (W. Holmes)

431. Physiological Psychology. Psych. 331 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Selected topics in the biopsychology of animal and human behavior will be discussed at a level appropriate for students who have a serious interest in the field of brain and behavior or the behavioral neuroscience. Among topics discussed are hormones, development, and behavior; neuropsychology; emotion, stress and motivation; physical and psychic pain; mental disorders. Two ( 1 1/2 hr.) lectures and one discussion period. Midterm and final examination. (Valenstein)

432. Reproductive Behavior in Mammals. Psych. 331, 368 or 430 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course emphasizes a biological and ecological approach to mammalian reproductive behavior in a cross-species, comparative framework. The course is appropriate for students who have a basic background and interest in biological approaches to behavior (e.g., Psych 331,430, Anthro 368 or Intro Biol), and both undergraduate and graduate students can take the course for credit. Humans are considered in the course, but only as one of many species that are studied. Course format involves a combination of lectures and student discussions of research articles from a course pack. The proximate basis of reproductive behavior is stressed in an ecological approach to various topics: genetic determination of sex, sexual development and puberty, hormonal influences on sex behavior, seasonal breeding and timing of reproduction, and the effects of various social and environmental factors on reproduction. Grades are assigned based on three or four take-home essay exams, a short paper and class participation. (Holmes)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course surveys psychological perspectives on the question, "Why do people act as they do?" Major topics include theories about human motives, physiological and cognitive mechanisms regulating motivated behavior, and ways of studying major dimensions of social motivation (achievement, affiliation, intimacy and power).

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).

This course is intended for undergraduate psychology majors and others interested in complex mental processes. It fulfills the Group I requirements for a Psychology bachelor's degree. Among the topics covered in the course are human memory, representation of knowledge, reasoning, problem solving, decision making, and intelligence. The course's approach is a scientific one, emphasizing the evaluation of theoretical models through experimental data and through computer simulation techniques. Practical applications to improving thinking abilities and real-world settings are also discussed. Mandatory class meetings consist of lectures and discussions. Grades are based on performance in three exams, a set of take-home exercises, and class participation. The total workload has been rated as "moderate" by past students. (Seifert)

444. Perception. Psych. 170, 172, 192 or 310. (3). (NS).

This is an advanced undergraduate course that focuses on basic perceptual phenomena and theories. At its most general level, human perception concerns the questions of how and why human beings conceive of, and experience immediate reality on the basis of sensory information. Topics covered include: Psychophysics, sensory transduction, Gestalt organization, constancy and contrast effects, expectation, selective attention, perceptual learning and symbolic representation. While the course is oriented toward the natural sciences, it also considers social, philosophical and esthetic perspectives. The instructor assumes some sophistication on the part of the students, however, no particular background is necessary. Thus, students with little specific knowledge of psychology are welcome. Grades will be determined on the basis of three short papers (each worth 20% of the grade) and one longer paper (worth 40% of the grade). The instructor also anticipates the development of a conference for the course on the MTS system. Questions concerning this class can be messaged to Robert Pachella using the MTS-UB message system. (Pachella)

SECTION 002. This is an advanced undergraduate lecture course that focuses on basic perceptual phenomena and theories. The theme of the course is the problem of perception: How does an organism build a stable and accurate representation of its world given the fragmentary, often noisy information available to it? The course will focus primarily on vision, but hearing and the other senses will be given basic coverage. Most material will be from laboratory studies of human perception, but some attention will be given to physiological evidence and theoretical concepts from computer vision and artificial intelligence. No papers will be required. Grades will be based on three noncumulative exams consisting of multiple-choice and short-answer questions. (Flannagan)

451/Ling. 451. Development of Language and Thought. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course examines children's early language and conceptual development. Through lectures and discussions, we will cover: the development of word meaning, the organization of early concepts, and the nature of early grammatical knowledge. We will also consider how language development relates to logical thinking and social knowledge. Emphasis will be placed on contemporary research and theory. Students will be evaluated by three exams and a project. (Gelman)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This course will survey the principal theories and current research on personality. It will focus especially on (1) motives and defenses, (2) cognitions and the sense of self, (3) traits and temperament and (4) social learning as the major components of personality. Case studies of historical persons will be used to illustrate and integrate these components. (Winter)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001 The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with major psychological research and theory on the processes by which the child becomes a social being. Attention is given to the influence of the family, and particularly the parents, and also to the influence of the school, peers, and the community. Topics include the development of attachment, peer interaction, moral development, sex roles, and the stability of personality. The role of social change and its impact on development will be considered. (Mangelsdorf)

455. Cognitive Development. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course addresses questions such as: What do young children know? What is intelligence? What learning strategies contribute to students education? How does thinking change in adolescence, adulthood, and old age? What accounts for the range of individual differences in cognitive development? In order to answer these questions, we will examine various theories (e.g., Piaget, information processing, intelligence) as well as empirical research across the life-span. There are several prominent themes in this class including developmental changes, research on children's thinking, and implications for education. There will be a required textbook and course pack. Grades will be based on a combination of examinations, quizzes and papers. Students are expected to have a familiarity with psychology research and journals, a solid background in psychology (at least two courses), and a curiosity to learn about thinking from infancy to old age. Although the course is organized in a lecture format, there will be ample opportunities for student discussion. (Paris)

456. Human Infancy. Introductory psychology. (3). (Excl).

This course covers phenomena of human development and maturation from conception to the third year of life. Topics include physical growth, elements of early attachment and relatedness, cognitive development, emotional expression and communication, the growth of personal and interpersonal competence, the role and status of infancy in the family and society, and careers centered on early human development. The course also presents material related to pre-term birth and its outcomes. Sessions will include lectures, audio-visual presentations and discussions. Exams: Midterm and a final. (Horner)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001. This course surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the development of the child from conception to adolescence. Physical, cognitive, and social/emotional development, and the interaction among them, are examined. Students are expected to read a textbook plus assigned readings, and to attend lectures and discussion sections. Opportunities to work directly with children are optional but can be arranged. Grades are based on three exams, a paper, and participation in discussion. (Nadelman)

Section 020. This course is a survey of child development from birth to adolescence. We will examine the physical, mental and social development of children, including such topics as language acquisition; emotional attachments, fears, and temperament; reasoning, memory, learning; and socialization forces such as parents, television, peers and education. Students are expected to read approximately 50 pages per week and to attend lectures and weekly discussion groups. Grades are based on three hourly exams and a short project. (Wellman)

459. Psychology of Aging. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course covers major behavioral changes throughout adulthood, particularly in old age. Special emphasis is given to such topics as changes in biological functioning including sensation and perception, and changes in cognitive processes including intelligence, learning, memory, and in problem-solving. In addition, psychosocial aspects of adulthood are discussed. These include family roles, personality, coping mechanisms, psychopathology and treatment, and dying, death and grief. The course also considers environmental facilitation of psychological adjustments to both normal and pathological processes in old age, with special emphasis on dementia. Students do assigned readings, class exercises, projects, and take two examinations. Projects primarily include interviewing two people throughout the term and writing a research review paper. (Weaverdyck)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Psych. 363 or equivalent or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on work group behavior in organizations. It is the second class in a series that includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). The first part of the course emphasizes psychological theories in group behavior. Topics in this section include such things as the formation and development of groups, their decision-making and problem-solving processes, the influence of groups on individuals, group process, and intergroup relations. The second part of the class focuses on the design of groups and organizations along with methods of diagnosis and intervention. Both experiential and didactic teaching methods will be used and the course material will include research literature, case studies, examples from contemporary organizations and the instructor's own research experience.

474. Introduction to Behavior Modification. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Theoretical models, assessment strategies, and therapeutic techniques of behavior change will be discussed. The emphasis is on the more recent developments in behavioral and cognitive- behavior theory and the associated techniques. The course also illustrates the use of behavior change mechanisms as applied to a variety of disorders.

475. Abnormal Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course overviews abnormal psychology, emphasizing psychological explanations of such problems in living as anxiety, depression, drug abuse, and sexual dysfunction, as well as their treatment by psychological means. There are two lectures and one discussion per week. Grades are based on examination performance and activities assigned in discussion sections. Books include Rosenhan and Seligman's 2nd edition of ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY and Kesey's ONE FLEW OVER THE CUCKOO'S NEST. Additional readings may be assigned. (Peterson)

SECTION 020. This course will review classifications of psychopathology and consider various theories of the causes and treatments of psychological disorders. We will examine a wide range of disorders including schizophrenia, depression, personality disorders, phobias, and sexual dysfunctions. This will be a lecture-only section of the course. Grades will be primarily based on in-class examinations. (Hansell)

476/Environ. Studies 355. Environmental Psychology. Psych. 443 or 444; or introductory psychology and Environ. Studies 320. (3). (Excl).

Psychology 476 is cross-disciplinary both in emphasis and in student population, with psychology, environmental studies, planning, design and natural resources among the disciplines which are typically represented. The course deals with how people experience the physical environment, with what people care about most and with the condition under which people act most reasonably. The course focuses on human needs in terms of informational requirements and on the ways in which environments support or hinder the processing of information. Such topics as environmental perception and knowledge; community and privacy; conservation and stewardship; and the role of culture are viewed in the context of this informational approach. Course requirements include take home mini-papers, a final exam and participation in classroom discussion. (DeYoung)

482/Soc. 482. Personal Organization and Social Organization. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on the interaction of social roles and personality. Selected life roles such as marriage, parenthood, and work are studied not so much from the point of view of their sociological significance but of their impact on people's motivations, attitudes, and feelings. The course first examines the general analytic problem of thinking about personalities in interaction with social systems (culture, social organization and interpersonal). Then it examines each of the three life roles. Empirical findings rather than theoretical analyses are highlighted and sex difference in these roles are emphasized. A course pack of varied articles and chapters from books selections from Bellah et al INDIVIDUALISM AND COMMITMENT IN AMERICAN are read and discussed. Course requirements allow a choice of writing integrated essays or a short answer examination. Two such evaluations are required. An empirical research effort is also required as a term project. Students select a life role (e.g., a specific occupation or a husband/wife or mother/father role) and obtain firsthand data on how that role affects the experience of people in that role. Group projects are encouraged but are not mandatory. (Veroff/Douvan)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. An extremely difficult and unusual course. Not suitable for many students. Each student selects a group of people of particular interest. Usually people in a neighborhood that is very different from the sort of neighborhood she grew up in. Sometimes, alternatively, people whose lives have special relevance to her, such as people practicing a profession she plans. The student must then create in-depth prolonged meetings with a small number of these people and write up each week these meetings and her reflections on them. This journal is checked every two weeks. The course also will deal with about five books. Last term these were one technical book on attitudes, three sociological books of participant observation, and one novel by Lessing and Achebe. Real investment of time: about ten actual hours/week, EVERY week. NOT for students with a high need for structure from an authority figure. NOT for the uncurious. (Ezekiel)

SECTION 010. The course deals with how people form their beliefs and attitudes about the world and with how their beliefs and attitudes affect their behavior. Typically the course examines such things as attitude formation and change, the nature of the self and how self-concepts change, conformity, social influence and propaganda.

488/Soc. 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviant Behavior. (3). (Excl).

See Sociology 465. (Modigliani)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 DREAMS AS MODELS OF PERSONAL CONFLICTS AND RESOLUTION. The purpose of the course is to review historical developments in the conceptualization of the meaning of nocturnal dreams from the late 19th century to the present. The major emphasis will be on the use of dreams to explicate personal problem solving hence clinical data will be made the focus the aim of developing students' ability to read, interpret, and understand the meaning of dreams (their own and others) the main practical skill developed. In the course of the term, issues from psychopathology, personality, psychotherapy, creativity, literature and development will be discussed in respect to dream material which presumes the student has some degree of familiarity with these fields and topics. The classes will involve discussions of readings in which students will be expected to take active roles. The course readings will consist of Freud's "Interpretation Of Dreams" and a course pack. The particular discussion of readings will be announced in class each week as well as on a course reading list. Course evaluations will be determined by quality of participation in the class, one or two exams (announced in class) and by (largely) a course paper on dreams (outline to be discussed) which will focus on a series of dreams of one's own or someone else in regard to cognitive structure, psychodynamic content and adaptive problem solving strategy. (Wolowitz)

SECTION 002 THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF LIVES. This course addresses the shaping of lives from two directions the cultural and the psychodynamic. On the one hand, the progress of a life is determined by the person's social and cultural situation (family, social class, subculture, gender-role, economics). On the other, a life story manifests a continuity of tendencies and themes that have the stamp of individuality. Students will learn to interpret biographical and autobiographical materials in cultural and psychological terms. Class discussion of theory, research, and case materials will be the medium of instruction. Students will be evaluated on the basis of one midterm and one final project, each involving the interpretation of a case history. (Rosenwald)

SECTION 004 CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY. The course deals with comparisons of psychological processes and development of individuals living in diverse cultures. Emphasis is placed on cognitive, personality, and social development; discussions of disturbances in development, maladjustment, and remedies are included. A number of cultures are discussed, but many of the examples are drawn from the cultures of Asia and the United States. A beginning course in psychology provides the necessary background. Student evaluations are made on the basis of two examinations and a term project, which, depending upon the size of the class, may be in the form of an individual research project. There is no textbook; a course pack is used. Reliance is placed primarily upon lectures, but discussion sessions are held before examinations and conferences are held concerning the term project. (Stevenson)

SECTION 005 DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLINGUISTIC. Acquiring and using language with native competence is one of the major tasks of childhood. In this course, we will consider the means by which native competence is attained. Among the questions addressed are: What special capacities for learning language does the child bring to the task? What is the role of parental input? How do children with sensory deficits acquire language? How do language and communication skills change with age? The course will include one lecture and one discussion of the lecture and readings per week. Students will be expected to participate in discussions and to lead several of them. There will be short (one page) regular writing assignments and one 10-12 page term paper on a research project. Readings will be in original sources from a book of readings and a course pack. Students should have some prior experience in the area, either in Psychology 451, linguistics, or an appropriate equivalent. Please see the instructor if there are questions about the prerequisites. (Shatz)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 BEHAVIORAL BIOLOGY OF WOMEN. What does it mean to be a woman? This course approaches this question by beginning with an even more fundamental question: What does it mean to be FEMALE? Evolutionary theory will provide a framework for comparing human females with females in other animals, especially primates. These comparisons illuminate the evolutionary origins of universal features of human female behavioral biology, including, for example, menstrual cycles, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause. To understand how such universal biological features affect individual women, the course will examine the relationship between mind and body (psychology) and the ways particular cultures influence a woman's experiences and sense of self (anthropology). The course will introduce students to recent and innovative research on women in the fields of biology, psychology, and anthropology. Students will consider the relevance of this information for their own lives and for current social and political issues, such as fertility, birth control, eating disorders and body imagery, premenstrual syndrome, women's friendships, and competition between women. The course will include two one and one-half hour lectures each week plus an hour of discussion section to be arranged during the first week of classes. A substantial amount of reading will be assigned. Grades will be based on one in-class midterm, one take-home final, an essay describing an interview conducted with an older woman about her life, and participation in a computer conference discussing issues raised by the course. (Smuts)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

SECTION 001. This lab will explore techniques for describing and analyzing the process of spiritual development. We will be examining the records of prior laboratory groups as well as creating a new culture of our own. The techniques used will be primarily those of thematic analysis and ways of describing the evolution of groups. The prerequisites (Psychology 370 or 403 or Religion 369 or 424) will be enforced, and the required permission of the instructor may be obtained at 554 Thompson. There will be weekly writing assignments and one final, integrative essay. Early in the term students will be trained in the use of MTS and CONFER which will be used to create an electronic conference containing both the data and the commentary of the lab members. (R.Mann)

SECTION 002. This is a Collegiate Fellows course, emphasizing critical thinking. See page 3 of this COURSE GUIDE for a complete list of Collegiate Fellows courses.
This course initiates the student to the process of creating new knowledge about judgment and decision making in the behavioral sciences in general. Essentially, class members are co-investigators on research projects that address two original problems of current interest in the field. The problems examined differ from one term to the next. An illustrative problem is understanding the foundations of people's typical overconfidence in their answers to factual questions, e.g., "Which is farther north, New York or London?" Each student participates fully in all phases of the research process, from the conceptual analysis of the given problem and review of the pertinent literature through the collection and analysis of data, and the interpretation and reporting of results. Classes consist mainly of intensive discussions of relevant articles and of design and interpretation issues. Grades are based on students' reviews of articles, their contributions to the execution of various aspects of the class projects, their written reports, and their participation in discussions. The prerequisite is a course on behavioral decision making, e.g., Psychology 522. It satisfies one of the advanced laboratory requirements for a concentration in psychology. (Yates)

SECTION 010. This new laboratory course will give students an introduction to research in the field of biopsychology. Three general topics will be covered: (1) Preparation for and presentation of scientific research: how to write a scientific paper, reading and evaluating scientific papers, and how to use the library and reference sources. Materials will be chosen that instruct students on the above topics and that contribute to the student's knowledge of brain-behavior relations. (2) Brain structure and function. Sheep brain dissection with an emphasis on the functional role of specific neural systems (e.g., sensory and motor pathways). (3) Experimental methods in biopsychology. Use and handling of laboratory animals, anesthesia, post-operative care, the responsibility of scientists to their animals, as well as the presentation of many of the research techniques used in the field. Topics two and three will be integrated and specific laboratory experiments will teach brain-behavior relations and methods in studying animal behavior. Laboratory reports will be written based on the results of the laboratory experiments. Grade will be based on exams and lab reports. Text to be used will be Kalat (BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY- same as in Psych 331) plus supplemental materials. (J. Becker)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies - contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval.

513. Advanced Laboratory in Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 523. (3). (Excl).

This course involves the student in a series of demonstration projects designed to show diverse approaches to the measurement of human traits, ranging from intellectual abilities to personality characteristics, interests, and attitudes. In addition, projects are undertaken in test design and construction, item analysis, validation, reliability determination and in the multivariate analysis of trait structure. Several extensive data sets have been put on computer files and students are introduced to MTS and SPSSX procedures to carry out psychometric analyses on these data. (Norman)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402; and Psych. 382 or prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001 "Do the life stories of leaders of highly-active political groups sound like the life stories of leaders of highly-active religious groups?" "When members of extremist groups discuss their family lives, do we hear dimensions that also arise when they discuss national events?" Questions of this order questions that try to link social and political events to currents within the lives of individuals are the subject for our inquiry by both quantitative and non-quantitative methods. The ideal student is one hungry to explore because she has a rather deep need to understand social and political developments they are not casual interests. She also is ready to work in a collaborative, independent fashion with other students and the instructor. Each student will work out a research question of her own and will pursue it for the term probably as part of a loosely-structured team. She should arrive at class with a good start toward identifying those aspects of the environment that raise deep needs for understanding on her part. We will need attendance at all class meetings and some six additional hours of work each week. A rewarding course for independent souls with active minds and social passions. (Ezekiel)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459. (3). (Excl).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to conduct research in developmental psychology: investigation of the psychomotor, perceptual, cognitive, social-emotional development of children and adults. This is a laboratory course; students are engaged in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering research issues and methods in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus concerning the different research projects in Burns Park School and the UM Children's Center. Several different research projects will be conducted (involving different methods and different-aged subjects) off-campus. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in the research projects and written reports of this research. There is one exam covering research methods. (Nadelman)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (Excl).

This laboratory course is focused on empirical research in personality psychology, specifically how personality and circumstances influence behavior independently and in interaction with one another. The first part of the course requires students to master a considerable amount of substantive and methodological material pertinent to the measurement and the experimental study of personality. The latter part of the course requires students to apply this knowledge in designing and carrying out an experiment with human subjects. Students analyze their data and produce a research report written in strict professional (American Psychological Association) format. Class time in the early part of the course is spent on lectures; later, class time is spent in designing the measures and the experiment, in running subjects, and in learning how to write the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections of the research report. Grades are based on objective tests, several reviews of the literature, and the written comprehensive research paper. (Landman)

523. Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300. (3). (Excl).

This course considers methods for assessing human traits (abilities, interests, attitudes, personality characteristics, etc.) and the uses of such assessments in practical decisionmaking and scientific theory testing. Tests, inventories, questionnaires, rating scales and other procedures will be evaluated in terms of their reliabilities, validities, and other relevant criteria. Introductory psychology and elementary statistics are the relevant prerequisites and an advanced laboratory (Psych. 513) is offered concurrently for those wishing additional practical work in this area. Student evaluation will be by means of objective (multiple-choice) exams and a term paper. Methods of instruction will include lectures, demonstrations and discussion. (Norman)

533. Human Neuropsychology. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course surveys current knowledge of the human brain and its role in mental processes, such as perception, attention, thought, language and memory, and learned behavior skills. Special topics include left vs. right-brain functions, sex differences in brain function and rehabilitation of cognitively impaired individuals with brain damage. Evaluation based on hour exam and final exam. Lecture and discussion. (Butter)

557. The Child and the Institution: Practicum. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452, 457, or 475. (3). (Excl). There will be a transportation charge for field trips.

This course provides the opportunity for students to work with children or adolescents who reside in an institutional setting. Weekly lectures and discussion sessions are included as well. The placements include settings in which children reside who have been diagnosed as having one or more of the following: mental retardation, emotional impairment, physical illness (including acute and chronic), or juvenile delinquency. The emphasis is on the interaction of the child with his/her environment, especially the role of treatment or intervention available in the particular setting. Assignments include: weekly logs, critiques of readings, case reports, and final essays integrating information from the various portions of the course.

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. This course examines the adolescent period, largely from the points of view offered in personality, clinical, and social psychology. Although the course emphasizes the normal processes of adolescent development, for example, the achievement of ego identity, and the growth of mature modes of thinking and reasoning, it will also give close attention to such characteristically adolescent phenomena as delinquency and eating disorders, especially anorexia and bulimia. We will also try to understand the extraordinary increase in severe pathology among adolescents during the last two decades. There is a two-hour seminar discussion once each week; and the class members will also meet in groups of five or six once every two weeks. There is a term paper and a final essay examination. (Adelson)

559. Personality Theory. Psychology 452 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The first half of the course will be devoted to a brief overview of a number of personality theories. For the remainder of the course, each student will select two theorists and read extensively from his or her original works. Throughout the second portion of the course, students will draw from the writings of their theorists in an effort to shed light on several personality case studies. Finally, each student will prepare a written analysis of a single case study from the perspective of his or her two theorists. The course favors students who are prepared to do a great deal of reading and to immerse themselves in the resources of the library. Course grades will be based on reading logs maintained during the second half of the course, contributions to classroom discussions and case analyses, and the final written case study. (C. Morris)

565. Organizational Systems. Psych. 363 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course examines some of the properties and major problems of human organizations, emphasizing system-level variables and activities. Organizational structure, adaptation to the environment, and problem solving in such key areas as coordination and control, integration, and conflict, and related social-psychological phenomena constitute its main concerns. The course considers several theories of organizational structure and functioning.

569/Anthropology 569. Attachment: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It considers intimate relationships, and especially the bond between mother and child, from an evolutionary and interdisciplinary perspective. The course will focus on attachment theory, an influential approach to human relationships that integrates concepts and data from evolutionary biology, animal behavior, psychiatry, developmental psychology, and cultural anthropology. The readings will include research articles and reviews on evolutionary theory, naturalistic and experimental studies of attachment behavior in nonhuman primates, and studies of human attachment behavior, including anthropological data from non-Western societies. The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with research on attachment from a variety of different perspectives and to evaluate the usefulness of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human social behavior. An equally important goal is to promote interchange among students with backgrounds in different areas. To facilitate this goal, the course will use a seminar format and everyone will be expected to participate in discussions. Grades will be based on class participation and four short essays that require creative synthesis of course materials. The reading load will be heavier than average and enthusiasm and commitment are important prerequisites to successful participation in this course. Prerequisites include: (1) background in either evolutionary theory/animal behavior or developmental psychology AND (2) permission of instructor. All students must be interviewed by the instructor and obtain an override BEFORE CRISP in order to enroll in this course. (Smuts)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of a midterm, final examination and term paper. (Miller)

574. Clinical Psychology. Psych. 474 or Psych. 575 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. Psychology 574 is a small seminar (limit of 20) for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, papers, clinical diagnostic interviewing, and a final) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate his knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2)to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. (Lohr) Introductory Psychology, Psychopathology and Developmental Psychology. In order to facilitate in-depth discussion of the clinical materials, the class size will be limited to approximately twenty students. Evaluation of students will be based on a combination of several brief analytical papers, a midterm and a final exam. (Hatcher)

575. Perspectives in Advanced Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, 475, and 558. (3). (Excl).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. (Wolowitz)

590. Senior Honors Research I. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. The purpose of the course is to guide students (1) in formulating their individual research for the Honors thesis, and (2) in designing procedures for carrying out this research. There will be a seminar for the discussion of common problems plus individual tutorials. The students will be evaluated on the basis of a term paper describing their progress in respect to the above two issues. (Section 001 Burnstein; Section 002 Brown)


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