University Courses (Division 495)

101. Methods of Thinking. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

This course has two aims: (1) to improve the student's ability to read with understanding, to think critically, and to write well; (2) to help the student to achieve a better understanding of the nature of intellectual activity and of education. College work is, and should be, different from high school work, requiring different and more sophisticated intellectual skills and techniques. But almost all courses in college concentrate exclusively on their own special subject-matter. A sociology course concentrates on teaching you sociology, a chemistry course on teaching chemistry, and so on. College instructors rarely teach in an explicit and direct manner the intellectual techniques and frameworks necessary for successful college work. They assume that you have these skills already or can somehow pick them up along the way, while they go ahead and teach their own special subjects. University Course 101 attempts to teach these skills directly and explicitly, to make your college career more successful and to sharpen abilities which will be invaluable in later life whatever field you may work in. This is a course for the person who is seriously interested in intellectual activity. It is not a remedial course and it is not an orientation course. Some of the materials which we will discuss will be complex and profound, and a number of the topics lie on the intellectual frontiers of our time.

The topics for discussion will include the following: the nature of argumentation, evaluation of arguments and positions, methods of reading, types of critical thinking; special intellectual problems in the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences problems such as the relation between theory and reality, bias and subjectivity in the social sciences, the nature and justification of the humanities; questions about education, including morality in education, diverse ideals of the educated person, open admissions, reverse discrimination, academic freedom, and the unionization of the faculty. This course will be taught in small sections of no more than fifteen students each, so that students can receive individual attention. Readings will be assigned covering the above topics. We will proceed by class discussion supplemented by some lectures. There will be a number of writing assignments throughout the term. (J. Meiland)

150. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (HU). May be repeated for credit under different topics.

SECTION 001 LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES. This seminar will look at language as a means of communication and language as the faculty of speech. Weekly readings will be assigned. Extensive discussion and active participation on the part of students will be expected. The class will first briefly examine the theories on the origin of language. Do only humans possess this faculty? What organs are used for producing speech, and how do they function? Then it will explore how one accounts for the diversity of languages, how they can be classified (by type and by genealogy), and how they are described as systems. Illustrations will be provided chiefly by English, although other ancient and modern languages of interest will be considered for comparison. Grammatical "correctness" will be discussed with reference to standard language, and local (Southern, Eastern, non-American) and social (Upper and lower class speech, Black English, slang, jargon) dialectical variation. The question will be asked why languages change over time, whether change brings about improvement, and what can be found out about languages in prehistory not attested by written documents. What are the intellectual and social consequences of the relatively recent invention of writing, and of printing? Attempts at creating and propagating artificial languages for international communication and better understanding among nations will also be reviewed. (Pulgram)

Section 002 HUMANS AND LANGUAGE. This course will cover the nature of language, its use and its influence on humans, individually and collectively. We shall discuss topics such as: How many languages are there? Do all languages have grammar? Do languages change: Are some languages or some types of speech better than others? Why must Canada have more than one official language? And the like. There is no foreign language proficiency requirement, but discussion will include not only English, but other languages, ancient and modern, on a comparative basis. During class discussions, students will be encouraged to draw from their own experiences in the use of language or how language has had an effect on them. In addition, they will be asked to do an in-depth study of a topic from among those covered and then write a term paper based on their readings or even on data from a language, which they have collected, and thus demonstrate to what extent they understand the role of language in our lives and in our communities. (Morgan)

Section 005 THE YOUNG AND THE OLD: AN EXPLORATION THROUGH LITERATURE. Intensive reading and discussion of a number of literary works drama, fiction, biography in which the theme of the relations of youth and age is central. Works read and discussed will be drawn from the ancient and the modern world. Students will be asked for several sorts of papers: analysis of a problem as presented by one of the authors; evaluation of its literary treatment; autobiographical, fictional, or poetic treatment of some generational conflict drawn from their own experience; a critical review of a work other than assigned reading, as of film, television or stage production. Oral presentation will be encouraged as a supplement to written work. READING LIST:

Sophocles, "Oedipus Rex," "Antigone," and "Electra" , "King Lear," "Romeo and Juliet" Gosse, FATHER AND SON James, WASHINGTON SQUARE Butler, THE WAY OF OLD FLESH Bellow, MR. SAMMLER'S PLANET Turgenov, FATHERS AND SONS .H.Lawrence, SONS AND LOVER. (Firebaugh)

SECTION 007 ETHICS GOODNESS AND BADNESS OF CONDUCT. Broadly, the science of ethics or morals is concerned with character and behavior that is approved or disapproved. Thus, the science of morality seeks intelligent, reliable judgment of behavior and character. The terms approval and disapproval indicate the point of view from which ethical science investigates its field. Critical thought undertakes to order such specifics as just, saintly, ought, honorable, courageous, intemperate, treacherous, perverse, corrupting, and related ideas under the general rubric of value. Therefore, it is the purpose of this seminar to explore the behavior and character associated with composing a "symphony of values" by each student. Each student will be required to write two brief papers (not to exceed 10 pages), one on her or his symphony of values and one on a moral, personal interest. Grades will be determined by the QUALITY not quantity of participation, class discussion, and papers submitted. The required reading will include:

Feldman, Fred. INTRODUCTORY ETHICS, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 1978., Charles. RIGHT AND WRONG, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1987. Additional reading will be assigned in class. (Cash)

SECTION 009 CREATIVE WRITING. A workshop in which the student will obtain practice in writing informal autobiographical essays, short fiction, and poems. The student's work will be read and discussed in class and will also be discussed in scheduled conferences with the instructor. The student should be prepared to submit about six copies of each written assignment for the use of his classmates. (Squires)

Section 012: THE MODES OF FICTION. The pleasure we derive from reading stories may be deepened by a study of the art of fiction, a phrase which implies an important set of relations between what is told and the manner of its telling. This course in "The Modes of Fiction" identifies some of these relations and shows how they operate in a variety of short pieces of fiction. It established a useful vocabulary of definitions (theme, subject, tone, etc.); it inquires into the interplay between the elements of fiction; it tries to discriminate between kinds of fiction and evaluate their effects. Its aim is to create a community of discourse about literature through a study of how stories are told. The course begins with two or three introductory lectures; thereafter analysis and discussion will be the usual class procedure. The course will also call for short written papers in the first weeks of the term culminating in a longer term paper. (Steinhoff)

151. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (SS). May be repeated for credit under different topics.

SECTION 006 CURRENT ISSUES IN SPORT SOCIOLOGY. This structured seminar on the current issues, developments, and trends in sport sociology will be analyzed from various contributing theoretical and research bases. Critical new developments will be addressed as they occur. Topics include such disparate elements as status, race relations, ethical values, business life, social deviance, recruiting practices and reward systems. (Vaughn)

Section 007 PUBLIC EDUCATION IN THE SOUTH FOR BLACKS AND OTHER MINORITIES, 1863-1954. The purpose of this seminar will be to trace the development of elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education of Blacks and minorities in the southern states of the United States from the Emancipation Proclamation to May 18, 1954. Particular emphasis will be focused on judicial litigations from the supreme court decision of Plessy vs. Ferguson, from which the doctrine of "separate but equal" evolved, to the historic Brown vs. Topeka, Kansas Board of Education of 1954, which upheld the fundamental principle that racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional. Of special importance will be seminar discussions revealing how Blacks and minorities were successful in achieving an education in spite of the barriers confronting them in the states where they resided and resulting from court decisions, including the Supreme Court of the United States. Students will be expected to read a number of the classic writings of Black and minority authors such as W.E.B. DuBois, E.Franklin Frazier, Booker T. Washington, John Hope Franklin, and many others. The writings of contemporary Blacks and minorities will be explored as well as books about Blacks and minorities such as Gunnar Myrdal's, AN AMERICAN DILEMMA. Students will be expected to prepare readings, participate in seminar discussions, and develop a research topic preferably centered around one of the southern states under investigation in the seminar. Available for CSP. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this guide. (Palmer)

Section 009 IDENTITY, ALIENATION AND FREEDOM. The purpose of this seminar will be to explore the concepts of identity, alienation and freedom as psychological and philosophical ideas. However, the orientation will be specific and applied to the normal situations and predicaments that college students experience. Questions to be considered as special cases of more general psychological problems will include: surviving as an individual in a large and often impersonal University; living up to and/or dealing with the expectations of parents and teachers; questioning authority in the context of the classroom; trading-off career pressures and personal goals in setting educational priorities. Of special importance will be the examination of the sometimes frightening loss of a sense of identity that accompanies significant alterations in life style, such as that experienced by students in the transition from high school to college, or later, in the transition from college to the "real world." Readings will come from psychological, philosophical and literary traditions, but students will be encouraged and guided to find material most suited to their own interests and needs. The reading list will include:

Hesse, H., BENEATH THE WHEEL;, R., MAN'S SEARCH FOR HIMSELF;, W., ALEXANDER'S BRIDGE;, R., ILLUSIONS;, L., THE DEATH OF IVAN ILLYCH;, V., A ROOM OF OUR OWN.

Regular class meetings will also be scheduled that will involve the viewing and discussing of feature length movies relevant to the issues of the course. This movie series will include: Hal Ashby's "Harold and Maude"; Woody Allen's "Zelig"; John Badham's "Whose Life is it Anyway"; Bob Fosse's "All that Jazz"; Paul Mazursky's "The Tempest" and Godfrey Reggio's KOYAANISQATSI. In addition to regular class meetings each student will meet individually with the instructor every third week at which time the student's individual reading and writing will be developed and discussed. Grades will be determined by the quantity and quality of this reading and writing. CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program. (CSP) section in this Guide. (Pachella)

152. Freshman Seminar. Freshmen; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (NS). May be repeated for credit under different topics.

SECTION 001 BIOGRAPHIES OF NOTED SCIENTISTS AND QUASI- SCIENTISTS. Carolus Linneaus, Gregor Johann Mendel, Charles Robert Darwin, Louis Pasteur, Marie Curie, Sigmund Freud and Margaret Mead. (Jones)

210. Perspectives on Careers in Medicine and Health Care. (4). (Excl).

This seminar is for students who are considering a career in a health-related profession. It is designed to help them acquire perspectives which will facilitate their decision making process. Health care professionals visit the seminar and share their educational and professional experiences. Students become acquainted with the prerequisites for professional schools and spend time with dental, medical, osteopathic, nursing, and public health students. We consider problems of health care delivery, issues of death and dying, and ethical questions related to the health professions. Students are expected to respond in writing and in class to the visitors, to the reading materials, and to films. Three course packs serve as the required texts. All students are responsible for taking definite steps toward the development of their own goals through a self-inventory of their values, skills, and interests and through a term paper in which they investigate a possible career direction. A part of this work will be done on computers. Knowledge of word processing is not essential; however, typing skills will be helpful. Evaluation is based on class attendance and participation in and completion of all assignments. Enrollment by override only: contact the secretary at the Comprehensive Studies Program office at 1017 Angell Hall or Fran Zorn (747-3607). The class will meet on Mondays from 3:00-5:00 p.m. and on Thursdays from 7:00-9:30 p.m. at 2130 Dorset Rd., Ann Arbor. (CSP section) See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this Guide. (F.Zorn)

250. Collegiate Seminars for Freshmen and Sophomores. Freshman or sophomore standing and completion of the introductory composition requirement. (4). (HU). May be repeated for credit under different topics.

SECTION 001:LITERACY. The goal of this seminar is to introduce the student to the study of literacy. In the broadest sense, literacy is the study of the written word. This includes the nature and consequences of particular writing systems, the uses of writing by the individual and within society, and the context in which writing is deployed. We will look at evidence about reading and writing from sources as diverse as the following: administrative uses of writing including coins, charters, and monumental inscriptions; elite and popular art including needlepoint samplers, quilts, pottery and painting, belles lettres; and popular literate products such as diaries, journals, copybooks. A gool of the course is to enable students early in their careers to understand how different disciplines approach the same problem and how this is articulated in the writing of the discipline. The course will address a number of central questions: (1) What is literacy? How do different fields define this question and what are the consequences of their choice(s)? (2) What roles do reading and writing serve in a society? Who learns to read and write? (3) How do writing systems evolve? What is the relationship between speaking and writing? Between reading and writing? (4) How do we learn to read and write? What are the consequences of literacy and illiteracy? (5) What was the effect of the shift from writing to print from manuscript to book? (6) How has the computer affected our notions of literacy. The course assignments will include weekly writing, peer review, and collaborative papers. (Keller-Cohen)

SECTION 002 METHODS OF INQUIRY IN LINGUISTICS. The goal of linguistics is to describe and explain the structure and function of human language. In this course we will look at the kinds of questions linguists ask about language and how they go about answering these questions. Our focus will be on four methods that linguists have used to achieve this goal: (1) socio-historical linguistics (which investigates language change by studying patterns of social, stylistic, and geographic variations within a language); (2) typology (which studies patterns of variation in structure across languages); (3) structural analysis (which provides a description of the grammar and sound structure of a particular language); and (4) experimental linguistics (which involves the development and testing of specific modes of communicative behavior, or models of the speech mechanism itself). In our study of each of these methods, we will ask how this approach to language enhances our understanding of language structure. Readings, class discussion, and writing assignments (several short and one longer) will emphasize critical evaluation of the methods of linguistic inquiry, thereby introducing students to the art of linguistic argumentation. (Beddor)

Section 003 IN SEARCH OF SELF-IDENTITY. The main topic of this course is youth's uncertainty about one's life and destiny. This issue is raised in a considerable number of literary works of the European Middle Ages. The protagonists struggle with doubt, face conflict, make decisions, and find happiness, misfortune or tragedy. In tracing the theme of search for self-identity the class will study works from the 10th to the 13th century. The earliest examples will be Christian legend and sacred drama. Works of the 11th century are Europe's first animal epic and the first knightly romance. While in spiritual literature the theme appears in rather rudimentary form, it becomes more complex in works of a worldly character. It is the clearly secular literature of the 12th and 13th centuries that further develops the concept of search and contains elaborate forms of the theme. An attempt at elaboration is seen in the pre-courtly historicizing romance which provides cases of father-son conflict and quest for self-realization in the fantastic Orient. The fully developed theme comes with stories, Arthurian and non-Arthurian, of around 1200 and later. The main body of investigation consists of romances in which the important constituent motifs of the search are namelessness, growing up without parents, feelings of guilt and shame, efforts to redeem oneself, risk of one's life for people in need and for justice, generation-gap, rebellion against and search for one's god. Texts: Coursepack and Wolfram von Eschenbach's (PARZIVAL) (Vintage, V-188). Besides reading and discussing the texts each student will write three to four short papers, give a brief oral presentation and write a midterm and a final exam. (Scholler)

Section 004 BHAGAVAD-GITA: A TEXT IN CONTEXT. BHAVAGAD-GITA is a very important Hindu religious text, read widely by the Hindus and alike. The University does not currently provide a systematic course dealing with this important text. The proposed course will deal with the Bhagavad-Gita from a particular critical angle, to study it in its changing context. It will explore the following dimensions: (1) Bhagavad-Gita in its historical textual context. The Bhagavad-Gita is part of the famous Indian epic Mahabharata. This epic is the largest known epic poem of about 100,000 verses and its composition and evolution raise important textual and historical issues. How and why a religious text such as the Bhagavad-Gita came to be incorporated into the epic is an important question. (2) Bhagavad-Gita as a philosophical synthesis of previous religious-philosophical traditions. A product of post-Buddhist Hindu India, the Bhagavad-Gita represents a conscious attempt to bring together divergent philosophical traditions and create a new synthesis. It synthesizes traditions of action and renunciation, and polytheism and monotheism. (3) Divergent interpretations of the Bhagavad-Gita. The text as handed down became an important religious document of great authority, and every subsequent philosophical-religious tradition had to interpret it in a unique way to find support for its own doctrines. We will investigate some of the divergent interpretations of this text and the reasons for these divergent interpretations. (4) Bhagavad-Gita in the context of divergent political philosophies. In the recent times, the text has again become important for various reasons. Nationalist leaders like B.G. Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi used this text to derive inspiration for their nationalist struggle against the British. In this process, they interpreted the text again in divergent ways to suit their own political purposes, one deriving a message of justified violent struggle and other deriving non-violence from the same text. Reading materials for this class will include a variety of approaches to this text. Students will be expected to select particular dimensions of this text and do focused reading and writing. There will be greater emphasis on trying to understand how and why a religious text gets interpreted so differently by different people and at different times, than just the contents of the text. There will be weekly discussions, short papers, a longer term-paper and a presentation. Such an exercise will help students in their reading, writing and thinking processes, and will prepare them to study other texts in their context. (Deshpande)

Section 005 INTRODUCTION TO GERMAN STUDIES. This seminar consists of seven two-week segments, each focused upon a single text. It will be conducted entirely in English. Each week we shall meet once for an hour, and once for two hours. In the first week I shall attempt to sketch the cultural context of each work in broad strokes. In the second week, our initial meeting will be devoted to a discussion aiming to draw out the main problems, questions, and contradictions in the text; the second meeting will be devoted to students' presentations on the text and discussion. Students will not be allowed to read their presentations; rather, they will have to speak extemporaneously, or from notes. In this way, the course attempts not only to introduce students to the central themes and problems of German culture, but also acquaint them with the difficulties and rewards of interdisciplinary work, while calling upon them to practice close, critical reading. Students will be asked to submit three five-page papers (due at the end of the fourth, eighth, and twelfth weeks), one of which is to be expanded into a 15-20 pp. research paper. Topics will be suggested. All papers, including the shorter ones, must be revised on the basis of my comments and re-submitted until polished (as for the ECB requirement). Thus the seminar will also require the students to hone their writing and speaking skills. In selecting texts, I have sought to trace certain important themes that recur, such as the Thirty Years' War, Germanic mythology (Parsifal), and cultivation of inwardness in the face of political upheaval. (Another obvious theme, that of Faust, is only touched upon, as it is the subject of an entire upper-level course, German/Comparative Lit. 442. Students who have completed this course should be well prepared for any of the Department's numerous upper-level offerings in translation, and more specifically for our upper-level courses in German Studies, which we intend to expand into a full-fledged German Studies program. Of course, we hope that it might also persuade some to begin studying the language, and eventually major in German! (Amrine)

Section 006 SOME AMERICAN WRITERS OF COLOR. An intensive study of seven major novels by American writers of color: Rodolfo Anaya, BLESS ME, ULTIMA: Maxine Hong Kingson, THE WOMAN WARRIOR: N. Scott Nomaday, HOUSE MADE OF DAWN: Toni Morrison, SONG OF SOLOMON; Gloria Naylor, LINDEN HILLS: Leslie Marmon Silko, CEREMONY; Alice Walker, MERIDIAN. We will read each novel closely, analyze language and structure, and approach the content from every angle possible, drawing our analysis in part from our own various economic, social, cultural, and educational backgrounds. We will create together a discussion atmosphere where we will feel comfortable taking risks in what we have to say and where maximum dialogue will be possible. Now and then we will read short excerpts from certain books such as James Agee and Walker Evans' NOW LET US PRAISE FAMOUS MEN, F. Scott Fitzgerald's selected stories, Paule Freire's PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED, Jonathan Kozol's THE NIGHT IS DARK AND I AM FAR FROM HOME, and Stanley Milgram's OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY to widen the framework of our discussion. We will work closely on student writing, which will include expository and argumentative writing, journals, and creative expression. No exams. (Alexander)

Section 007 THE PROBLEMATIC NATURE OF A PROVIDENTIAL ORDER. If there is a God, the eighteenth-century philosopher D'Holbach declared, then he must be a tyrant. He requires praise even in the face of his cruelties, but is portrayed as a benevolent by ministers who at the same time maintain that his nature is a mystery to mortals. Nineteenth-century writers tried to restore a sense of divine order in the universe against his onslaught of "rationalism." Schleiermacher's advocacy of sentiments, rather than ideas or principles, as the truest foundation of religious belief proved to be a major response to the challenge of atheism. Another came from Carlyle, whose SARTOR Resartus in eloquent English prose teases the reader into seeking constantly deeper meanings in his book as in the "book" of nature. Essays of Emerson, selections from Tennyson's "In Memoriam" will lead to Leopoldo Alas' subtle portrait of a bumbling fool, living in a corrupt society, whose advocacy of faith in the purity of his first-born - who may be illegitimate provides both ridicule and admiration for the hero of the novel, HIS ONLY SON. These are some of the readings in a course designed to study how nineteenth-century minds struggled to satisfy a desire to believe against the arguments of positivism in philosophy and science that argued for disbelief, or against the lip-service to religion of a materialistic culture. Among the requirements are several papers analyzing individual texts or problems. Some of these, after correction, will be re-written and linked to form a discussion of term-paper length. (Hafter)

251. Collegiate Seminars for Freshmen and Sophomores. Freshman or sophomore standing and completion of the introductory composition requirement. (4). (SS). May be repeated for credit under different topics.

SECTION 001 THE MAKING OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. This course will cover Roman history from the Gracchi to Nero (133 B.C. A.D. 68). Topics to be considered will include Roman imperialism in the Mediterranean world, the transformation of the Republic, the emergence of emperors, and the establishment of an empire. Classes will consist of one lecture and one discussion session each week. Readings will include many contemporary authors, such as Cicero, Julius Caesar, Augustus, Vergil, Horace, the New Testament writers, Suetonius, and Tacitus and selections from modern interpretations. Final grade will be based on participation in discussions and a series of short papers. (Van Dam)

SECTION 002 THE IMMIGRANT COMMUNITY IN NORTH AMERICA. The class consists of an anthropological approach to the history of the later immigration to the United States and Canada, the formation, acculturation and preservance of immigrant communities, and the nature of ethnic boundaries and interethnic relations in American society. Specific topics to be covered include: assimilation, bilingualism, stereotyping and discrimination, ethnic associations including the ethnic church, ethnic media, the ethnic family and household, ethnic politics, ethnic labor and the revitalization of the ethnic subcultures. Class requirements include several short papers, some of which will be based on ethnographic fieldwork and one exam. (Lockwood)

Section 003 SOCIAL CHANGE IN THE UNITED STATES. At present, the United States is experiencing dramatic changes in its social, economic and demographic composition. Processes which started in the post-World War II era are continuing and will shape the nation's structure in the next century. The causes and consequences of five basic social changes will be examined in this course. First, there have been shifts in the social and economic roles of women. On the one hand, these involve educational and occupational gains for many women. On the other, they involve delayed marriage, low fertility rates and high rates of marital disruption, and for some prolonged spells of poverty. Second, the nation's economic structure has changed such that high-paying jobs in the manufacturing industries has grown. Many commentators argue that an outcome of these shifts is an economic polarization such that the gap between the rich and poor has grown much wider. Third, immigration has become very significant in both meeting economic needs and changing the country's ethnic composition. Unlike earlier periods when almost all persons entering the United States or the American colonies came from Europe or Africa, today's immigrants come from Asia and Latin America. Fourth, there are continuing issues about equal opportunities for women and minorities. Despite the Civil Rights Revolution of the 1960s with its laws prohibiting discrimination, Blacks and women continue to lag far behind white men on indicators of occupational status and earnings. Finally, there are geographic shifts in population and economic activity. The most rapidly growing areas are now along the Atlantic in the South, altering a century-long pattern of economic dominance and the growth in the Midwest. (Farley)

252. Collegiate Seminars for Freshmen and Sophomores. Freshman or sophomore standing and completion of the introductory composition requirement. (4). (NS). May be repeated for credit under different topics.

SECTION 001 BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION. The theory of evolution by natural selection will be examined as an example of how scientists approach a question which has a strong historical element. First, we will become familiar with some of the diversity of organisms (past and present) and specific examples of apparent adaptations. This will involve a combination of readings, slide presentations, and museum trips. We will then compare alternative explanation for this diversity and for the 'fit' of organisms to their environment. We will consider the nature of the scientific process in discussion of special creation vs. natural selection. The evidence and the nature of the evidence for these ideas will be discussed. Finally, the impact of the ideas derived from neo-Darwinian evolution on philosophical thinking will be considered. The course will involve two meetings a week, each for 1 1/2 hours. A combination of a few lectures, slide presentations, and readings will lead to discussion and debate as the primary means of learning. The writing of a series of short essays will also allow exchange of ideas and viewpoints. No background in biology is required, although some exposure to elementary chemistry would be helpful. (Hazlett)

Section 002 EXPERIMENTAL INQUIRY IN PSYCHOLOGY: MIND, BRAIN, AND PERCEPTION. While the text assigned for the seminar will cover a substantial portion of what is now Psychology as a Natural Science (Psychology 170 and 190) the seminar itself will focus predominantly, in additional reading, writing, speaking, thinking, and in discussion, on the following five topics: (1) History and Historical Controversy in Psychology. We will consider the importance of Darwin and evolutionary theory, the early comparative and experimental psychologists, Fechener, Wundt, Romanes, Thorndike, Watson, and the early neurophysiologists. Controversies include localization of function in the brain, evolution of the human mind, the mind-body problem among others. (2) Nature of Experimental Inquiry in Psychology. The evolving nature of the psychological laboratory experiment, experimental design, hypotheses, and the use and misuse of statistics in treating psychological data. The use of computers in Psychology. Students will be required to use the message system and Confer and encouraged to develop skills in word processing should they not already possess same. All of these matters will be dealt with, not in abstract, but in context. (3) Biological Foundations of Psychology. Current approaches in sensory physiology and in the study of the brain as they impact on the study of behavior will b discussed. Equally important are some of the more recent approaches to ultimate causation of behavior as evidenced in evolutionary biology. (4) Behavior as the Principal Subject Matter. The experimental analysis of behavior from the behaviorist's viewpoint together with the presumed antithetical approach characteristic of the new cognitive revolution in Psychology with its emphasis on the nature of mind and information processing. (5) Perception. As the principal means of taking in information from the environment it will also be a logical outgrowth of the material discussed in topics #3 and #4 above. Students who have taken the seminar should be able to bypass the introductory psychology courses should they wish to take further coursework in psychology. Extensive content will be sacrificed at the expense of developing a critical, even healthy skeptical, but not cynical, approach to the subject matter of psychology. Early in the course students will present short papers in class and then write them up for my critique. In the second half of the course I will ask for longer papers and group projects will be set up for class discussion. A decided emphasis will be on the organization and articulate expression in class discussion, presentation and written work. In the written work the grammar and sentence structure will be as important as the expression of ideas. (Stebbins)


lsa logo

University of Michigan | College of LS&A | Student Academic Affairs | LS&A Bulletin Index

This page maintained by LS&A Academic Information and Publications, 1228 Angell Hall

The Regents of the University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA +1 734 764-1817

Trademarks of the University of Michigan may not be electronically or otherwise altered or separated from this document or used for any non-University purpose.