General Near East (Division 439)

101. Introduction to Near Eastern Studies. (3). (HU).

The Near East is a major region of the world. It stretches from Central Asia to North Africa and subsumes many different peoples, cultures, and countries, including Afganistan, Iran Turkey, Israel, and the Arab countries. Near Eastern Studies is a multi-disciplinary attempt to understand the many cultures and civilizations in the region, not only those of today, but also those of earlier times, as much of Classical Civilization as well as modern Western Civilization originates in the Near East. As such the study of the Near East is a rewarding enterprise which can help much in understanding our own culture, how it came about, and what it is now. NES offers a general interdisciplinary introduction to the Near East. It surveys the ancient Near East, classical Near East, and contemporary Near East, including extensive observations of the Near Eastern heritage in Western culture. It is taught by some 20 faculty from Near Eastern Studies, Anthropology, Economics, History, History of Art, Political Science, and the School of Music. The student is thus exposed not only to a great variety of topics, but also a great variety of disciplines, and faculty. There are no exams. Grades are based on one-to-three-page papers on 12 lectures of the student's choice. (Windfuhr)

201/Rel. 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Freedman)

363/Hist. 307/Rel. 359. History of Ancient Israel II: The Formation of Classical Judaism. May be elected independently of NES 362. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the history of Judaism and Jewish communities from the Babylonian Exile of the 6th century B.C. until the collapse of the last major Jewish independence movement in Palestine in antiquity, the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132-135 A.D. The focus will be on Palestinian Jewry, but other areas, particularly Egypt, will also be studied. Our interest is not only in the political course of events, but in the nature and structure of the developing Jewish communities of these centuries, e.g., the Pharisees, Sadducees, Dead Sea Scroll community, and early Christians. Further, we shall look at the major religious ideas and institutions, such as the development of Jewish law, forms of worship, apocalyptic thought, and interaction with Greek culture. Our overall concern will be to see how the ancient Israel of the Hebrew Bible became Judaism. The format of the course will consist of lectures and discussions based upon both modern secondary studies and the original texts themselves in translation. In addition, we shall consider archaeological finds where appropriate. There will be two examinations (including the final) and a paper; student evaluation will be based on these and, to a lesser extent, on performance in class discussion. While this course is a continuation of NES 362 (History of Ancient Israel I), neither the latter nor any other course is required as a prerequisite. There are, indeed NO prerequisites, except a healthy curiosity and inquiring mind.

397. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

An independent study course of 1-3 credit hours. A student must obtain permission of the instructor prior to registration. The subject and terms of grading the course should be determined by the student and instructor prior to registration as well.

442/Hist. 442. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See History 442. (Lindner)

445. Introduction to Ancient and Classical Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

Our fascination with the Near East is not just limited to archaeological and historic records; these but suggest the outlines of life during humankind's cultural infancy. More than anything else, it is the literature of a people which reveal its heart and mind, its emotions and thoughts. This course opens the door for the contemporary student into the innermost life of ancient and more recent peoples living in the lands surrounding the Eastern Mediterranean. It identifies the popular forms of narrative and poetic expression, explains the social backgrounds of early Near Eastern literature, and considers its links with our contemporary Western literary traditions. Lectures and discussions focus on representative myths, stories and poems. The literatures covered in this course include (1) Ancient Near Eastern literatures: ancient Egyptian, Assyrian-Babylonian, Hittite, Iranian, Biblical leading to (2) Classical Near Eastern and Islamic literatures: Arabic, Persian and Turkish, and literary activity in Hebrew. Each literature is taught by a different faculty member. Student evaluation is by examination (graduates have to prepare an additional term paper). The required texts are specially selected, xeroxed and available in Course Pack form. There are no prerequisites, but NES 101 or some other background on the Near East is recommended. (Stewart-Robinson)

466/Rel. 466. The Social and Religious Thought of the Hebrew Prophets. (3). (Excl).

This course seeks to examine the phenomenon of prophecy as a type of religious behavior in general and in ancient Israel in particular. We shall begin by looking at the phenomenon in a variety of societies ancient and modern, then narrow our view by considering how it was manifest in the ancient Near East outside of Israel, viz., in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Canaan. Finally, we shall move to ancient Israel proper, and discuss in detail the careers, ideas, and literary works of several particular prophets against a background of Israelite history and religion as a whole. In the process, the problems and concepts encountered in prophecy elsewhere will be compared with the Israelite experience. The format of the course will involve periodic lectures to set the larger perspective and class discussions of the actual sources, ancient and modern, for prophecy (in translation). It is expected that there will be two examinations and a paper. (Machinist)

495. Women's Issues in the Near East. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001 WOMEN AND ISLAM: A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE. For Fall, 1989, this course is jointly offered with Sociology 401.001. (Göçek)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, honor's advisor, and the LSA Honor's Council. This course should be taken both terms of the senior year, for not less than three or more than six credits per term. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors," or with "with Honors," in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript.

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. (3). (FL).

An introduction to the language and style of the Hebrew Bible, using Weingreen's PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF CLASSICAL HEBREW as the text. Daily instruction on grammar with drills. Students are evaluated on the basis of daily homework assignments and weekly quizzes.

283/Rel. 283. The Beginnings of Christianity. (4). (Excl).

This course is a survey of the development of the Christian movement from its cultic origins in Judaism through the beginnings of Pauline and Johannine Christianity in the first century. Special attention will be given to the engagement of early Christianity and Hellenistic institutions and to the sociology of earliest Christianity.

350/Religion 350. History of Christian Thought, I: Paul to Augustine. (4). (Excl).

An exploration of the beginnings and development of Christian thought from the first through the sixteenth century, with special reference to the seminal ideas of Paul, Origen, Tertullian, Augustine, Anselm of Canterbury, and the early Christian reformers. (Fossum)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

Introduction to Modern Standard (Literacy) Arabic. Covers Phonology and basic morphology, syntax and vocabulary. The goal is a reading knowledge of Arabic but there is considerable oral work. The major burden is self-instructional but two hours of class per week with instructor is required of all students. May be taken for two to four hours of credit. Check with Department of Near Eastern Studies b first day of class to attend organizational meeting.

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

Same as 101.

201. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. (6). (FL).

No previous knowledge of Arabic is required for Arabic 201. This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or for those who expect to have some immediate use of Arabic. Its primary goals are: (1) mastery of the phonology and writing systems of literary Arabic; (2) control of the basic grammatical structures of the language; (3) mastery of about 800 vocabulary items; and (4) acquisition of related skills. The materials used are based on a combined approach stressing the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The course starts with A Programmed Course in Modern Literary Arabic Phonology and Script, by Ernest N. McCarus and Raji Rammuny. These introductory programmed materials are usually completed within the first two weeks of classes. This is immediately followed by ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC, PART I, by Peter Abboud et al. This book is especially designed to provide careful guidance to both the student and the teacher. At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to read printed and handwritten literary Arabic and to produce familiar material in a manner acceptable to a native speaker. In addition, the student should have acquired related skills such as familiarity with the use of Arabic dictionaries, or the ability to use a small set of greetings and polite expressions. The course meets six hours per week for six credits. Use of language lab is necessary and strongly recommended to reinforce classroom work. The course grade is based on daily assignments, weekly quizzes, bi-weekly tests, classroom performance, and a final exam. (Rammuny)

401. Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 202 or the equivalent. (6). (FL).

The course emphasizes a review of morphology and a continuation of the study of Arabic syntax. There are selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and nonfiction, with special emphasis on oral work, reading, active mastery of a basic Arabic vocabulary, and development of composition skills. (Barum)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

413. Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Arab. 202 or 232; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course teaches the basic principles of pronunciation and grammar of colloquial Egyptian Arabic through a variety of situational dialogues. The students are provides with opportunities to practice speaking Egyptian through the use of highly structured drills and communicative activities. The course meets three hours weekly for three credit hours. The course is recommended for students who plan to travel or work in Egypt and those who need Arabic for immediate oral use. This course is accompanied by tape recordings and is taught by a native speaker of the dialect. Grades are based on classroom performance, monthly tests and the final examination. Text: Course pack to be distributed. (Staff/Rammuny)

430. Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. Arabic 402 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introductory survey to the phonology, morphology and syntax of literary and dialectal Arabic. It is designed to accommodate Arabic concentrators with little training in linguistics and linguistics concentrators with no knowledge of Arabic. Class will be devoted to lectures and discussions. Course grade will be based on homework problems arising from class discussion, and a final exam (no term paper). No textbook, but a reading list will be distributed. (McCarus)

431. Arabic Phonology and Morphophonology. Arabic 402 and 430 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (2-3). (Excl).

This lecture-discussion course deals with the morphophonology of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Specifically, it deals in detail with the generative phonology of MSA as developed in M. Brame, ARABIC PHONOLOGY: Implications for Phonological Theory and Historical Semitic. Prerequisite Arabic 430 or equivalent. Course grade will be based primarily on a term paper or final exam, plus class participation. (McCarus)

501. Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course presupposes knowledge of Arabic at the intermediate level (NES Arabic 402 or equivalent). It offers extensive oral and written practical work based on (1) a wide variety of literary texts ranging from short stories, personal and formal letters, plays, essays to proverbs and poems adapted from the works of contemporary professional writers and (2) audiovisual materials including video-cassettes, automated slide shows and tape-recordings of newscasts, speeches and lectures. There is special emphasis on basic fundamentals for effective Arabic writing, illustrations of the basic differences of grammar and idioms between Arabic and English keyed to the most common errors of American students of Arabic, and cultural content pertinent to the learners' needs and interests. The course meets three hours per week and is conducted entirely in Arabic. It also requires about 6 extra hours weekly for outside of class preparation, listening to or viewing lesson tapes and writing composition. Course grade is based on students' preparation and class performance (25%), written composition (25%), bi-monthly tests (25%), and a term paper in Arabic (25%). Textbooks: Raji M. Rammuny ADVANCED ARABIC CONVERSATION AND COMPOSITION, Ann Arbor, Mi.: Dept of Near Eastern Studies, 1986. Also Raji Rammuny STUDENTS' GUIDE, Troy, Mi.; International Book Center, 1980. (Rammuny)

530. Proseminar in Arabic Linguistics. Permission of instructor. (2-3). (Excl).

Analysis and research on problems of interest to the class. Pre-registration consultation with instructor is requested. Term paper required. (McCarus)

551. Modern Arabic Fiction. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

This course presents, for translation, analysis and commentary, works representative of the major Arabic writers of the modern age. The readings, of selected short stories and from novels, demonstrate the recent development in the art of fiction in Arabic; they show how this literature expresses the social and political concern and philosophical orientations of its authors. (LeGassick)

553. Modern Arabic Nonfictional Prose. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

This course introduces the work of major Arab writers on the 19th and 20th centuries. Variable in focus according to the interests of the class, readings are selected for translation, analysis and commentary. The course explores the historical progression in the development of political and societal theories in modern times in the Arab world. (LeGassick)

Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Modern Hebrew. (5). (FL).

Development of basic communication skills in Hebrew. Reading, writing and grammar. Class discussion and readings in Hebrew. Class and language laboratory drills. (Staff, Coffin)

301(401). Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 202 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. Review of morphology and syntax. Continued emphasis on oral work and writing skills.

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

304. Hebrew Communicative Skills. Hebrew 302. (2). (Excl).

Development of oral and written communication skills. Emphasis on increasing active vocabulary and expressive verbal and written competency.

401(501). Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The object of this course is to enhance the student's Hebrew reading and writing skills. In addition, emphasis is placed on expanding student's vocabulary. To present the various levels of Hebrew, the materials include heterogeneous texts, ranging from the biblical period to modern times.

403. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Emphasis on readings, listening and speaking skills. The special genre of the communications media (newspapers, radio and television) will serve as the basis for discussion of current events. Unedited newspaper selections will be read and news broadcasts and television programs will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory.

547. The Bible in Jewish Tradition. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Reading in the literature of the Hebrew Bible together with the major medieval commentaries and references to Talmudic and Sectarian law. A term paper, with presentation to class is required. (Schramm)

551. Modern Hebrew Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

Modern Hebrew Fiction. Themes of War and Peace. (Coffin)

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Persian. (4). (FL).

Persian 201 is the first term of a two year (four-term) sequence of language coursework that takes the student through to an intermediate level of reading and speaking the Persian language. Student evaluation is based on examinations-periodic quizzes, a midterm, and a final. The basic text, Modern Persian. Elementary Level, by Windfuhr and Tehranisa, will be used throughout Persian 201 and supplemented by coordinated tapes produced for enrolled students in the language lab. (Windfuhr)

401. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Reading and comprehension, conversation and composition are systematically developed. The textbook is a new series of volumes accompanied by tapes covering modern fiction, expository prose and cultural-topic material both in readings and dialog form. The language of the classroom is increasingly Persian. Textbook: Modern Persian. Intermediate Level, Vol. I and II. Windfuhr et al., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. (Luther);a1|493 201.

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

541. Classical Persian Texts. Iranian 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course involves the reading and literary analysis of texts from major authors of the classical period (ca.950-1500) and includes basic skills in reading aloud and the use of the rules of prosody in scansion and interpretation of poetry texts. It will include shorter or longer passages from such writers as Ferdowski, Nezami, Rumi, Sa'di, Hafez, Bayhagi, Nezamiya Aruzi, and others, according to the interests of the class and the instructor. There are midterm and final exams. The texts are in the form of a photocopied course pack. (Luther)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Turkish. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish language, this course focuses on speaking, reading and writing the language of modern Turkey. Course topics include the principles of Turkish grammar with the phonological structure, basic sentence patterns and the morphology of the language. The method of instruction is of the recitation variety and includes written and oral work. There are laboratory sessions and conversation periods. Students are evaluated on the basis of class participation, written work, a midterm and a final examination. The required texts are: H. Sebuktekin, TURKISH FOR FOREIGNERS (available in departmental office) and G.L. Lewis, TURKISH (Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1980). (Stewart-Robinson)

401. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, Turkish 401 is offered only in the Fall Term and Turkish 402 only in the Winter Term. The course is designed for students who have completed either Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It emphasizes further study of Turkish grammar and stresses development of comprehension, and oral and written expression through the use of selected materials relating to Turkish culture and collected in a course pack. A strongly recommended text for the course is G.L. Lewis' TURKISH GRAMMAR (Oxford University Press, 1967 or later editions). Student evaluation is based on class performance, written work, a midterm and a final examination. (Stewert-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

501. Modern Turkish Readings. Turkish 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Since this course is part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, admission to it is dependent on satisfactory completion of Turkish 402 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It is designed to further develop reading and comprehension competence in a variety of modern Turkish styles; newspaper and learned articles, political tracts, government publications, etc. The method of instruction is through recitation including preparation, reading and oral or written translation of texts in class or at home with discussion of grammar, style and content. Students are evaluated on their class preparation, a midterm and a final examination. Among the texts used are A. Tietze's Advanced Turkish Reading and a collection of xeroxed materials. (Stewart-Robinson)

511. Readings in Ottoman Turkish. Permission of instructor. (2). (Excl).

Represents part of department's language sequence in Ottoman/Turkish program. It is a recitation/discussion type of course in which Ottoman texts (none from the 19th century) in Arabic script are read in class, analyzed and discussed from the point of view of their content. Quizzes and final examination are required. Texts are specially selected and distributed to students in xeroxed form. (Stewart-Robinson)

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