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Fall '00 Course Guide

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Courses in Philosophy (Division 442)

This page was created at 4:03 PM on Wed, Dec 13, 2000.

Fall Term, 2000 (September 6 December 22)

Open courses in Philosophy

Wolverine Access Subject listing for PHIL

Take me to the Fall Term '00 Time Schedule for Philosophy.

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Philosophy is about as broad a subject as one can find in a university curriculum. It addresses a wide array of questions, some quite familiar (Does God exist? Why be moral? What is art?), others less so (What is a thing? Is space a substance?). Philosophy includes the examination of its own methods, and its own history. It also falls within philosophy to examine the methods and practices of virtually all academic disciplines. Because of this breadth, a person can study philosophy in ways involving the styles and techniques of thought of most other fields of inquiry. For example, the work of a philosopher concentrating in logic is much like that of the student of mathematics. A philosopher primarily interested in the philosophy of religion will often be doing much the same things as a theologian or a student of the history of religion. Political philosophy is regarded by some as including political activity itself. Many other such examples exist. In addition, Philosophy examines the practices of other activities, such as the fine arts, that are sometimes thought of as different from typical academic disciplines. However, for the most part the activities characteristic of philosophy are peculiar to the discipline. The only way to know what it's really like is to give it a try.

The Department offers a number of courses that do not carry prerequisites: (A) general introductions designed to acquaint students with a representative sample of philosophical problems (181, 202, 232, and 297); (B) introductions that focus on a particular area of philosophy or of human concern e.g., Chinese philosophy or philosophical issues concerning the law or religion designed for students who, having no previous background in philosophy, want to study these areas in a philosophical way (263, 359, and 365); and (C) introductions to logic and reasoning (180, 201, and 303, and 414).

(A) The general introductions deal, for example, with questions concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self and the mind, freedom, morality, society, and religion, but they differ in their instructional format and staffing. Philosophy 202 is taught by advanced graduate students in independent sections of 25 students. Philosophy 181 is taught by faculty, in a combination lecture/discussion format, limited to 50 students. In Philosophy 232, a faculty member delivers a lecture two hours per week, and students divide into groups of 25 for discussion sections led by graduate students. Finally, Philosophy 297, "Honors Introduction," is taught by a faculty member to a group of 25 students.

(B) Fall Term courses not carrying prerequisites, but that are more specialized than the general introductions, include "Chinese Philosophy" (263), "Law and Philosophy" (359), and "Philosophy of Religion" (365). These courses do not require previous work in philosophy. In Philosophy 263, 359 and 365, a faculty member delivers a lecture two hours per week, and students divide into groups of 25 for discussion sections led by graduate students.

A number of Fall Term 300-level courses require only a single philosophy introduction as a prerequisite: "Philosophy of the Arts" (319), "Language and Mind" (345), "Ethics" (361), "Existentialism" (371), and "History of Philosophy: Ancient", (388). Of these, 345, 361, and 388 meet requirements for the concentration.

(C) Among the introductions to logic, Philosophy 180 is designed both to improve critical reasoning skills, and to provide an introduction to formal logic. Philosophy 201 is designed to improve critical reasoning skills, through an introduction to informal logic. Philosophy 303 is an introduction to formal or symbolic logic. Philosophy 414 is a more advanced course in formal logic, and is approved for (QR/1). Philosophy 180 and 303 are taught by faculty, in a combination lecture/discussion format, limited to 50 students. Philosophy 201 is taught by advanced graduate student teaching assistants in independent sections of 25 students.

There is additional information about the Department's curriculum in "The Undergraduate Program in Philosophy." This brochure contains information intended for students interested in taking philosophy courses, whether or not they are considering a Philosophy concentration. The Department also maintains a home page (http://www.lsa.umich.edu/philosophy/). Students considering a concentration in Philosophy are encouraged to make an appointment with a Philosophy concentration advisor. To request a copy of the undergraduate brochure, or to schedule an appointment with a concentration advisor, contact the Department Office [2215 Angell Hall, (734) 764-6285]. The Office can also provide information about the Department's Undergraduate Philosophy Club and undergraduate e-mail group.


Philo. 180. Introductory Logic.

Instructor(s):

Prerequisites & Distribution: Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (HU). (BS).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is designed both to improve critical reasoning skills that could be of use in a wide range of disciplines and careers, and to provide an introduction to formal logic. The course examines some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning, some of the elements of formal (symbolic) logic, and logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments. The course gives some attention to issues in branches of philosophy germane to logic, for example, the theory of knowledge, philosophy of language, and metaphysics. There will be lectures, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and a variety of exercises. The course is limited to 50 students, which should permit opportunity for discussion. Texts and methods of evaluation to be determined.

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Philo. 181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction.

Instructor(s):

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course examines some of the main problems of philosophy, such as:

  • How do we know that anything exists, other than ourselves?
  • Are minds immaterial spirits, or are minds brains and hence nothing but complex physical objects?
  • If human actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is there any free will or moral responsibility?
  • Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible?
  • Is the nature and extent of our moral obligations determined by our feelings, self-interest, social convention, Divine commands, or something else?
  • What are the different kinds of social, political, and economic organization, and what reasons are there for preferring one to another?
  • How should one live one's life?
  • What is the meaning of life, and what does this question mean?
  • Are there good reasons for believing that God exists?

Students will write papers discussing a number of these topics.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 4

Philo. 196. First Year Seminar.

Section 001 Topic to be determined.

Instructor(s): Rachana Kamtekar

Prerequisites & Distribution: Only first-year students, including those with sophomore standing, may pre-register for First-Year Seminars. All others need permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

First-Year Seminar

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is designed to provide first-year students with an intensive introduction to philosophy in a seminar format. The content varies, depending on the instructor.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Philo. 196. First Year Seminar.

Section 002 Identity and Action.

Instructor(s): Rachana Kamtekar

Prerequisites & Distribution: Only first-year students, including those with sophomore standing, may pre-register for First-Year Seminars. All others need permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

First-Year Seminar

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

How do the ways in which we think of ourselves bear on the ways in which we act? People sometimes explain their actions by saying things like "as an American I felt I had to..." or "as a woman I must say that..." Some Buddhist philosophers argue that when you realize that the self is an illusion you become unselfish and compassionate. A contemporary moral philosopher has argued that although we have many optional identities, our identity as human beings is compulsory and requires us to respect all other human beings. In this course we will examine these and other positions on the relationship between identity and action. Readings for the course include Nagasena's Questions of King Menander, Epictetus' Discourses, Sartre's The Words, and the Hempel-Dray debate. We will discuss such questions as:

  • How do and how should facts about us and our lives affect our self conceptions?
  • Can we understand human actions as we do other natural events?
  • Are there differences between first and third person understandings of our actions and if so what are they?
  • How does my self conception motivate me to act in one way or another?
  • Can it justify or provide reasons for my actions?

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Philo. 196. First Year Seminar.

Section 003 Free Will.

Instructor(s): Michelle Kosch

Prerequisites & Distribution: Only first-year students, including those with sophomore standing, may pre-register for First-Year Seminars. All others need permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

First-Year Seminar

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

People are generally taken to be morally responsible only for those actions they perform 'of their own free will.' The course will address a number of issues having to do with the meaning and applicability of this condition. Do certain (conscious or unconscious) desires count as constraints on freedom? What forms of ignorance excuse? Can immoral actions ever properly be called 'free'? What sorts of problems, if any, do psychological or mechanistic explanations of behavior pose for attributions of responsibility? Historical and contemporary approaches to these questions and others will be examined.

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Philo. 196. First Year Seminar.

Section 004 Incorporating America: Late 19th-century American Philosophy.

Instructor(s): Jack Kline

Prerequisites & Distribution: Only first-year students, including those with sophomore standing, may pre-register for First-Year Seminars. All others need permission of instructor. (3). (HU).

First-Year Seminar

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Readings will include selections from Emerson, Lincoln, Melville, Thoreau, William James, John Dewey, Veblen, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Booker T. Washington. We will focus on what these thinkers said about the conditions and possibilities for a flourishing human life. Some attention will also be paid to the historical setting in which they were writing. The course is designed to lead up to and end with a discussion of the debate between Du Bois and Washington and the consequences of this debate for later developments in 20th-century America.

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Philo. 201. Introduction to Logic.

Instructor(s):

Prerequisites & Distribution: Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (HU). (BS).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course aims to give students a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument, and to improve critical reasoning skills that could be of use in a wide range of disciplines and careers. The course examines some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning and logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments. Some elements of formal (symbolic) logic might be introduced. Though students will be expected to master some technical detail, the course emphasizes informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving and argument in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. The small section size (25 students) is conducive to informality and considerable student participation. There will also be lectures, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and a variety of exercises. Normally, there are weekly assignments and short, periodic quizzes.

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Philo. 202. Introduction to Philosophy.

Instructor(s):

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course introduces students to philosophy through an examination of some central philosophical problems. Topics might include:

  • Are minds immaterial spirits, or are minds brains and hence nothing but complex physical objects?
  • If human actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is there any moral responsibility?
  • Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible?
  • Is the nature and extent of our moral obligations determined by our feelings, self-interest, social convention, Divine commands, or something else?
  • What are the reasons for preferring one kind of social, political, and economic organization to another?
  • Are there good reasons for believing that God exists?
  • How do we know that anything exists, other than ourselves?

In addressing these questions, some sections focus on major historical figures, e.g., Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, and Kant; others focus on writings of twentieth century philosophers. Requirements usually include a number of short, critical papers.

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Philo. 232. Problems of Philosophy.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Louis Loeb (lloeb@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 181, 182, 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is open to students from all areas of the University. No previous work in philosophy is assumed. First-term undergraduates are welcome. The course will provide an introduction to some fundamental philosophical problems drawn from a variety of branches of philosophy. The course also seeks to develop, through papers and intensive discussion, philosophical, and more generally critical and argumentative, skills. Topics will be selected from among the following:

  1. determinism, free will, and moral responsibility;
  2. arguments for and against the existence of God;
  3. skepticism about the existence of the material world;
  4. the nature of personal identity;
  5. the relationship between mind and body; and
  6. egoism, altruism, and the nature of moral obligation.

There will be two required papers as well as a midterm and final examination. Course readings will be drawn from an anthology, Joel Feinberg, editor, Reason and Responsibility, and possibly a course pack.

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Philo. 263/Asian Studies 263/Chinese 263. Introduction to Chinese Philosophy.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Jack Kline

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (HU).

Foriegn Lit

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course focuses on the major philosophical schools of Classical China (through the unification of China in 221 B.C.). Special consideration is given to the ethical, religious and political thought of the Confucian, Mohist, and Daoist schools. The doctrines associated with these early Chinese philosophical movements, along with Buddhism which came to China around the first century A.D., affected cultural developments in art, philosophy, religion, science, and politics throughout Chinese history. The course concentrates on the theories of human nature that were associated with these early Chinese thinkers and the ways in which these theories served as the foundation for their ethical, religious, and political views. No knowledge of Chinese is required. Readings are in translation. All students are required to write two 5-8 page papers, and a third, longer paper revising one of the two short papers.

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Philo. 297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Thomas Hofweber (hofweber@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~hofweber/courses/introfall00.html

An introduction to philosophy, focusing on five major topics:

  1. Can the existence of God be proven? Can there be an all-powerful and good God in a world with suffering?
  2. What is it to be the same person over time? Is it possible to survive the death of one's body?
  3. Are we ever free? How, if at all, does freedom fit into a material world?
  4. Can we know that there is anything other than ourselves? Might the world around you just be an illusion, or a dream?
  5. Why, if at all, should you ever do something other than what is in your best self-interest? What is it to be a good person, and why should one care about being one?

Readings will be partly from major historical figures, and partly from contemporary authors. Evaluations will mostly be based on papers.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 1 Waitlist Code: 4

Philo. 297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy.

Section 002 Topic to be determined.

Instructor(s): Jason Stanley

Prerequisites & Distribution: Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

A thorough examination of selected philosophical problems.

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Philo. 297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy.

Section 003.

Instructor(s): Ian Proops

Prerequisites & Distribution: Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course will provide an introduction to some of the main problems and methods of philosophy, through an examination of three central questions:

  1. The existence of God: Are there plausible arguments for the existence of God? How can the existence of an all-powerful, all-knowing, and loving Creator be reconciled with the existence of worldly evil?
  2. Free will: How can there be room for human free will and responsibility in a world governed throughout by physical laws?
  3. Ethics: Are there any plausible principles dictating how one ought to act? How might we construct a theory to explain our ethical intuitions?

There will be about 20-30 pages of (relatively challenging) reading per week, three short papers, and a final exam. The required text is: Reason and Responsibility, edited by Joel Feinberg and Russ Shafer-Landau, 10th edition, Wadsworth Publishers.

Overrides: Students seeking overrides should attend the first meeting of classes and give their name to the instructor. Eligibility for overrides will be decided only after that meeting. Please do not e-mail the instructor on this subject.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 2 Waitlist Code: 4

Philo. 303. Introduction to Symbolic Logic.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Jamie Tappenden (tappen@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 203, 296 or 414. (3). (MSA). (BS).

Credits: (3).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~tappen/303syl00.htm

Symbolic logic is the application of formal, mathematical methods to human reasoning. Its goal is to determine which forms of reasoning must produce true conclusions when applied to true premises. This course will introduce students to the two simplest, but most important systems of formal logic: the propositional calculus, which classifies forms of reasoning that involve the truth-functional operations of negation, disjunction, and conjunction ("not," "or" and "and"); and the monadic predicate calculus, which characterizes inferences involving the quantifiers "all" and "some." The first half of the course will focus on the propositional calculus. A system of inference rules will be developed, and students will be shown how it can be applied to the evaluation of ordinary arguments. A series of "metatheorems" will then be proved to show that the system developed indeed captures all and only the valid truth-functional inferences. During this portion of the course, students will also be asked to master proofs by mathematical induction. The second half of the course will be dedicated to the study of first-order logic. There will be regular homework assignments, assigned weekly, as well as a midterm examination and a final.

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Philo. 319. Philosophy of the Arts.

Section 001 Meets with Philosophy 419.001.

Instructor(s): Kendall Walton (klwalton@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Phil. 202. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 419. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

NOTE: Students who have completed one philosophy introduction may elect this course.

This course will examine the arts from a philosophical perspective. It will investigate what art is, the nature of creation, criticism, interpretation, evaluation, and appreciation, and the ways in which the various arts are important, concentrating on several specific art forms such as the novel, photography and film, representational painting, and music. It will treat questions such as:

  • What, if anything, is distinctive about art and aesthetic experience, and how are they related to other aspects of life and culture?
  • In what ways are works of art expressive of feelings?
  • Do they have cognitive content?
  • In what ways do we learn from them, and how do they work to change people's perspectives or attitudes?
  • What is fiction and why are people interested in it?
  • Why and in what ways is photography more, or less, powerful than painting and drawing?
  • What is it for a painting or a novel to be realistic?
  • What is interesting or important about indeterminate art, conceptual art, found art, and performance art, and how do they compare with more traditional forms of art?

Written work for the course will consist of a short paper, two short exams, a longer paper, and a final exam.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 3 Waitlist Code: 4

Philo. 345. Language and Mind.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Eric Lormand (lormand@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy course. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

How could beings with minds and languages have arisen out of a mindless and languageless universe? And can we scientifically explain mysteries of consciousness and meaning? We will start by tracking the evolutionary process from allegedly mind-independent bits of the world (e.g., atoms, genes) through language-independent minds (e.g., wolverines) to language-dependent minds (e.g., spartans) and to the alleged "social construction" of mind-dependent bits of the world (e.g., money, marriages). Then we will get down to detailed explanations of philosophically puzzling features of mind and language: consciousness (how one's mental states "feel" to one and how one knows about them), semantics (how brain tissues, noises, or ink marks come to be "about" things); and pragmatics (whether there are hidden rules or regularities underlying the "moves" we make in everyday conversation).

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 2 Waitlist Code: 1

Philo. 359. Law and Philosophy.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Elizabeth Anderson (eandersn@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (4). (HU).

R&E

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: https://coursetools.ummu.umich.edu/2000/fall/lsa/phil/359/001.nsf

This course analyzes law and legal institutions from the perspective of moral and political philosophy, with particular attention to U.S. civil rights law in historical context. Topics studied in this course may include: methods of legal interpretation, equality and discrimination, democracy and voting rights, the tension between property rights and distributive justice, the tension between social control and liberty (including specific liberties, such as free speech), and the justification for punishing lawbreakers (or for imposing specific punishments, such as the death penalty). Readings will be drawn from historical figures (Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel); from contemporary legal philosophers (H.L.A. Hart, Ronald Dworkin, Joel Feinberg, Jean Hampton); from texts in legal history, criminology, or sociology; and from statutes and court decisions.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 4

Philo. 361. Ethics.

Section 001 Philosophical Ethics.

Instructor(s): Stephen Darwall (sdarwall@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (4). (HU).

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sdarwall/Phil361.html

This is a course in philosophical ethics. We will explore questions of what is called "normative ethics": What has value? What are our moral obligations? We shall also study philosophical, "metaethical" issues about ethics. Here we shall want to know not just what has value, but what value is. And not just what we are morally obligated to do, but what moral obligation is and where it "comes from." The core of the course will be an examination of three central traditions in ethical philosophy in the west, typified by Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill, followed by a radical critique of these traditions by Friedrich Nietzsche. We will also do a section on metaethics with readings from classical and contemporary sources, including the existentialists. And we shall end the course by considering a recent critique of traditional moral philosophy inspired by the work of the psychologist Carol Gilligan on gender and moral development. Lecture and discussion, with an emphasis on student participation. Two papers of 5-7 pages in length, a midterm, and a final exam.

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Philo. 365/Rel. 365. Problems of Religion.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Edwin Curley (emcurley@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (4). (HU).

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~emcurley/365syl00.htm

This course will consider various arguments for and against the existence of God. Is it necessary to assume the existence of God to explain the existence of the universe? or to explain the appearance of design in the universe? or to account for religious experience? Is the existence of God compatible with the existence of evil? Is it even a logically coherent hypothesis? And is it necessary to explain morality? For further information about the course, consult the professor's web site: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~emcurley/

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 4

Philo. 371. Existentialism.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Michelle Kosch

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

The course will focus on an examination of three central commitments of existential philosophy:

  1. to an ontology that posits a radical difference between human being and the being of objects,
  2. to a phenomenological account of the structure of human existence, and
  3. to a non-cognitive account of value and to the central role of human activity in the creation of value.

We will examine competing accouns of the nature of human freedom, the meaning of contingency in the human situation, and the nature and possibility of 'authenticity'. Readings will include selections from Sartre, Ortega y Gasset, Heidegger, Jaspers, Kierkegaard, and perhaps others.

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Philo. 383. Knowledge and Reality.

Section 001.

Prerequisites & Distribution: One course in philosophy. (3). (HU).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course will provide students with a broad overview of modern epistemology and metaphysics. Epistemology is the philosophical study of knowledge and justified belief. We will be concerned with two main epistemological issues:

  1. Is all knowledge based on a foundation of "basic" self-evident beliefs that themselves require no justification?
  2. To what extent must a believer have access to the facts that justify her beliefs?

Metaphysics is the study of very general concepts and properties that apply to all existing objects. We will be primarily concerned with the following two questions:

  1. Is our division of objects in nature into different kinds a matter of pure convention, or do some of these divisions exist in nature itself?
  2. More generally, what does it mean to say that facts about the world are independent of us?

Students will be asked to read about 40 pages of material per week, to write two 10-12 page papers, and to take a midterm and a final exam.

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Philo. 388/Class. Civil. 388. History of Philosophy: Ancient.

Sections 003 and 004 (ONLY) meet the Upper-Level Writing Requirement.

Instructor(s): Rachama Kamtekar

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. A knowledge of Greek or Latin is not required. (4). (HU).

Upper-Level Writing Foriegn Lit

Credits: (4; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is a survey of philosophical thought through the Hellenistic period. Though the course focuses on the philosophical systems of Plato and Aristotle, some attention might be paid to pre-Socratic thinkers, Epicurus, the Stoics, and the Sceptics. Stress is laid not only on the doctrines of these philosophers, but also on their arguments for holding them. Requirements will include a number of critical papers.

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Philo. 399. Independent Study.

Instructor(s):

Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected twice for a total of eight credits with permission of concentration advisor.

Credits: (1-4).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

Independent study of a topic not otherwise available through a regular departmental offering.

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Philo. 401. Undergraduate Honors Seminar.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Peter Railton (prailton@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Open to Honors concentrators in Philosophy and others by permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

A seminar which is conceived for the purpose of assisting students in writing an Honors thesis in Philosophy. The seminar begins with several weeks discussing fundamental methodological issues in philosophy, and then enters a sequence of stages, each lasting several weeks, in which students successively:

  1. propose a general area for a thesis;
  2. develop and explore a list of basic reading in that area;
  3. write and present a brief prospectus of the thesis; and
  4. write a term paper dealing with some central ideas for the thesis.

The aim of the seminar is to provide advice, discussion, and support for thesis writers, so that they will be able (1) to identify and begin a thesis project that genuinely engages them and (2) to enter the Winter Term in a good position to write a successful thesis.

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Philo. 402. Undergraduate Seminar in Philosophy.

Section 001 Descartes.

Instructor(s): Louis Loeb (lloeb@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: Open to junior and senior concentrators and to others by permission of concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course will be devoted to Descartes. The seminar is intended to serve as a vehicle for developing skills in original philosophical research. To this end, the readings and discussion will focus intensively on selected topics rather than attempt a balanced survey of Descartes' system. We will most likely discuss the following topics:

  1. the skepticism of Meditation I;
  2. the causal arguments for the existence of God in Meditation III;
  3. the Cartesian circle; and
  4. mind-body union and interaction.

Readings will include selections from Descartes' philosophical writings and from books about Descartes, as well as articles in anthologies or journals. There will be considerable emphasis on student participation and student writing. Students will write short papers on three different topics and expand one of the these into a longer term paper. This offering carries a prerequisite: either Philosophy 389 (History of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Philosophy), or 461 (Continental Rationalism), or a course equivalent to one of these; or permission of the instructor. Philosophy 383 (Knowledge and Reality) and/or Philosophy 345 (Language and Mind) would also provide useful background. The seminar may not be used to count toward satisfaction of the history of modern philosophy component of the Philosophy concentration requirements.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Philo. 402. Undergraduate Seminar in Philosophy.

Section 002 Topic to be determined.

Prerequisites & Distribution: Open to junior and senior concentrators and to others by permission of concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

A discussion of selected topics of contemporary philosophical interest within a seminar format. Students write papers for presentation and discussion in class.

Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

Philo. 414. Mathematical Logic.

Section 001.

Instructor(s): Richmond Thomason (rthomaso@umich.edu)

Prerequisites & Distribution: (3). (Excl). (BS). (QR/1).

Full QR

Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

This course is an advanced introduction to symbolic logic, intended to provide a foundation for understanding current research in philosophical logic and related areas of cognitive science. The course will concentrate on the theory of logic, and will cover the following topics:

  1. The art of formalization,
  2. Proof techniques and proof theory,
  3. Models and validity,
  4. Semantic completeness of propositional and quantificational logic,
  5. Incompleteness and undecidability,
  6. The formalization of specific reasoning tasks, such as planning.

    Written work will consist of problem sets and midterm and final exams. Students who are uncertain about their mathematical background may wish to consult with the instructor before taking this course. More information on the course will be available from the instructor's home page at http://www.eecs.umich.edu/~rthomaso/.

    Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 1

    Philo. 419. Philosophy of the Arts.

    Section 001 Meets with Philosophy 319.001

    Instructor(s): Kendall Walton (klwalton@umich.edu)

    Prerequisites & Distribution: Not open to philosophy graduate students. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 319. (3). (Excl). Will not satisfy 400-level course requirement for concentration in philosophy.

    Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

    Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

    See Philosophy 319.001.

    Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 3 Waitlist Code: 4

    Philo. 423. Problems of Space and Time.

    Section 001 Meets with Humanities Institute 411.001.

    Instructor(s): Lawrence Sklar (lsklar@umich.edu)

    Prerequisites & Distribution: One logic introduction and either one other philosophy course or 12 credits of science. (3). (Excl). (BS).

    Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

    Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

    Traditional philosophical questions about the nature of time and space have been strikingly influenced in the twentieth century by the results of contemporary physical science. At the same time, the important current physical theories of space and time rest explicitly or implicitly on deep-rooted philosophical assumptions. The purpose of this course is to study the mutual interaction between science and philosophy as illustrated in problems about space and time. Typical topics to be considered include the status of knowledge about the structure of space and time, substantial versus relational theories of space-time, spatio-temporal order and causal order, and the so-called problem of the direction of time. This course can be appreciated by students who have either a background in philosophy especially logic and philosophy of science, metaphysics, epistemology or background in physical science or mathematics. An attempt is made in this course to introduce the fundamental ideas of both philosophy and science at a level which can be understood by those without extensive background so students need not be proficient in both science and philosophy to benefit from the course. The primary text is L. Sklar Space, Time, and Spacetime. There are additional readings from such authors as Reichenbach, Poincaré, Grunbaum, Smart, Wheeler, and others.

    Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 2 Waitlist Code: 1

    Philo. 429. Ethical Analysis.

    Section 001.

    Instructor(s): Peter Railton (prailton@umich.edu)

    Prerequisites & Distribution: Phil. 361, 363, or 366. (3). (Excl).

    Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

    Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

    Questions about the nature and standing of morality arise in both theory and practice. Moreover, in recent years morality has served as a central example in wide philosophical debates about the nature of normativity and the relation of theory to practice. In this course we will critically investigate several of the most influential philosophical conceptions of morality, including historical as well as contemporary writings. Among the questions we will consider:

    • In what sense, if any, is there a need for theory in morality?
    • How are we to understand the meaning of moral terms?
    • Are moral judgments capable of truth and falsity?
    • In what sense, if any, can moral claims be objective?
    • How is morality related to relationality?
    • What is the relation of "ought" to "is"?
    • And, why be moral?

    Midterm and final examinations; a term paper.

    Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 4

    Philo. 450. Philosophy of Cognition.

    Section 001.

    Instructor(s): Eric Lormand (lormand@umich.edu)

    Prerequisites & Distribution: Two courses in Philosophy. (3). (Excl).

    Credits: (3).

    Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

    This course is about the science of consciousness and the psychoanalysis of the unconscious, and their relations to contemporary analytic and continental philosophy. What is the difference between conscious and unconscious mental states? Can science handle philosophically troublesome features of consciousness, such as introspectibility (how one "reads" one's own mind), phenomenality (how one's mind "feels" to one), and subjectivity (one's seeming inability to "read" or "feel" other minds)? Can the various theories and therapies developed by Freud and later psychoanalysts stand up to scientific testing? How do they bear on philosophical issues about motivation, (ir)rationality, selfhood, and the status of commonsense psychology?

    Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

    Philo. 461. Continental Rationalism.

    Section 001.

    Instructor(s): Edwin Curley (emcurley@umich.edu)

    Prerequisites & Distribution: One philosophy introduction. (3). (Excl).

    Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

    Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~emcurley/461syl00.htm

    "Continental Rationalism" is usually taken to refer to a philosophical movement in the 17th Century, whose most important representatives were Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, and who are supposed to have shared an epistemological program which was overly optimistic about what could be known by pure reason, independently of experience.

    This course will not focus as firmly on metaphysics and epistemology as is common in courses which bear this label. Instead it will be a broadranging course, which will pay attention to moral and political philosophy as well. We will look in detail at Descartes and Spinoza. But we will also give equal time to Hobbes (who is not usually classed as a rationalist). And we will examine critically the idea that the 'rationalists' did share an epistemological program of the kind they are usually thought to share. As background to the 'rationalists,' we will look briefly at three figures not generally classed as rationalists: Machiavelli, Montaigne and Galileo.

    This course is intended as the first installment of a sequence of two courses, the second of which will be offered Winter Term is Phil 462, British Empiricism, a subject normally conceived to involve an exclusive focus on Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. In fact 462 will include discussion of Leibniz and Rousseau as well as the traditional empiricists (and among the empricists, will attend more to Locke and Hume than to Berkeley). Between them the two courses are intended to provide a good survey of European intellectual history from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. But the courses are independent of one another. 461 is not a prerequisite for 462, nor must students who enroll in 461 go on to 462.

    The formal prerequisite for this course is one introductory course in philosophy. It would be desirable to have more background than that, since we will be covering a lot of ground, some of it quite difficult. If you have doubts about your preparation for the course, check with me by email: emcurley@umich.edu.

    Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 1

    Philo. 477. Theory of Knowledge.

    Section 001.

    Instructor(s): James Joyce (jjoyce@umich.edu)

    Prerequisites & Distribution: Phil. 345 or 383. (3). (Excl).

    Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

    Course Homepage: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jjoyce/phil477.html

    This course is a broad survey of the modern theory of knowledge that is designed for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It will begin by introducing and evaluating the traditional view that knowledge is justified, true opinion. The notion of justification will then be analyzed in detail. Particular attention will be paid to the "infinite regress of reasons" paradox and the attendant debate between foundationalists and coherentists about the nature of justifying reasons. The important distinction between internalist and externalist theories of justification will also be discussed. Further topics to be covered include: arguments for global skepticism, W. Quine's contention that epistemology should be "naturalized," recent contributions of Bayesian statisticians and philosophers to debates about justification and knowledge, and an introduction to recent work of social psychologists, anthropologists and biologists in the field of "evolutionary epistemology."

    Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: 2 Waitlist Code: No Data Given.

    Philo. 498. Senior Honors in Philosophy.

    Instructor(s):

    Prerequisites & Distribution: By departmental permission only. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

    Credits: (3; 2 in the half-term).

    Course Homepage: No Homepage Submitted.

    This course number is to be used for those students who are in the process of writing a philosophy Honors thesis. Anyone wishing to write an Honors thesis in philosophy should consult the Philosophy Honors Advisor.

    Check Times, Location, and Availability Cost: No Data Given. Waitlist Code: 5, P/I

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