General Near East (Division 439)

101. Introduction to Near Eastern Studies. (4). (HU).

The Near East is a major region of the world. It stretches from Central Asia to North Africa and subsumes many different peoples, cultures, and countries, including Afghanistan, Iran Turkey, Israel, and the Arab countries. Near Eastern Studies is a multi-disciplinary attempt to understand the many cultures and civilizations in the region, not only those of today, but also those of earlier times, as much of Classical Civilization as well as modern Western Civilization originates in the Near East. As such the study of the Near East is a rewarding enterprise which can help much in understanding our own culture, how it came about, and what it is now. NES offers a general interdisciplinary introduction to the Near East. It surveys the ancient Near East, classical Near East, and contemporary Near East, including extensive observations of the Near Eastern heritage in Western culture. It is taught by some 20 faculty from Near Eastern Studies, Anthropology, Economics, History, History of Art, Political Science, and the School of Music. The student is thus exposed not only to a great variety of topics, but also a great variety of disciplines, and faculty. There are no exams. Grades are based on quizzes and a term project. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Windfuhr)

201/Rel. 201. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Freedman)

245. Great Books of the Near East I. (4). (Excl).

CLASSICS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD. We will study six to eight short or medium-length works, though selections from longer works will be included. The readings, all of them in English, will be drawn from several fields poetry and history, mysticism and philosophy; Ghazali's Confessions and Omar Khayyam's Quatrains will be among the texts. It is essentially a lecture course, though students will elect a discussion group. NO PREREQUSITE. (Mir)

361. God and History in the Ancient Near East. (3). (Excl).

This course, specifically for undergraduates, attempts a combination of approaches to Ancient Near Eastern History, one which stresses cultural and intellectual concerns against the backdrop of necessary political history. Beginning with the decipherment of the first writing in Mesopotamia and Egypt, the study explores the first organization of human life and activity in recorded history. The course is as much interested in "capturing" the human perspectives of the era (3000-323 B.C.) as in setting in order consecutive events. We shall be looking at politics, religion, subsistence issues, literature and world-views of ancient Semitic peoples. The course requires no previous background, and is introductory in nature. It will be taught through a combination of lecture and discussion techniques.

362(465)/Hist. 306/Rel. 358. History of Ancient Israel I: From Abraham to the Babylonian Exile. (3). (HU).

This course will attempt to trace the history of ancient Israel as a culture, as a nation, and as a religion, and to understand its place in the larger history of the ancient Near East. In particular, we shall consider Israel's development from its putative beginnings with the Patriarchs until the Babylonian Exile of the sixth century B.C., during which it underwent fundamental change. Since the main evidence for this task is the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, we shall in the process investigate also how the Hebrew Bible as literature was created, organized, and transmitted. Certain topics within this broad area will be given special attention. They will include, among others, the relations of Biblical religion to the religions of other Near Eastern cultures; the problem of the historical existence of the Patriarchs; David and Solomon and the monarchical revolution; and the social and religious context of Israelite prophecy. The course will consist of lectures interspersed with plenty of opportunity for class discussion. Two papers, one short and the other of medium length (11-12 pages), and two examinations emphasizing essays constitute the course requirements. There are NO prerequisites. It should be noted that this course provides an introduction not only to ancient Israel and its Bible, but to the ancient Near East as a whole. At the same time, since ancient Israel is the starting point of Jewish history, the course also serves as an entrance into that long history, to be continued, more directly, by NES 363 (History of Ancient Israel II: The formation of Classical Judaism), as well as by a variety of other courses offered in the Departments of Near Eastern Studies and History. [Cost:3, could be less than $50 if students already have an appropriate text or Hebrew Bible in translation.] [WL:3] (Machinist)

397. Undergraduate Reading Course. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

An independent study course of 1-3 credit hours. A student must obtain permission of the instructor prior to registration. The subject and terms of grading the course should be determined by the student and instructor prior to registration as well.

442/Hist. 442. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See History 442. (Luther)

445. Introduction to Ancient and Classical Near Eastern Literature. (3). (HU).

Our fascination with the Near East is not just limited to archaeological and historic records; these but suggest the outlines of life during humankind's cultural infancy. More than anything else, it is the literature of a people which reveal its heart and mind, its emotions and thoughts. This course opens the door for the contemporary student into the innermost life of ancient and more recent peoples living in the lands surrounding the Eastern Mediterranean. It identifies the popular forms of narrative and poetic expression, explains the social backgrounds of early Near Eastern literature, and considers its links with our contemporary Western literary traditions. Lectures and discussions focus on representative myths, stories and poems. The literatures covered in this course include (1) Ancient Near Eastern literatures: ancient Egyptian, Assyrian-Babylonian, Hittite, Iranian, Biblical leading to (2) Classical Near Eastern and Islamic literatures: Arabic, Persian and Turkish, and literary activity in Hebrew. Each literature is taught by a different faculty member. Student evaluation is by examination (graduates have to prepare an additional term paper). The required texts are specially selected, xeroxed and available in Course Pack form. There are no prerequisites, but NES 101 or some other background on the Near East is recommended. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Stewart-Robinson)

450. Near Eastern Issues. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

A literary reflection on the history of the Near East through its narratives, from Gilgamesh to Mahfouz. Against the backdrop of orality and literacy, storytelling and fiction, memory and imagination, we will follow the different phases of the art of storytelling as the prevalent narrative, and examine the introduction of the novel's genre into that region. Three basic topics will be discussed comparatively: stories from the Bible and the Koran on the background of the ancient Near Eastern literatures; Medieval Arab and Jewish tales; points of convergence and departure in the modern literatures of the Near East. Texts will include a selection (in English translation) from: Gilgamesh; ancient Egyptian tales; Bible and Midrash; The Koran; Arab and Jewish Medieval texts (Maqamat and other tales); Tales from The Thousand and One Nights; Modern Arab and Hebrew writers. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students who have an interest in issues Near Eastern, preferably with a literary background, are encouraged to register. Requirements for the course are a presentation in class, and a substantial Term Paper. [Cost:3] (Shammas)

478/Judaic Studies 478. Topics in Modern Judaism. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

See Judaic Studies 478. (Norich)

485/Rel. 485. Muslim Sages. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is two-fold: to make an in-depth study of some of the distinguished Muslim minds in various fields of intellectual activity, and to make that study serve as an introduction to those fields. Among the writers to be studied are: Hasen al-Basri, Ma'arri, Ghazali, Rumi, Ibn Khaldun, Ahmad Sirhindi, Shah Waliullah, and Iqbal. The course will be given in the form of lectures, though students will be expected to engage in a vigorous discussion of issues. A course pack and two or three books will make up the readings, all of which will be in English. The basis of grading will be two monthly exams and a final. NO PREREQUISITES. (Mir)

497. Senior Honors Thesis. Permission of instructor. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

The Senior Honors thesis is for students who have been approved by the Near Eastern Studies concentration advisor, honor's advisor, and the LS&A Honor's Council. This course should be taken both terms of the senior year, for not less than three or more than six credits per term. The length of the thesis may vary, but 50-60 pages is common. Two advisors should be chosen. The principal advisor will be a member of the faculty in whose field of expertise the thesis topic lies, and he or she will oversee the student's research and the direction taken by the thesis. The deadline for submission of a draft of the thesis is the end of the week following spring break. The completed thesis must be submitted by the beginning of the exam period. Upon completion of the Honors thesis (and maintenance of a minimum overall grade point average of 3.5), Honors candidates may be recommended by the two advisors and Honors advisor for a degree "with highest Honors," or with "with Honors," in Near Eastern Studies (followed by the area of specialization). A notation is made on the diploma and the transcript. [Cost: 8] [WL: 6]

Ancient and Biblical Studies (ABS: Division 317)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Biblical Hebrew. (3). (FL).

An introduction to the language and style of the Hebrew Bible, using Weingreen's PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF CLASSICAL HEBREW as the text. Daily instruction on grammar with drills. Students are evaluated on the basis of daily homework assignments and weekly quizzes. [Cost:1] [WL:3]

380/Rel. 380. Selected Topics in Christian Studies. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits. Only one course from Religion 380, 387, and 487 may be elected in the same term.

In this course, we shall study some central terms and concepts in early Christianity. Most of these will be taken from the New Testament (e.g., "Son of Man," "The View of the Law in Paul's Letters"), but we shall also move somewhat in the world of the Church Fathers (e.g., "The Development of the Trinitarian Dogma"). The aim of the course is to appreciate the background of these topics and the way in which they determine the structure of early Christian theology. Some previous academic knowledge in the field (e.g., through Religion 280 or 283) is advantageous, but not required. There will be two exams and a final paper. The class type is recitation. [Cost:3] (Fossum)

488/Greek 488. The Gospel of John in Greek. For undergraduates and graduate students. (3). (Excl).

In this course we shall study some central passages of the Gospel of John in the original language. A definition of leading concepts will enable us to reconstruct the background and stir a thought out of which the Fourth Gospel must have taken form. Knowledge of Greek and some academic familiarity with the world of nascent Christianity are required. Student evaluation will be based on presentations made in class and a final paper. The class type is seminar. [Cost:2] (Fossum)

491/Rel. 401. Seminar in Religion. Permission of department. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course will explore several topics within the study of the religion of ancient Israel and the Hebrew Bible. In each instance the Biblical and non-Biblical sources will be examined closely, and connections with other religions of the ancient Near East and with post-Biblical Judaism and Christianity will be discussed. Some prior acquaintance with the Bible and ancient history would be desirable. (Machinist)

Arabic (and Berber) Studies (Arabic: Division 321)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

101. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course provides an introduction to the phonology and script of modern literary Arabic and to the language's basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical constructions. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, writing and using the Arabic dictionary. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for review and oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons satisfactorily completed. Students should consult instructor or course coordinator in advance for the schedule of lessons per credit hour and general instructions. Arabic 101 may be taken for two to four credits. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each lesson (50%) and scheduled and comprehensive tests (50%). Textbooks: (1) A PROGRAMMED COURSE IN MODERN ARABIC PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT by E. N. McCarus and R. Rammuny; (2) ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC PART ONE, by P. Abboud et al. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Rammuny)

102. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Through Self-Instruction. Permission of instructor. (2-6). (FL). May be elected for a total of six credits.

This course may not be taken until SIX hours of Arabic 101 have been completed. It is a continuation of Arabic 101 and includes continued drill practice on the phonological system, on basic vocabulary and morphology, and on Arabic syntactic patterns. The course stresses oral practice with increasing emphasis on reading selections based on Arab culture, and on producing Arabic orally and in writing. Students have access to a tutor for as many as four hours a week plus two obligatory hours per week for review and oral practice. Amount of credit awarded depends on number of lessons and tests satisfactorily completed. Course grade is based on review tests completed by students at the end of each term (50%) and scheduled comprehensive tests (50%). Textbook: ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC, PART TWO by P. Abboud et al. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Rammuny)

201. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic. (6). (FL).

No previous knowledge of Arabic is required for Arabic 201. This course is especially recommended for students concentrating in Arabic or for those who expect to have some immediate use of Arabic. Its primary goals are: (1) mastery of the phonology and writing systems of literary Arabic; (2) control of the basic grammatical structures of the language; (3) mastery of about 800 vocabulary items; and (4) acquisition of related skills. The materials used are based on a combined approach stressing the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The course starts with A Programmed Course in Modern Literary Arabic Phonology and Script, by Ernest N. McCarus and Raji Rammuny. These introductory programmed materials are usually completed within the first two weeks of classes. This is immediately followed by ELEMENTARY MODERN STANDARD ARABIC, PART I, by Peter Abboud et al. This book is especially designed to provide careful guidance to both the student and the teacher. At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to read printed and handwritten literary Arabic and to produce familiar material in a manner acceptable to a native speaker. In addition, the student should have acquired related skills such as familiarity with the use of Arabic dictionaries, or the ability to use a small set of greetings and polite expressions. The course meets six hours per week for six credits. Use of language lab is necessary and strongly recommended to reinforce classroom work. The course grade is based on daily assignments, weekly quizzes, bi-weekly tests, classroom performance, and a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (Rammuny)

301. Introduction to Classical Arabic. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introductory course in Classical Arabic, the language of the Koran, the traditions of the prophet Muhammad, Arabic poetry, Belles-lettres, and Arab history, from the beginnings around A.D. 500 to about A.D. 1500. The course begins with the alphabet, phonology, and grammar, and goes on to graded readings from selected texts in the above-mentioned categories. No prerequisites; no prior knowledge of Arabic is assumed. Quizzes will given every second week, and a final exam at the end of the term. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Bellamy)

401. Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic 202 or the equivalent. (6). (FL).

The course emphasizes a review of morphology and a continuation of the study of Arabic syntax. There are selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and nonfiction, with special emphasis on oral work, reading, active mastery of a basic Arabic vocabulary, and development of composition skills. The course grade is based on classroom performance, monthly tests and the final examination. TEXTS:COURSE PACK.[Cost:2] [WL:3 (Rammuny)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

415. Syrian Colloquial Arabic. Arabic 402. (3). (Excl).

This course teaches the basic principles of pronunciation and grammar of colloquial educated Arabic as spoken in Jerusalem, Beirut, Damascus and Amman, through oral and pattern practice drill. Towards the end of the course emphasis shifts to practical use of the dialect based on expanded vocabulary and texts containing more cultural and idiomatic content than the first lessons. FOR WHOM: This course is recommended for students who plan to travel or to work in the Levant and those who need Arabic for immediate oral use. EVALUATION AND REQUIREMENTS: Use of language laboratory to reinforce class work and also to do assignments which need to be recorded. The course grade is based on classroom performance, assignments, monthly tests, and the final examination. SPECIAL FEATURES: The course is accompanied by tape recordings of the pronunciation drills, the basic texts, the vocabulary, the conversations and the listening comprehension selections. In addition, it is taught by a native speaker of the dialect to be taught. Texts: COLLOQUIAL LEVANTINE ARABIC by Ernest McCarus et. al. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Rammuny)

430. Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. Arabic 402 or equivalent, or competence in general linguistics. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introductory survey to the phonology, morphology and syntax of literary and dialectal Arabic. It is designed to accommodate Arabic concentrators with little training in linguistics and linguistics concentrators with no knowledge of Arabic. Class will be devoted to lectures and discussions. Course grade will be based on homework problems arising from class discussion, and a final exam (no term paper). No textbook, but a reading list will be distributed. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (McCarus)

501. Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course presupposes knowledge of Arabic at the intermediate level (NES Arabic 402 or equivalent). It offers extensive oral and written practical work based on (1) a wide variety of literary texts ranging from short stories, personal and formal letters, plays, essays to proverbs and poems adapted from the works of contemporary professional writers and (2) audiovisual materials including video-cassettes, automated slide shows and tape-recordings of newscasts, speeches and lectures. There is special emphasis on basic fundamentals for effective Arabic writing, illustrations of the basic differences of grammar and idioms between Arabic and English keyed to the most common errors of American students of Arabic, and cultural content pertinent to the learners' needs and interests. The course meets three hours per week and is conducted entirely in Arabic. It also requires about 6 extra hours weekly for outside of class preparation, listening to or viewing lesson tapes and writing composition. Course grade is based on students' preparation and class performance (25%), written composition (25%), bi-monthly tests (25%), and a term paper in Arabic (25%). Textbooks: Raji M. Rammuny ADVANCED ARABIC CONVERSATION AND COMPOSITION, Ann Arbor, Mi.: Dept of Near Eastern Studies, 1986. Also Raji Rammuny STUDENTS' GUIDE, Troy, Mi.; International Book Center, 1980. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Rammuny)

530. Proseminar in Arabic Linguistics. Permission of instructor. (2-3). (Excl).

Analysis and research on problems of interest to the class. Pre-registration consultation with instructor is requested. Term paper required. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (McCarus)

551. Modern Arabic Fiction. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

This course presents, for translation, analysis and commentary, works representative of the major Arabic writers of the modern age. The readings, of selected short stories and from novels, demonstrate the recent development in the art of fiction in Arabic; they show how this literature expresses the social and political concern and philosophical orientations of its authors. (LeGassick)

553. Modern Arabic Nonfictional Prose. Arabic 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

This course introduces the work of major Arab writers on the 19th and 20th centuries. Variable in focus according to the interests of the class, readings are selected for translation, analysis and commentary. The course explores the historical progression in the development of political and societal theories in modern times in the Arab world. (LeGassick)

Hebrew Studies (Hebrew: Division 387)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Modern Hebrew. (5). (FL).

Development of basic communication skills in Hebrew. Reading, writing and grammar. Class discussion and readings in Hebrew. Class and language laboratory drills. (Staff, Coffin)

301. Intermediate Modern Hebrew. Hebrew 202 or equivalent. (5). (FL).

The focus of instruction will be on the four language skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. Review of morphology and syntax. Continued emphasis on oral work and writing skills. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Etzion)

Literature, Civilization and Advanced Language Courses

304. Hebrew Communicative Skills. Hebrew 302. (2). (Excl).

Development of oral communication skills. Emphasis on increasing active vocabulary and expressive competency. Activities include role-playing, presentations, and encounters with native speakers. [Cost:1] [WL:1]

401. Advanced Hebrew. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The object of this course is to enhance the student's Hebrew reading and writing skills. In addition, emphasis is placed on expanding student's vocabulary. To present the various levels of Hebrew, the materials include heterogeneous texts, ranging from the biblical period to modern times.

403. Hebrew of the Communications Media. Hebrew 302 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Emphasis on readings, listening and speaking skills. The special genre of the communications media (newspapers, radio and television) will serve as the basis for discussion of current events. Unedited newspaper selections will be read and news broadcasts and television programs will be used in the classroom and in the language laboratory. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Etzion).

541. Hebrew Legendary (Tannaitic) Literature. Hebrew 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Readings and interpretations of texts from the Tannaitic corpus of literature, including Mishnah and Midrash. (Schramm)

Iranian Studies (Iranian: Division 398)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Persian. (4). (FL).

Persian 201 is the first term of a two year (four-term) sequence of language coursework that takes the student through to an intermediate level of reading and speaking the Persian language. (Amirsoleimani)

401. Intermediate Persian. Iranian 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Reading and comprehension, conversation and composition are systematically developed. The textbook is a new series of volumes accompanied by tapes covering modern fiction, expository prose and cultural-topic material both in readings and dialog form. The language of the classroom is increasingly Persian. Textbook: MODERN Persian. Intermediate Level, Vol. I and II. Windfuhr et al., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Windfuhr) departmental sequence in modern Turkish language, this course focuses on speaking, reading and writing the language of modern Turkey. Course topics include the principles of Turkish grammar with the phonological structure, basic sentence patterns and the morphology of the language. The method of instruction is of the recitation variety and includes written and oral work. There are laboratory sessions and conversation periods. Students are evaluated on the basis of class participation, written work, a midterm and a final examination. The required texts are: H. Sebuktekin, TURKISH FOR FOREIGNERS (available in departmental office) and G.L. Lewis, TURKISH (Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1980). (Stewart-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

541. Classical Persian Texts. Iranian 402 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course involves the reading and literary analysis of texts from major authors of the classical period (ca.950-1500) and includes basic skills in reading aloud and the use of the rules of prosody in scansion and interpretation of poetry texts. It will include shorter or longer passages from such writers as Ferdowsi, Nezami-yi, Rumi, Sa'di, Hafez, Bayhagi, Nezamiya Aruzi, and others, according to the interests of the class and the instructor. There are midterm and final exams. The texts are in the form of a photocopied course pack. (Luther)

Turkish Studies (Turkish: Division 493)

Elementary and Intermediate Language Courses

201. Elementary Turkish. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish language, this course focuses on speaking, reading and writing the language of modern Turkey. Course topics include the principles of Turkish grammar with the phonological structure, basic sentence patterns and the morphology of the language. The method of instruction is of the recitation variety and includes written and oral work. There are laboratory sessions and conversation periods. Students are evaluated on the basis of class participation, written work, a midterm and a final examination. The required texts are: H. Sebuktekin, TURKISH FOR FOREIGNERS (available in departmental office) and G.L. Lewis, TURKISH (Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1980). (Stewart-Robinson)

401. Intermediate Turkish. Turkish 202 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, Turkish 401 is offered only in the Fall Term and Turkish 402 only in the Winter Term. The course is designed for students who have completed either Turkish 202 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It emphasizes further study of Turkish grammar and stresses development of comprehension, and oral and written expression through the use of selected materials relating to Turkish culture and collected in a course pack. A strongly recommended text for the course is G.L. Lewis' TURKISH GRAMMAR (Oxford University Press, 1967 or later editions). Student evaluation is based on class performance, written work, a midterm and a final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Stewart-Robinson)

411. Introductory Ottoman. Turkish 202 and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Part of the sequence of courses required of concentrators, MAs and PHDs in Turkish Studies and open to Near Eastern Students with a multi-language interest and to students in other disciplines who need Ottoman for research purposes. This is a recitation-type course designed to give students speedy access to written Ottoman in the Arabic script. The texts are specially selected and xeroxed for distribution to students. Quizzes and a final examination are required in each term. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Stewart-Robinson)

Literature, Civilization, and Advanced Language Courses

501. Modern Turkish Readings. Turkish 402 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Since this course is part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, admission to it is dependent on satisfactory completion of Turkish 402 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It is designed to further develop reading and comprehension competence in a variety of modern Turkish styles; newspaper and learned articles, political tracts, government publications, etc. The method of instruction is through recitation including preparation, reading and oral or written translation of texts in class or at home with discussion of grammar, style and content. Students are evaluated on their class preparation, a midterm and a final examination. Among the texts used are A. Tietze's Advanced Turkish Reading and a collection of xeroxed materials. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Stewart-Robinson)

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