Courses in Philosophy (Division 442)

The Philosophy Department offers a series of 150-level courses that serve as introductions to specific areas of philosophical thought. Each probes a group of philosophical issues related to certain other fields or areas of human concern, and each is designed to show how questions in these fields or areas can lead naturally to larger philosophical matters. Philosophy 151, "Personal Decisions," will be offered Fall Term, 1990. It will be taught by a faculty member and will be limited to 50 students.

Philosophy 181, 202, 231, 232, and 297 are general introductions designed to acquaint the student with a representative sample of philosophical problems concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self, morality, religion, and society. They deal with such questions as: If a person's actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is he capable of free actions for which he can be held morally responsible? What is a person just a very complex machine, a combination of a mind or soul and a body, or what? How can such common sense beliefs as that other human beings are conscious, or that there exists an external physical world, be justified? What are scientific theories, and what kinds of considerations bear on whether they should be accepted? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Are value judgments (e.g., moral or aesthetic judgments) "objective" or "subjective"? What are the basic differences between the major kinds of social, political and economic organizations, and what reasons are there for preferring any one of them to the others? How should one live one's life? What is the "meaning" of life, and what does this question mean?

The 200-level philosophy introduction and 181 vary in their instructional format. Philosophy 202 (three hours) approaches issues through a mixture of twentieth century writers (e.g., Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer) and seminal figures in Western intellectual history (Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant). It is taught by graduate student teaching assistants in sections of approximately 25 students. Philosophy 231 (three hours) and 232 (four hours) can be expected to cover similar issues and texts, but in a different format; a faculty member delivers two lectures each week, and students are divided into groups of approximately 25 for discussion sections which meet one (231) or two (232) hours per week. Philosophy 181 has yet a different format. It is smaller, limited to 50 students, and is taught in a combination lecture/discussion format three times a week. Finally, Philosophy 297, Honors Introduction, is taught by a member of the faculty to small groups of 25-30 students.

The Department offers three elementary introductory courses in logic: 180, 201 and 203. 180 and 201 both cover some informal logic, while 203 introduces students to symbolic logic. 180 is taught by faculty in a section of 40-50, while 201 and 203 are taught in sections of 20-25 by advanced graduate student teaching assistants.

Some 300-level courses do not have prerequisites and can serve as introductions to particular branches of philosophy. Two such courses will be offered Fall Term, 1990: Philosophy 365, "Problems of Religions," and Philosophy 375, "Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud."

Humanities distribution credit can be obtained, with departmental approval, for Philosophy courses that do not automatically qualify for it. Consult the Philosophy Department.

151. Philosophical Dimensions of Personal Decisions. Students are strongly advised not to take more than two Philosophy Introductions. (3). (HU).

An introduction to some central areas of philosophy through an investigation of a range of philosophical questions that arise in connection with the making of personal decisions. Among the issues we will discuss are: What is it to choose freely? In what sense are we responsible for our decisions? What is it to choose rationally? What is the place of moral considerations in personal decision-making? How are one's choices related to the choices of others? What role does the making of choices play in developing one's identity? Readings will be drawn from current work in philosophy (including analytic and existentialist writing) and decision theory, and also from biography and literature. Three short papers, a midterm, and a final examination. (Railton)

180. Introductory Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This is a beginning, and rather slow-paced, course in formal logic. Following a brief introductory segment on logic in general, we will study the propositional (truth-functional) logic, and then the predicate logic for one-place predicates. If there is sufficient time, we may have some brief discussions of additional topics, such as the idea of a proof, modal logic, inductive logic, etc. The text will probably be Irving Copi, INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC. In the 7th edition of that book, the material to be covered is treated in chapters 1, 8, 9, 10 and appendices A and B. Grades will be based on one or more hourly exams and a final cumulative exam. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Mavrodes)

181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction. No credit granted to those who have completed 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001. See Section 003.

SECTION 003 This course will provide an introduction to a number of philosophical issues. Issues that might be discussed include: How do we know that anything exists, other than ourselves and our own thoughts? Are minds immaterial, or are minds merely brains and hence nothing but complex physical objects? If determinism is true, and every event including human actions is causally determined by antecedent conditions, is there any free will or moral responsibility? Is the nature and extent of our moral obligations determined by our feelings, self-interest, social convention, Divine commands, or what? What is the meaning of life, and what does it mean to ask whether life has any meaning? There are no prerequisites for this course. Freshmen are welcome. An effort will be made to devote substantial class time to discussion. Texts are to be determined. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Munro)

201. Introduction to Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This course aims to give the student a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument. Students will be expected to master some technical detail, but the emphasis in this course is on non-technical, informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. Sections usually have about twenty-five students each. Each section meets three hours per week and is generally conducted with some informality and considerable student participation. Discussion and questions are encouraged, particular problems are analyzed, and students are required to demonstrate mastery of assigned material. Course requirements for grading vary from instructor to instructor. Normally there are weekly assignments frequently in written form and short, periodic quizzes.

202. Introduction to Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with philosophical thinking on the great questions that have moved mankind throughout history, and to discuss possible solutions to them. The course is taught in independent sections of approximately twenty-five students. Each section is taught by a teaching assistant who selects the topics and readings. Some sections examine the systems of such major historical figures as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Hegel, and Nietzsche, while others employ primarily the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and others. The subject matter generally includes ethics, free will and responsibility, philosophy of mind, epistemology and skepticism, and perhaps arguments for the existence of God. The text is either a book of readings or a set of larger selections from separate editions of well known philosophical works. During the term each student is usually required to submit a total of at least fifteen pages of critical discussion through a series of short papers varying in length from three to five pages. Several short quizzes may also be given as well as a final examination.

203. Introduction to Symbolic Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 203 or 296. (3). (N.Excl).

Common sense classifies arguments as good or bad according to a variety of formal and informal criteria. Roughly speaking, we count an argument good if it makes plausible assumptions which exhibit its conclusion as likely to be true. Though the common sense classification is familiar and useful, sometimes we want something more precise and more amenable to systematic investigation. Thus we idealize from the intuitive notion of a "good" argument and call an argument VALID if it is impossible for its assumptions to be true without its conclusion being true as well. Logic can now be defined as the study of validity. As it turns out, this study is best pursued by constructing artificial languages designed to replicate in purer form the logically relevant features of natural languages like English. Symbolic logic, the subject of this course, is the study of validity by preference to these formal languages. Students meet in sections of about 25 students each. Each section meets three hours per week and has a lecture/discussion format, with considerable student participation. Course requirements and grading vary from instructor to instructor, but normally there are weekly homework assignments and periodic quizzes.

230(335)/Buddhist Studies 230/Asian Studies 230/Rel. 230. Introduction to Buddhism. Buddhist Studies 220 or the equivalent. May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy. (4). (HU).

See Buddhist Studies 230.

231. Introduction to Philosophy: Problems and Principles. No credit granted to those who have completed 181, 182, 202, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

This course is open to students from all areas of the University. No previous work in philosophy is required or assumed. First term undergraduates are welcome. The course has two principal goals. The first is o provide an introduction to a number of fundamental philosophical problems drawn from a variety of branches of philosophy. The following issues will be discussed (1) determinism and free will; (2) arguments for and against the existence of God; and (3) the nature of moral obligation. Some attention will be paid to interconnections between these issues. The second goal is to develop the philosophical skills, and more generally the critical and argumentative skills, of those enrolled. Philosophy 231 and 232 share a common lecture for two meetings per week. Philosophy 231 carries three hours of credit, has one discussion meeting per week and requires two short papers. Philosophy 232 carries four hours of credit, has two discussion meetings per week, and requires three short papers. Students who feel they would benefit from the additional hour of discussion or from the additional required writing are advised to consider enrolling in 232 rather than 231. The course has a single text, an anthology: Joel Feinberg, editor, REASON AND RESPONSIBILITY (Dickenson Publishing Co.) [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Loeb)

232. Problems of Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed 181, 182, 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 231. (Loeb)

297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy. Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001. This course will examine some of the major philosophical problems: the existence of God, the nature and limits of human knowledge, the idea of freedom, the basis for ethical judgments, and the grounds of legitimate political authority. The readings will consist of a series of primary sources. Works by such philosophers as Plato, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Mill, Marx, and Camus will be included. Class sessions will follow a lecture and discussion format and students will be evaluated on the basis of a combination of three papers and exams.. No prerequisites. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Lipschutz)

SECTION 002. [Cost:2] [WL:1]

SECTION 003. We all have a common stock of basic beliefs that we accept without question: for example, that there is a world of objects external to and independent of ourselves; that some of those objects are persons such as ourselves. Can these beliefs be justified or must they simply be accepted on faith? What, in any event, does it mean for an object to be "external to and independent of oneself"? And what is it to conceive of an object as a person i.e., as a locus of intelligence, consciousness, thought and responsibility? And to what extent can such a conception of objects be reconciled with a scientific conception of reality? An introduction to these and related questions will form the subject matter of this course. Class sessions will have a lecture-discussion format. Four short papers will be required. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Boghossian)

319(369). Philosophy of the Arts. Philosophy 202 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed Philosophy 419. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the arts from a philosophical perspective, with emphasis on the fine arts: painting, literature, music, theatre, etc. It aims to understand the nature and importance of the various arts, their role in society and in people's lives, the practice of criticism and interpretation, the experience of appreciation, etc. It is not a course in art appreciation. It assumes that the student already has a serious interest in some of the arts and some knowledge of them. We will stand back from the arts and reflect philosophically on them and on the nature of our interest in them. The specific questions treated in any given term are likely to include some of the following: What is art; How is ART to be defined? Is it possible, or worthwhile to define it? What is fiction and how do works of fiction differs from works of non-fiction. Why are people interested in fiction? How do representational works of art differ from non-representational ones? What is pictorial representation and how does it compare with verbal representation? Why and in what ways is photography more (or less) REALISTIC than painting? What is it to perform a musical or theatrical work, and what counts as a good performance? Is music in any sense REPRESENTATIONAL, and does its value or importance lie in representational or expressive aspects of it? What is meant by CONCEPTUAL art, FOUND art, PERFORMANCE art? In what ways are these avant-garde forms of art interesting or important, and how do they compare with more traditional ones (e.g., do they deserve to be called ART?) What is metaphor? How are metaphors important in literature, and in interpretation and criticism. What is aesthetic value (or is there such a thing), and how is it distinct from, and related to moral value and other kinds of value? What is it to INTERPRET a work of art? Can interpretations be wrong, correct or incorrect, justified or unjustified? Does interpretation of a work require consideration of the artist's intention, or of the historical context in which it was produced? If so, how and why? These question are intimately connected with some of the most central problems of philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. Problems about the nature of emotion, about relations between emotion and cognition, and about relations between mind and body are crucial. So are problems concerning meaning, intentionality, and the nature of values. Readings will include both traditional sources (e.g., Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant) and contemporary ones, in different proportions depending on the instructor. A typical set of requirements for the course would be two papers written outside of class, and two essay examinations. Some instructors may prefer more papers, others more exams. It is expected that at least one paper will always be required.

344. Human Values and Medicine. For Inteflex students only. (3). (Excl).

Designed specifically for students who plan to practice medicine; the course provides a forum for discussion of problems in medical ethics within the wider context of philosophical ethics. Class meetings are a combination of lecture and informal discussion. In addition, students are required to do a term paper which explores in depth one of the topics under consideration and to take a final exam. The purpose of the course is two-fold: 1) to provide a general introduction to philosophical ethics drawing on both contemporary and historical sources; and 2) to investigate the problems and debates in contemporary medical ethics using the tools of philosophical analysis. With regard to the first, the topics covered will be drawn from the following: the nature of moral reasoning, moral relativism, deontological and utilitarian theories of obligation, the nature of moral responsibility, theories of the intrinsically good, the distinction between facts and values, and metaethical theories concerning the nature of ethical justification. With regard to the second, the problems in medical ethics covered will typically include euthanasia, truth telling and confidentiality, paternalism, experimentation on human subjects, and problems of justice in health care policy. A general introduction to ethics will be assigned along with historical and contemporary selections from anthologies of writing in both philosophical and medical ethics. (Noble)

345. Language and Mind. One philosophy course. (3). (Excl).

"Language and Mind" is a rigorous and demanding introduction to a range of contemporary issues at the interface of the philosophy of language and the philosophy of mind. The overarching concern is the relationship between thinking and speaking the extent to which our understanding of one requires and informs our under- standing of the other. The course has been designed especially to prepare undergraduate concentrators in philosophy for serious upper division and perhaps eventually graduate level work in the areas discussed, but should be of interest to any serious student interested in the relation between thought and language. The reading consists of a number of seminal papers (collected in a course pack) by twentieth century philosophers working primarily in the Anglo-American analytic tradition (e.g., Frege, Russell, Donnellan, Kripke, Perry, Grice, Davidson, and Burge) and sections of two books (by Kripke). Besides the reading, which is essential, each student will be expected to write three 10 page papers. Topics will be assigned, though students can write on a topic of their own with permission. Class participation is very strongly encouraged. Although the only official prerequisite is one previous philosophy course, a stronger background in central philosophical areas (metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind) will be the most useful, as will a familiarity with (the notation of) symbolic logic. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Taschek)

356. Issues in Bioethics. No prerequisites; one Philosophy Introduction is recommended. (4). (HU).

This course introduces major themes and theories of ethics by examining moral dilemmas that arise in the practice of medicine. The emphasis is on theoretical questions such as: 'What determines whether something is good for a person?', 'Can dying ever be good for someone?', 'What about being born?', 'Are we ever entitled to lie to a person for his own good?'. These theoretical questions are considered in the context of various medical cases that involve issues ranging from the treatment of pain to euthanasia and abortion. The course does NOT attempt to provide information about specific medical practices, new technologies, or court cases. Two five-page papers and a final exam. [COST:2] (Velleman)

361. Ethics. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

This is a course in PHILOSOPHICAL ethics. We will be concerned to see whether there is anything one can say in a principled way about what is valuable, worth wanting for its own sake, and what is morally obligatory, what it would be wrong not to do. But we shall also be concerned with philosophical questions ABOUT ethics metaethical questions, as they are called. Here we will ask, not only what is valuable, but what is VALUE? And what is it for an action to be wrong? What are rightness and wrongness themselves? And we shall examine the relation between these fundamental philosophical questions of metaethics and substantive ethical questions. The core of the course will be an examination of three central traditions in moral philosophy in the west, typified by Aristotle, Imannuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill. We will also do a section focused on metaethics with readings from classical and contemporary sources, including the existentialists. And we shall end the course by considering a recent critique of traditional moral philosophy raised by writers inspired by the work of the psychologist Carol Gilligan on gender and moral development, who would stress the role of personal relationships in ethics. Lecture and discussion. Three papers of about five pages in length, a midterm, and a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Darwall)

365/Rel. 365. Problems of Religion. (3). (HU).

This is an introductory course in the philosophy of religion. It is not a course in comparative religion, nor a survey of various religions, etc. The emphasis is on philosophical problems and philosophical treatments of topics which are generated by religious belief particularly in connection with Christianity and religions that are somewhat similar to Christianity (i.e., theistic religions). The main topics to be considered are: the rationality of religious belief, attempts to prove (or to argue for) the existence of God, criticisms of such arguments, the significance of religious experience, revelation, and the problem of evil. One or two other topics may be added if there is time. Usually I will lecture for two of the three weekly class sessions, trying to reserve the third one for questions, objections, and general discussion. There will be weekly assigned readings from classical and contemporary writers on the philosophy of religion. Probably I will use an anthology of such selections, but the text has not yet been selected. There will be a final exam, and either one or two hourly exams during the course of the term. My present plan is to make all of these open-book, multiple choice exams, covering both the readings and the lectures. Sample exams from previous courses will be available for students to examine. Grades will be determined largely by the scores of these exams. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Mavrodes)

366. Introduction to Political Philosophy. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (Excl).

Political philosophy is concerned not merely with the question of what sort of government (if any) we should have, but also with the most general questions about how people can and should live in society. We will undertake a systematic examination of the moral, philosophical, and empirical foundations of three of the dominant political philosophies of our times: social contract theory, utilitarianism, and socialism. Our goal will be to understand the conceptions of human nature, of value, of freedom, and of society and the individual's relation to it that underlie these political philosophies. Readings will include significant figures in the history of political philosophy (such as Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Mill, and Marx) as well as controversial contemporary political philosophers (such as Rawls and Nozick). Lectures and discussion sections. A midterm and a final examination. A term paper. (Railton)

375. Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce you to the thought of the four listed authors, but I hope that it will do more than this. It will be an attempt to develop in detail a coherent conception of philosophy quite different from and in some ways opposed to those which are now most current. The intention is to show that Hegel initiated a tradition that is founded on a new set of assumptions, and that addresses new questions which require new answers. The readings will be mainly from Hegel's PHENOMENOLOGY OF THE SPIRIT, Marx's early manuscript and CAPITAL (COMMODITY FETICHISM), Nietszche's GENEALOGY OF MORALS and ZERATHUSTRA, and Freud's CIVILIZATION AND IT'S DISCONTENTS. Some additional authors, esp. Max Weber (THE PROTESTANT ETHIC) will also be dealt with, though more briefly. Special attention will be given to the issue of Work. Two papers, and a final exam. (Bergmann)

383. Knowledge and Reality. One course in philosophy. (3). (Excl).

This is a course in metaphysics (theory of reality) and epistemology (theory of knowledge). Among the metaphysical problems which we might investigate are: existence, necessity and possibility, identity, causation, mind/body relations, and freedom of the will. Possible topics from epistemology are: the analysis of knowledge, the nature of justification, perceptual knowledge, knowledge of the past and future, knowledge of other minds, and self-knowledge. Readings will be from various contemporary metaphysicians and epistemologists. Course requirements will depend on the instructor, who is yet to be determined.

388/Class. Civil. 388. History of Philosophy: Ancient. One Philosophy Introduction. A knowledge of Greek or Latin is not required. (4). (Excl).

This course is a survey of Greek philosophical thought from its beginnings through Hellenistic times. The figures covered in detail are certain Presocratic thinkers, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, the Stoics, and the Sceptics. Stress is laid not only on the doctrines of these philosophers, but also on their arguments for holding them. Attention is also given to the non-philosophical background against which these thinkers worked, particularly in the case of their ethical views. There will be two papers of about seven pages in length, a midterm, and a final. One of the chief aims of the course is to teach students to write a clear, well-organized philosophy paper. (N.White)

401. Undergraduate Honors Seminar. Open to Honors concentrators in Philosophy and others by permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A thorough survey of the philosophical problems about free will and moral responsibility, with special emphasis on contemporary views. (Velleman)

406. Aristotle. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

This course will be a survey of some of the major aspects of Aristotle's philosophy. It will include an overview of the outlines of his thought, and a close examination of particular parts of it, notably his ethics and his metaphysics.

414. Mathematical Logic. (3). (Excl).

A study of the syntax, semantics, applications, and limitations of elementary logic. Among the topics included are: (A) truth-functions and sentential logic; symbolization of truth-functional arguments; completeness of sentential logic. (B) Syntax and semantics of quantification theory; symbolization of quantification arguments; completeness of quantification theory; limitations of quantification theory. (C) Elements of set theory and the foundations of mathematics; undecidability and Church's theorem. The text is FORMAL LOGIC by R.Jeffrey. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Sklar)

419. Philosophy of the Arts. No credit granted to those who have taken Phil. 319. Will not satisfy 400-level course requirement for concentration in philosophy. Not open to philosophy graduate students. (3). (Excl).

See Philosophy 319.

423. Problems of Space and Time. One Logic Introduction and either one other philosophy course or 12 credits of science; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Traditional philosophical questions about the nature of time and space have been strikingly influenced in the twentieth century by the results of contemporary physical science. At the same time, the important current physical theories of space and time rest explicitly or implicitly on deep-rooted philosophical assumptions. The purpose of this course is to study the mutual interaction between science and philosophy as illustrated in problems about space and time. Typical topics to be considered include the status of knowledge about the structure of space and time, substantial versus relational theories of space-time, spatio-temporal order and causal order, and the so-called problem of the direction of time. This course can best be appreciated by students who have either a background in philosophy especially logic and philosophy of science, metaphysics, epistemology or background in physical science or mathematics. An attempt is made in the course to introduce the fundamental ideas of both philosophy and science at a level which can be understood by those without extensive background so students need not be proficient in both science and philosophy to benefit from the course. The primary text is L. Sklar, SPACE, TIME AND SPACETIME. There are additional readings from such authors as Reichenbach, Poincare, Grunbaum, Smart, Wheeler, and others. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Sklar)

431. Normative Ethics. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

Normative ethics is the search for basic principles that determine what kinds of acts are right and what kinds wrong, what kinds of states of affairs are good and what kinds bad. The course will focus on two chief families of normative ethical theories: utilitarian theories and Kantian theories. We shall be asking how best to formulate these theories, and we shall examine arguments for them and against them. We shall read Mill and Kant for background, and otherwise, for the most part, we shall be reading articles by twentieth century philosophers. Classes will consist in lectures with discussion encouraged. The course is designed to be at the level of an advanced undergraduate who has some prior background in moral philosophy. Philosophy 361 is excellent background. Three five-page papers will be required. There will be a midterm and a final exam, with essay questions drawn from study questions issued in advance. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Gibbard)

465. Contemporary Continental Philosophy. Phil. 412 and two other courses in philosophy; or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

The main writers we will study in this course are Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, Camus, the authors of the Frankfurt School (esp. Adorno and Habermas) as well as Foucault and Barthes. The emphasis will not be on sampling small bits of the output of these thinkers, but on forming as far as this is possible a coherent picture of how the works of these writers fit together, and of the intellectual enterprise in which they engaged. This means that some of the background in Hegel and Marx and Freud will be explored, and it also means that contemporary Feminist and Marxist writers will figure in this course. As preparation it is very useful to have had one more elementary course in European philosophy and in addition one general Introductory course to philosophy. If you do not have these prerequisites you must obtain permission of the instructor to register for this course. There will be one short and one longer paper as well as the usual examination. (Bergmann)

468/Chinese 468. Classical Chinese Thought (To A.D. 220) Upperclass standing; no knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

Philosophy 468 focuses on the major philosophical schools of the Chou-Han period, which was roughly equivalent in time and intellectual fertility to the classical ages of Greece and Rome. Among these schools, special consideration is given to the Confucian and Taoist schools, since the doctrines associated with these were the sources of the two major philosophical traditions in China for the next 2000 years and affected very significant cultural developments in the arts, religion, science, and politics. The course concentrates on Chinese ethics and political philosophies (with notable exceptions in the case of certain Taoist thinkers) and on the theories of human nature that were associated with them. Among the more interesting political theories discussed are those pertaining to social control or the most desirable and effective ways of mobilizing the population for goals determined by the rulers. Chinese philosophers have been somewhat unusual in occupying political office and in having an opportunity to test their ideas in practice. This fact has affected the character of Chinese philosophy from the beginning, and it makes the study of Chinese political philosophy especially intriguing. There is some background consideration of the social and living conditions of the periods in which the various philosophies emerged. No knowledge of Chinese is required. Readings are in translation. All students are required to prepare an annotated, critical bibliography of secondary readings. Other course requirements include a midterm and a final examination. (Munro)

498. Senior Honors in Philosophy. By departmental permission only. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

This course number is to be used for those students who are in the process of writing philosophy Honors theses. Anyone wishing to write an Honors thesis in philosophy should consult the Philosophy Honors Advisor.

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