111. First Special Speaking and Reading Course. (4). (FL).
This course provides the student with the basic grammar of the Dutch language. We mainly use the monolingual course-book LEVEND NEDERLANDS (LIVING DUTCH) and each lesson from the book will consist of everyday conversation, a grammatical explanation, exercises, a coherent word list, questions about the conversation, discussion, and homework. To enliven the class the teacher will provide the students with songs, newspaper articles, comics, etc. Films and video will be used where possible. The students are strongly advised to visit the cultural meetings organized by the Netherlands America University League. Books: LEVEND NEDERLANDS, Cambridge University Press, New York; W. Z. Shetter, INTRODUCTION TO DUTCH, Nijhoff, The Hague; P. de Kleijn, E. Nieuwborg, BASISWOORDENBOEK NEDERLANDS, Groningen, Wolters-Noordhoff, 1983; J. Hulstijn, M. Hannay, An ENGLISH SELF-STUDY SUPPLEMENT TO LEVEND NEDERLANDS, Amsterdam, 1981. Also recommended: B. C. Donaldson, DUTCH REFERENCE GRAMMAR, The Hague, Nijhoff, 1981. [Cost:2] [WL:2] (Broos)
231. Second-Year Dutch. Dutch 112 or the equivalent. (4). (FL).
The course will start with an overview of the basic grammar of the Dutch language. We will develop skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening by means of texts to be announced. Comics, songs, newspaper articles, and literature will enliven the course and introduce the students to contemporary Dutch society. Students are strongly advised to visit the evenings organized by the Netherlands America University League. Books: P. de Kleijn, E. Nieuwborg, BASISWOORDENBOEK NEDERLANDS, Groningen, Wolters-Noordhoff, 1983. [Cost:2] [WL:2] (Broos)
339. Independent Study. (2-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.
This course serves the needs of students who wish to develop special topics not offered in the Dutch Studies curriculum. It may be a program of directed readings with reports, or it may be a research project and long paper. Courses in the past covered different areas like Dutch-Indonesian literature, the language of Rembrandt and his contemporaries, Dutch between English and German, etc. Courses must be supervised by a faculty member and the student must have the faculty member's agreement before electing the course. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Broos)
480. Modern Dutch Literature. Dutch 231 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
The course will examine the poetry and prose of both The Netherlands and Belgium in modern times. The reading of poems, short stories, novellas, etc. in the original language will provide the student with material for discussion about authors, opinions, place and points of view of Modern Dutch literature. Topics in the past have included modern Dutch poetry, Dutch colonial literature, the legacy of Anne Frank: World War II in modern Dutch literature. In cooperation with the writer in residence, the student will have the unique opportunity to exchange ideas and opinions with the author about his or her work. The course will be conducted totally in Dutch. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Broos)
491. Colloquium on Modern Dutch Culture and Literature. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
This course is conducted in English by the annual visiting writer-in-residence, usually a well known novelist or poet chosen by the Dutch Ministry of Culture to represent The Netherlands. The difference from ordinary literature and creative or news writing courses is that you will meet an esteemed writer and have the opportunity to exchange views on culture, literature, the practice of writing, communication, etc. both American and Dutch. Students are encouraged to bring in their own writing for reviewing and critical assessment. The course has not the ordinary professorial approach and is open to all lovers of texts, literary or otherwise, both American and European. Regular class attendance and participation in class discussions followed by at least one substantial paper will be required. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Van Kerkwijk)
101. Elementary Course. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).
First course of a two-term sequence in elementary German. The first-year program is designed to develop the ability to understand and speak "everyday German," to develop reading and writing skills, and to get to know the German-speaking world through discussions, readings, and videos. Ample opportunity is provided to develop conversational skills in a wide variety of situations encountered in German-speaking cultures. Additional time outside of class is required to listen to cassettes, to watch videos, to read, and to study the structure of the German language. There are chapter tests and an oral and written midterm and final. The language of instruction is German. [Cost:2] [WL:2]
102. Elementary Course. German 101 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed 100. (4). (FL).
Second course of a two-term sequence in elementary German. See German 101 for a general description. [Cost:2] [WL:2]
103. Review of Elementary German. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 100 or 102. (4). (FL).
Course for students who have had two to three years of high school German or one or more terms of college German – not at the University of Michigan - but who are not yet at second-year proficiency. This course is designed to develop the ability to understand and speak "everyday German," to develop reading and writing skills, and to get to know the German-speaking world through discussions, readings, and videos. Ample opportunity is provided to develop conversational skills in a wide variety of situations encountered in German-speaking cultures. Additional time outside of class is required to listen to cassettes, to watch videos, to read, and to study the structure of the German language. There are chapter tests and an oral and written midterm and final. These sections meet FIVE times per week. Students may enroll in 231 upon satisfactory completion of this course. The language of instruction is German. [Cost:2] [WL:2]
111. First Special Reading Course. Undergraduates must obtain permission of the department. (4). (Excl).
The objective of this course is to teach students to read simple German expository prose. Course content focuses on an introduction to the essentials of German grammar and syntax both in class lectures and in texts. Students are required to read but not to write and speak German. The course uses traditional methods of instruction which present rules of grammar and syntax as well as a basic vocabulary. Since much memorization is necessary, it is essential that students have time to do required course work which averages about twelve hours each week exclusive of class time. Course requirements include daily preparation and recitation, three one-hour examinations devoted to specific problems of grammar and vocabulary, and a final examination requiring the translation of sight passages without the aid of a dictionary. The class is taught in English, and the course text is Jannach, GERMAN FOR READING KNOWLEDGE, (third edition). There are no course prerequisites, but German 111 is open only to graduate students who wish to fulfill a German foreign language requirement and to advanced undergraduates in special programs who already have met the LS&A foreign language requirement. Undergraduates must receive departmental permission prior to electing the course. [Cost:1] [WL:2]
112. Second Special Reading Course. German 111 or the equivalent (placement test). (4). (Excl).
The objective of this course is to teach students to read German for research purposes with the aid of a dictionary. Course content includes an intensive review of grammar and syntax followed by translations from texts in the humanities, the natural and social sciences. Choice of reading texts is determined in part by the composition of the class. Course requirements include daily preparation and recitation, one examination following the completion of the grammar review, one examination during the reading of scientific texts. The final examination requires the translation of sight passages with the aid of a dictionary. The course prerequisite is German 111 or a placement examination (CEEB, GSFLT, or departmental). Like German 111, German 112 is open only to graduate students and undergraduates in special programs. [Cost:1] [WL: 2] (Schelle)
231. Second-Year Course. German 102 or the equivalent (placement test). No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 221. (4). (FL).
First course of a two-term sequence in contemporary intermediate German. The second-year program is designed to increase students' proficiency in understanding, speaking, writing, and reading German. Students are expected to increase the level of accuracy at which they can express themselves and the range of situations in which they can function in German-speaking cultures. They will be able to read, comprehend, and discuss a large variety of texts from commonly read West German periodicals. Traditional whole class instruction is supplemented with communicative activities involving pairs or small groups of students and with selections from the DEUTSCH DIREKT! video series. There are four hourly tests, a midterm, and a final examination. In addition, students give a three-minute oral presentation in German on a topic of personal interest and write three essays related to class readings. The language of instruction is German. [Cost:2] [WL:2]
232. Second-Year Course. German 231 or the equivalent (placement test). No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 236. (4). (FL).
Second course of a two-term sequence in contemporary intermediate German. See German 231 for a general description. The language of instruction is German. [Cost:2] [WL:2]
325. Practice in Writing and Speaking German. German 232 or the equivalent (placement test). (3). (Excl).
The sequence of German 325 and 326 is required for concentration in German. It is primarily intended to improve fluency and accuracy in written and spoken German. One hour each week is devoted to a systematic grammar review including translation from English to German. The remaining class time is devoted to German conversation based on readings and topics chosen at the discretion of the individual instructor. A German essay of one or two pages is assigned approximately every week. One or more five-minute oral presentations may be required. There are midterm and final examinations.
SECTION 001/002 – [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Dunnhaupt)
SECTION 003 – [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Cowen)
SECTION 004 – [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Grilk)
326. Practice in Writing and Speaking German. German 232 or the equivalent (placement test). (3). (Excl).
SECTION 001. This course is required for German concentrators. It is designed to increase students' proficiency in written and spoken German after completing the German 232 and 325 sequence or their equivalents. Texts will include recent articles on a variety of topics and modern short fiction. A review of grammar will accompany the writing assignments. Students will write essays once a week. The majority of class time will be devoted to discussing the assigned texts. Two oral presentations will be given during the term, each approximately for five minutes. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Grilk)
SECTION 002. German 326, a continuation of 325, is required for German concentrators. Except by special permission of the instructor, only students who have completed 325 should elect 326. The course is primarily intended to improve fluency and accuracy in written and spoken German. One hour each week is spent on a systematic grammar review including translation from English to German. The remaining class time is devoted to German conversation based on readings and topics chosen by both students and the instructor. A German essay of one to two pages is assigned approximately every week. Two brief oral presentations may be required. There will be a midterm and a final examination. Text: Cochran's GERMAN REVIEW GRAMMAR, 3rd edition. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Scholler)
350. Business German. German 232. (3). (Excl).
This is an introduction to the vocabulary, practices and procedures found in German business activity. Included are the nomenclature of office procedure, business letters and reports. In addition the course examines the German educational and political system from the standpoint of business practices, such as merchandising and advertising. The reading consists of the reading of actual business, merchandising and advertising material. There is a midterm and a final examination, and the writing of papers and translations during the course is required. The text consists largely of a course pack and a basic text. (Fabian)
381. Eighteenth to Nineteenth-Century Drama. German 232 or the equivalent (placement test). (3). (HU).
This course provides an introduction to German literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries through several of the great dramas of the period. In conjunction with German 382, 383, 384, or 385 this course can be elected in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a German concentration or for a German teaching major or minor. The course will begin with the reading of Lessing's lively comedy set against the backdrop of the Seven Years' War, MINNA VON BARNHELM. Our second text will be the best known in this entire period, DIE GRETCHEN-TRAGODIE from Goethe's FAUST. We also will read Kleist's PRINZ FRIEDRICH VON HOMBURG, which depicts the existential struggle of a young man in confrontation with death. The fourth play will be chosen according to the background of the class. Recently we have read Buchner. Each student will choose one play from this period to read outside of class. The emphasis of the course is on the analysis of the works, mainly in class discussion, mainly in German. Students will write two short interpretive papers either in English or German, and a final exam. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Grilk)
384. Short Fiction: Romanticism to Realism. German 232 or permission of chairman. (3). (HU).
SECTION 001. This course provides an introduction to some of the major figures and movements in German literature from the end of the eighteenth to the second half of the nineteenth century through the study of selected masterworks of short fiction. Furthermore, it offers the student the opportunity to gain some insight into the cultural as well as the social and political trends of this period. The readings consist of short works of fiction by such authors as L. Tieck, A.v.Arnim, E.T.A. Hoffmann, J.v.Eichendorff, H.v.Kleist, G. Buchner, A.v.Broste-Hulshoff, F. Grillparzer, and C.F. Meyer. German will be used as much as possible in this class. The course grade will be based on class participation and two papers. [Cost:1] [WL:5. Call me at 663-9673 about getting an override] (Weiss)
SECTION 002. Drawing on novellas by the great masters of 19th-century German prose, this course provides carefully paced reading practice at the third year level. Included are works by Ludwig Tieck, E.T.A. Hoffmann, Eichendorff, Kleist, Grillparzer, Droste-Hulshoff, Keller, Meyer, and Gerhart Hauptmann. Chosen to be representative of the most significant writers of this period, these works encompass Romanticism, Poetic Realism, and Naturalism, the first phase of "modern" German literature, and should provide a comprehensive and aesthetically rewarding survey of the main trends and currents by covering the aims of the Romantics, pre-Freudian psychological writing, 19th-century sociological problems, painting and music of the period. Discussion is emphasized. A course pack is available. A term paper and a final exam are required. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Dunnhaupt)
415. The German Language Past and Present. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).
The objectives of German 415 are to introduce students to the assumptions, terminology, and methodologies of both descriptive and historical linguistics, and to apply these to a survey of the historical background of German from pre-literate times to the present, with emphasis on the emergence of the standard literary dialect. Although our main concern will be the internal structure of the language, we will relate this to the cultural context in which it has evolved. Instruction is through lectures and discussions. Evaluation will be based on homework problems, quizzes, short papers, and a final examination. Students should have attained at least fourth-term proficiency in German. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Kyes)
425. Intermediate Composition and Conversation. German 325 and 326; or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Various approaches are used to improve the student's written and spoken German. Each week a composition of at least two pages is assigned. Sometimes the instructor assigns specific topics while at other times students select their own. Occasionally students are required to listen to a tape on some aspect of German history or culture and to use it as a departure point for an essay. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and the students. Brief presentations by individual students are required. German is used exclusively in class. The final course grade is based on compositions as well as participation in discussion. German 425 is regularly offered during the Fall Term while German 426 is regularly offered during the Winter Term. German 426 may be taken independently of 425. [Cost:2] [WL:5. Call me at 663-9673 about getting an Override] (Weiss)
456. Nineteenth Century German Theatre. 3 years college German; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
The readings usually consist of works by Grabbe, Buchner, Hebbel, Grillparzer, Hauptmann, and Hofmannsthal. Discussion is encouraged. Students are responsible only for a thorough knowledge of the individual plays, but these works will be used as a starting point to illustrate the main movements as well as authors of the century. There will be a midterm, a final and a term paper (in English or German) on a play read in class. The class will be conducted in German, but students contribute in English if they desire. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Cowen)
459. The Literature of the German Democratic Republic. Senior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
The course provides an introduction to the social and political structure of East Germany as a basis for the understanding of the literature. A survey of the literature of the GDR from its founding in 1949 until the present includes prose, poetry and drama by a spectrum of authors ranging from party-liners to oppositional writers who later were forced to leave the country. Since most of the works read are not widely available in English translation, a reading ability in German comparable to that of a 300-level literature course is necessary. Instruction is by lecture, usually in German, and class discussion is conducted in English or German, according to the preferences of individual members. A midterm and final examination are required; in addition, undergraduates write an eight-page, graduates a twelve-page term paper. The selection of works read will vary with the availability of editions, but prose works by Christa Wolf, Herman Kant and Ulrich Plenzdorf are included. Instructional aids, including slides, are employed. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Hofacker)
471. German Literature from Its Beginning to the Present I. Two 300-level German literature courses or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
German 471, and its companion course 472, provide an overview that integrates the students' specialized knowledge of German writers, genres, and periods into a larger interdisciplinary context. The approach is threefold: (1) Lectures in German sketch in the different philosophical, cultural, and socio-political backgrounds against which major literary works were created, certain genres flourished or disappeared, and literary movements arose; (2) a literary history is real as a supplement to lectures and discussions, and (3) German texts from all genres (poetry, drama, narrative prose) are read in their entirety. Ger. 471 is devoted to German literature from its beginning to the Enlightenment; Ger. 472 covers STURM UND DRANG through contemporary literature. While identification of significant milestones in German literary history is important, greater emphasis is placed on students' ability to compare, contrast, and assimilate works of different authors, movements, and interdisciplinary influences, and on the development of the students' esthetic sensitivity, critical judgment, and imagination. Students will have a midterm and a final, and write a term paper. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Paslick)
491. German Honors Proseminar. Senior Honors standing. (3). (Excl). May not be repeated for credit.
Completion of the sequence of German 491 and 492 is required for an Honors concentration in German. Interested students not already in the German Honors concentration program should apply to Professor Fries for admission (minimum 3.0 GPA with at least 3.5 in German). German 491 is regarded as a preparatory term in anticipation of 492 (Winter Term), in which each student writes an Honors thesis. The kinds of works to be read will thus be determined by the perceived needs of the students, geared possibly toward already-identified thesis topics and/or toward intensified focus on one genre, period, or specific authors, etc. Regardless of ultimate subject matter, the intent of the seminar will be to increase students' critical reading abilities and their familiarity with the employment of secondary literature. Requirements for the course include (at least) one oral presentation and two papers (totaling about 25 pages). Students are urged to contact Professor Fries in advance of the Fall Term to arrange an interview in which particular individual needs and interests will be discussed, so that the course may be tailored to fit each group. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Fries)
512. Introduction to Middle High German. Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
As used in this course, the term "Middle High German" refers mainly to the language of the literary works written between 1170 and 1230, i.e., during one of the classical periods of German literature. Although the course is intended to serve graduate students of literature and linguistics, it can also accommodate the interests of undergraduates with a good knowledge of modern German. Middle High German morphology and syntax are treated systematically and in discussions needed for the understanding of the texts. Throughout the term, special attention will be given to pronunciation. Students will present an oral report, write a midterm and a final examination, and provide a translation (into English) of a passage of a hitherto untranslatable medieval work. The course will be conducted in German, but students may use English. Texts: M. O'C. Walshe, A MIDDLE HIGH GERMAN READER, and a course pack. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Scholler)
531(431)/Education D431. Teaching Methods. Senior standing; and candidate for a teaching certificate. (3). (Excl).
This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the theoretical foundations of the teaching of German as a foreign language. Such an understanding is a prerequisite to a knowledgeable and skillful use of methods and techniques. The major approaches to foreign language teaching are discussed with particular emphasis on approaches that focus on communicative language learning/learning for proficiency. Strong emphasis is placed on the practical application of theories of language learning and teaching to the German language classroom. There will be a midterm examination and a final written paper, and the participants of the course are expected to give several short oral papers and to provide written analyses of three visits to German lower division language courses. They are also expected to prepare and teach one classroom period of either German 101 or 102. Teaching assistants enrolled for this course must also participate in the three-day orientation workshop provided by the department prior to the start of the Fall Term. The language of instruction is German, and all papers and exams are to be written in German. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Tschirner)
540. Introduction to German Studies. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Proseminar for beginning graduate students, and others by permission, with a maximum of student participation. The course is to inform about: bibliographical tools, literary terminology, various methods to be applied to the study of literary works, of the history of literature from the Renaissance to the present, major aspects of poetics (genres, metrics, etc.) Students will give a presentation in class and a term paper resulting from it; there will be a final examination on bibliographical tools and literary terms. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Schelle)
Courses in this section do not require knowledge of German.
243. Politics and Literature. (3). (HU).
This course is designed to introduce students to the relationship between literature and politics in German-speaking countries (including Austria and Switzerland). We will read (or view) texts from different genres (poetry, essay, novella, drama, novel, film) and cover a period from the late 19th century to the present, with attention to historical trends and traditions. The themes include the Industrial Revolution, World Wars I and II, the division of Germany, terrorism, the student revolt, the women's movement, the peace movement, and environmental politics. Readings will include works by Marx, Thomas Mann, Brecht, Max Frish, Peter Schneider, and Christa Wolf. All texts will be read and discussed in English. The course will be conducted as a seminar with three short in-class reports (group work encouraged) and one term paper. There are no prerequisites. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Simpson)
330. German Cinema. (3). (Excl).
This course traces the development of the German cinema in its social, political and cultural context. It presents major films and filmmakers in relation to their historical circumstances and to developments in the other arts. The subject matter falls into three periods: The Expressionistic period of film making following World War I up to 1933, the era of the Third Reich from 1933 to 1945, and from 1965 to the present. Filmmakers discussed include F.W. Murnau, Fritz Lang, G.W. Pabst, Volker Schlondorff, R.W. Fassbinder, Werner Herzog and Wim Wenders. The films cover various genres of fictional and documentary approach. Ten to twelve films will be shown. There will be some opportunity for additional viewing on an individual basis. The course will consist of lectures and directed discussions. The required readings consist of secondary material on the cultural background of the German cinema, and commentaries on the films and film makers. Students will write five short (two to four page) papers and a term paper. The films will be viewed in VHS format. (Fabian)
401. German Thought from Meister Eckhart to Hegel. (3). (Excl).
In this course we shall focus upon the main figures in German thought from its beginnings in mysticism to the last of the great systematic philosophers: Luther, Leibniz, Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Schiller, and Hegel. Particular attention will be paid to the structural interrelatedness of Kant's three Critiques, and to the post-Kantian attempts to extend and modify his program. Other thinkers to be covered include Meister Eckhart, Lessing, Herder, Goethe, and Novalis. There will be two lectures per week, plus one discussion section: about two-thirds of the material covered in lectures will be assigned as reading. One research/interpretive paper will be required. The course is intended as an introduction to this important tradition for German majors and non-majors alike. Lectures and discussions will be conducted in English; no previous training in philosophy is necessary. German majors will be asked to read some assignments in the original. [Cost:2] [WL:3,4] (Amrine)
Both first and second year DANISH (Danish 105, 235) first and second year SWEDISH (Swedish 103, 233) will be offered Fall Term, 1990. These languages are taught by lecturers from Denmark and Sweden who are experienced language teachers, and either language can be used to meet the LS&A foreign language requirement. Any students who would like to concentrate in Scandinavian Studies must complete two years of either Danish or Swedish. Also for those who may be interested, second-year proficiency in Swedish is required to participate in The University of Michigan exchange program with the University of Uppsala, Sweden. For further information, contact Bom (Danish) or Roth (Swedish), MLB (747-0407).
103. Elementary Swedish. (4). (FL).
For students with little or no previous knowledge of Swedish, this course provides a basic introduction to Swedish grammar and vocabulary, with the emphasis placed on developing communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading. The students will be evaluated on the basis of class participation, assignments and tests. The teacher is a native speaker from Sweden. [Cost:2] [WL:3]
105. Elementary Danish. (4). (FL).
For students with little or no previous study of Danish, this course provides a basic introduction to Danish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading. Regular exercises and tests. Grades will be determined on a basis of class participation and test results. The teacher for this course is a native speaker from Denmark. [Cost:1]
233. Second-Year Swedish. Swedish 104. (4). (FL).
This course covers the material of a second year course in Swedish language. The emphasis is on speaking, writing, reading, and listening skills. Readings are selected (for oral commentary) from contemporary Swedish prose, poetry and politics. Both books and newspapers are used. All instruction will be in Swedish and tests and examinations will be given at regular intervals. Grades will be determined on the basis of class participation and tests. Students needing Swedish 103 and 104 or the equivalent for entry into this course can meet the prerequisite by passing an examination given by the instructor. The teacher is a native speaker from Sweden. [Cost:2] [WL:3]
235. Second-Year Danish. Danish 106. (4). (FL).
This course covers the material of a second year course in Danish language. Emphasis is on speaking, reading, writing and listening skills. Readings are selected (for oral and written commentaries) from contemporary Danish poetry, prose, newspapers etc. All instruction will be given in Danish and tests and examinations will be given at regular intervals. Grades will be determined on a basis of class participation and test results. Students needing Danish 105 and 106, or the equivalent, for entry into this course can meet this requirement by passing an examination to be given by the instructor, who is a native speaker from Denmark. [Cost:1]
Courses in this section do not require knowledge of a Scandinavian language.
421. Modern Scandinavian Literature in English. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
IBSEN AND STRINDBERG. This course introduces students without a knowledge of Scandinavian languages to the work of two of the main initiators of modern drama both in Europe and the United States. We will analyze five or six representative plays by each author, spanning their entire career. Particular attention will be paid to a) the historic and social background of the problems treated, b) the aesthetic structures and the dramatic techniques employed, and c) those aspects that were developed further by generations of subsequent playwrights. As dramatists of various camps (Naturalism, Symbolism, Expressionism, Theatre of the Absurd) have counted either one or even both of our two playwrights among their ancestors, we will investigate why that should be so. Expected: Informed contribution to class debates, two short reports on individual plays, a longer term paper on the work of either author, final exam. Juniors and seniors. [Cost:1,2] [WL:4] (Seidler)
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