Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

This course will describe and analyze the way in which Mediterranean culture became a European culture and by 1715 had provided the basis for a worldwide Atlantic civilization. The emphasis in the course will be cultural and intellectual with due attention to the transformation of society, the agricultural and technical-mechanical changes in European society, the transformation of the art of war and the rationalization and transformation of the economic order. An analysis of the role of religion, the development of political participation and parliamentary politics, the growth of the universities, state-building and bureaucratic centralization will be especially stressed. No special previous knowledge is necessary for success in the course. There will be a single text and a single book of course readings. Grades will be an average of midterm and final examinations, class recitations and the evaluations of a series of short papers to be assigned in the course of the term. There will be two discussion sections per week. (Tonsor)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course is designed as a general introduction to modern European history since 1700 for those without previous college-level work in history. It is designed to meet the needs both of those looking for a general survey course to broaden their education and of those thinking of concentrating in history. While History 110 provides an excellent background for History 111, it is not a required prerequisite. Some of the themes emphasized in History 111 are: the breakdown of traditional monarchial, aristocratic, and church domination in the age of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; the intensification of nationalism and the reunification of Germany and Italy; the industrial revolution and the changing quality of European life (urbanization) and politics (the emergence of socialist and working-class parties); the middle-class domination of politics and its disintegration; the impact on popular thought of the new scientific advances of the nineteenth century; the expansion of the rival European powers overseas in the age of imperialism; the intensification of international rivalries and the First World War; the Russian Revolution and the emergence of the Communist challenge; the rise and fall of Fascism; the place of Europe in the post-imperialist world. The course is conducted in lectures and discussions, with readings in both textbooks and contemporary writings. One or two short papers are usually required. [Cost:2, maybe slightly more] [WL:4] (Price)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

History 121 is an introduction to the civilization of China, Japan and Korea. The course is designed to provide an overview of changing traditions from ancient until modern times by focusing on broad trends which shaped the history of this vast and varied region. The course aims to provide a basis in comprehension from which to examine more specific problems in the history of East Asia at a later time. The approach is mostly historical but perspectives from other disciplines such as art history, anthropology, literature and religious studies are also incorporated. Readings of contemporary accounts and viewing of films and slides are important elements of this course, meant to promote intimate appreciation of these cultures. There is no prerequisite for enrollment. Requirements include midterm and final examination. (Murphey)

151/Asian Studies 111. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

This is an introduction to the civilization of the Indian sub-continent, from its origins about 3000 B.C. to the present, where it comprises over a fifth of the world's people and its oldest living civilized tradition, its largest political democracy, a major component of the Third World. The course progresses from origins and the Indus culture through the Aryans, Hinduism, caste, and classical India to the succession of empires from the Mauryas to the Mughals and the British, colonialism, independence, and partition. We then consider current problems and changes topically: regionalism and language, agriculture and rural development, population, urbanization, industrialization, and "modernization," and the rise of separate nation-states (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka). Lectures and varied readings (via a course pack) are designed to stimulate class discussion, and there will be some use of the slides and films. Art, literature, and religion will also be discussed. There will be a midterm, and a final exam. There are no prerequisites and no previous knowledge is assumed. (Murphey)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on changing notions of what American, both as a society and as a polity, stands for. It will turn first to the sources of the growing American self-consciousness in the 18th century: will describe the vision embraced by the founding fathers; will explain the forces which produced a mutation in that vision, creating Jacksonianism; will develop the seeds of self-destruction in the Jacksonian creed; will explain the sources of the suicide of Jacksonian America and the birth of the industrial faith; and will seek to define the residuum which each of these historical movements contributed to modern America. There will be a midterm and final examination. Weekly assignments will amount to perhaps 150 to 200 pages, and will be drawn both from primary sources and from secondary comments. Though designed as a survey, the course presupposes some vague familiarity with the structure of American history; and will therefore desert the strictly narrative, for emphasis on certain episodes and movements which possess symbolic value. (Thronton)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

What are the forces that have shaped contemporary America? This course will attempt to answer this question by focusing on such topics as the meaning of race, class, gender and ethnicity in American society, foreign policy in the twentieth century, patterns in economic development, the urbanization and suburbanization processes, and the politics and meaning of liberalism and conservatism in recent America. Themes that will be traced through these years will include the tensions between altruism and self interest in domestic and foreign policy, between unity and diversity in the population, and between the market and the government as institutions to allocate resources. Students will attend two lectures and a section meeting each week, take midterm and final examinations, and complete an additional writing assignment. Readings will include a textbook and about a half a dozen other paperbacks including novels, autobiographies, and synthetic overviews of aspects of American history. (McDonald)

197. Freshman Seminar. (4). (Excl).

This seminar will be concerned with the social history of the United States in the latter nineteenth and earlier twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be placed upon examining the living conditions, way of life and problems of working people and families during these years. Other social groups and other time periods will also be considered, however, in part for comparative purposes. The seminar will provide an opportunity to gain familiarity with methods of historical research and to work with unusual historical primary source materials bearing upon the conditions of working people as well as other groups. Secondary studies will also be employed. Instruction will be conducted primarily through class discussions and "laboratory" work. Student evaluations will be based primarily upon a combination of brief examinations and papers. No special background or preparation is required. (Clubb)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. There are two hour examinations (an optional paper may be written for extra credit) plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Humphreys)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (Excl).

This course examines the wars that were fought in and around Vietnam from 1945 to 1975, with primary emphasis on the period of heavy American involvement from the mid-1950's. The course seeks to explain the origins, strategy, and impact of U.S. intervention. At the same time the course will explain the motivation of the Vietnam Communists and of their domestic opponents. Thus the Vietnam war will be analyzed both as the longest and most controversial foreign war in American history, and as the climax to an Asian social revolution. Meets three times a week for 50 minutes, plus one 50-minute discussion section. Midterm and final exam. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Lieberman)

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (4). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of early Chinese history, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, and lectures on literature and society in premodern China and Classical Opera (historical significance, intellectual and social themes and roles, and demonstrations). [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Chang)

274/CAAS 230. Survey of Afro-American History I. (4). (SS).

See CAAS 230.

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (4). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. The course will study four different historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Native Americans, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries; and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. We will focus on American history, although comparisons will be drawn to other societies. The course is a basic introduction. No background in medicine or history is assumed. Classes are taught in lecture format, and will include a variety of audio-visual sources. Reading assignments will range from modern histories to poetry and old medical journals. There will be two essay-style examinations, and frequent short quizzes. This is a challenging and demanding course. Those who miss the first meeting without advance permission will be dropped from the course. [Cost:1-5 Required purchases cost $15, but additional required reading assignments, available on reserve or for optional purchase, cost up to $110 additional if bought] [WL:4] (Pernick)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

306(406)/GNE 362/Rel. 358. History of Ancient Israel I: From Abraham to the Babylonian Exile. (3). (HU).

See GNE 362. (Machinist)

319. Europe Since 1945. (4). (SS).

The aim of this course is to provide a comprehensive critical introduction to European society, culture and politics since the Second World War. Lectures and readings will cover both Eastern and Western Europe, the international arena and the national histories of particular countries, and social and cultural life as well as political developments. The course aims to explore the shaping of the contemporary world and to introduce students to societies and political cultures which are both structurally similar and fundamentally different from their own. Instruction will be via lectures and ad hoc discussion, evaluation via midterm exam and end of term essay. No special background is required; prejudices and preconceptions about European societies are enough. [Cost:3 or 4] [WL:2] (Eley)

332/Econ. 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/REES 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395. (Szporluk)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (Excl).

America's wars have been significant experiences both for the society and for millions of individual Americans. We will examine the effects of these wars over the past hundred years through books, films, lectures, and discussions. Personal perceptions of the wars will be seen particularly in novels and autobiographies. In larger perspective, we will study the society's response to war and peace issues, national mobilization in a capitalist democracy, images of allies and enemies, the peculiar attractions of combat, the accelerating importance of technology in war, the performance of the armed forces, and the roles of elites, women, African Americans and other minorities. There are no prerequisites for the course. Grades will be based on a midterm and a final exam and on participation in discussions. Juniors and seniors may apply for humanities distribution credit. Texts include Volume II of Mary Beth Norton et. al., A PEOPLE AND A NATION, 3rd ed., six paperbacks, and a course pack. Students are asked to register for only ONE of the lecture sections, plus one discussion section. (Collier)

370/Women's Studies 370. Women in American History to 1870. (4). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the history of American women as a group, as individuals, and as members of different classes, races, and regional and ethnic communities. Using work, politics, and sexuality as organizing concepts, it focuses particularly on the significance of gender in determining women's experiences from the early seventeenth century to 1870. Special attention is paid to initial and continuing encounters of Native Americans, Euro-Americans, and African-Americans; to evolving constructions of "womanhood" and their significance for different groups of women; to the meaning of religious movements, wars, economic transformations, and demographic shifts for women's individual and collective efforts to determine the course of their own histories. (Karlsen)

385. History of Zionism and the State of Israel. (4). (Excl).

This course will trace the rise of Jewish nationalism from its origins in the late-nineteenth century through the creation of the State of Israel. Emphasis will be placed on the political context out of which Zionism developed and on larger cultural trends that shaped the variety of ideologies within the Zionist movement. Significant time will also be devoted to examining the role of Zionist activity within the histories of major Jewish communities in the Diaspora prior to the rise of Hitler and the competing ideologies and movements (socialism and assimilation, for example) that challenged the Zionist solution to the Jewish Question. The tragic confrontation between Jews and Arabs within the Land of Israel will be explored in some depth, with particular attention being paid to the genesis of the confrontation and its exacerbation by the British under the Mandate. The course will conclude with a discussion of the cultural, social, and political problems that have beset the State of Israel from its establishment in 1948 to the present and of the links between these and tensions within modern Jewish history as a whole. There will be a midterm examination, a ten-page analytical paper, and a comprehensive final. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Endelman)

389. War Since the Eighteenth Century. (4). (Excl).

The course deals with the experience of war, mainly in Western societies (Europe and North America), from the appearance of permanent military forces in the 18th century to the present time. It emphasizes certain themes or problems: the relationship of armed forces to the societies they are supposed to defend; the effects of change political, social, economic, and technological - on warfare and military policy; the problem of using armed force purposefully, together with the related problem of the unexpected and unintended effects of warfare; and the relationship between military theory and military practice. The approach is comparative, stressing the commonalities of Western military experience during the last three centuries, and also identifying the differences that make the American military experience in certain respects peculiar. The course is not a history of military operations as such, but uses selected military operations in an illustrative way. There is a midterm examination, a critical book review essay, and a two-hour final examination. Required texts: Michael Howard, WAR IN EUROPEAN HISTORY; Paul Kennedy, RISE AND FALL OF THE GREAT POWERS; John Keegan, FACE OF BATTLE; Peter Paret (ed.), MAKERS OF MODERN STRATEGY; Correli Barnett, THE SWORDBEARERS; Russell Weigley, THE AMERICAN WAY OF WAR. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Shy)

394. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

This is an independent 1-4 hour course open only to history concentrators by written permission of the instructor. It may be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Registration is restricted to History concentrators by override only; priority will be given to seniors. Override information from 3607 Haven Hall Mondays through Fridays 1-4 p.m. ONLY-NO EXCEPTIONS.

SECTION 001. "SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE U.S. CIVIL WAR." Although much has been written about the political and military aspects of the Civil War, scholars have almost completely ignored the social history of that conflict. This undergraduate research and writing seminar will try to advance our limited knowledge of this area by having the participants do original research on the social aspects of that struggle on the homefront and on the battlefield. After some introductory readings about the Civil War, each student will select a research topic. The course is designed to teach students how to do original research and to write a comprehensive research paper. The instructor and a graduate student assistant will work with the students on a series of short written assignments in preparation for their final paper. The final paper for the course will be approximately 30-50 pages long and will be based upon primary and secondary sources about the social history of the Civil War. (Vinovskis)

Section 002 SOCIAL HISTORY OF POLITICS AND CULTURE. WEIMAR AND NAZI GERMAY. This colloquium will analyze both long-term and short-term factors that contributed to the collapse of the Weimar Republic and the rise of the Nazis to power. Through readings, discussions, and writing assignments we will explore the popular response to the loss and devastation of the First World War and to the Versailles Treaty; the rise of a nationalist Right and the fatal split on the Left between the Socialists and Communists during the early years of the Republic; the ways in which culture was transformed by political conflict; and the emergence of new ideologies of gender in the wake of the war and the revolutionary upheavals of 1918-1920. In probing the rise of the Nazis we will study the complex interaction of political and economic crisis between 1930-1933; the role of myths, symbols, and propaganda in the battles for public opinion and votes; and the relationships between "high politics" parliament and government coalitions and the political violence of the streets during the final years of the Republic. For the Nazi period we will focus on the relationship between party and the state; between terror and social "benefits"; between the all-inclusive "peoples' national community" and the virulent Anti-Semitism of the regime. We will examine the "primacy of politics" in defining the goals of the economy, social policies, and foreign policy as the Nazi state began planning for war; the role of women and the family in providing a social anchor for the Nazi state; and the complex relationship and accommodation to the Nazi regime. Finally, we will discuss and debate "intentionalist" versus "structuralist" interpretations of the Nazi state, the Holocaust, and the Second World War. The colloquium will meet once weekly to discuss assigned readings. Readings will generally be of a provacative, controversial nature in order to facilitate classroom debate and to inspire students to develop their own interpretations in critical essays. Students will write several short papers and one 10-15 page paper. We will focus on developing critical, analytical writing skills. PREREQUISITES: Since the course assumes prior knowledge of the Weimar Republic and Third Reich, a previous course in modern European or German history is required. Permission of instructor is required. Enrollment is limited to 15 students. History majors and graduating seniors will be given priority. (Canning)

Section 003 OLD AGE IN U.S. HISTORY. Being old in America in the 1900's is both remarkably similar to and incredibly different from conditions in past times. Americans have long perceived old age as a distinct stage of life, and they have always faced their own aging with ambivalence. But people in colonial times would be shocked to see Yuppies denounce their elders as "greedy geezers"; they would find if hard to unravel the legal, medical, economic, and ethical issues that currently shape long-term care for the elderly in this country. Through weekly discussions of books and articles, we will try to understand such continuities and changes in the meanings and experiences of old age over time. Because this course bears ECB credit, students will be expected to write at least 30 pages, including a term paper of their choosing. There will be no exams. [Cost:3] [WL:See Janet Rose in 3607 Haven] (Achenbaum)

SECTION 004 MYTHS AND MODELS IN AMERICAN HISTORY. This colloquium examines the close connections among myths, models, morals, methodologies, and metahistories in the production of historical knowledge and understanding. It postulates that history-as-actually-past and history-as-written-text interpenetrate in such important essentials that history, historiography, and philosophy of history are often the same thing. The medium of the course will be United States history by way of example. Recent, well-received books in the field that exemplify clear models, morals, etc., in and of American history will be the subject of the discussions and brief papers: Lockridge, A NEW ENGLAND TOWN; Smith, VIRGIN LAND; and others. Assigned papers will be short analyses of the books from a specific perspective in line with the larger goals of the course. The student will learn to read American histories in a new, more complex and active way and understand better the multiple perspectives and epistemologies fused in the narrative syntheses of the United States past. (Berkhofer)

Section 008 THE HEALTH SCIENCES AT MICHIGAN. The University and State of Michigan have a long, distinguished history in the health sciences. The University also has extraordinarily rich resources for studying this history. The objective of this course will be to use the resources in our libraries and related published material to learn about the development of dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and public health at The University and in Michigan, from the early 19th C. to the present. Readings will include: Sinclair Lewis, ARROWSMITH, Victor Vaughan, DOCTOR'S MEMORIES, and Kenneth Ludmerer, LEARNING TO HEAL. The main course requirement will be a research paper based on primary sources. (Steneck)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Registration is restricted to History concentrators by override only; priority will be given to seniors. Override information available from 3607 Haven Hall Mondays through Fridays 1-4 p.m. ONLY NO EXCEPTIONS.

SECTION 003 MAO ZEDONG. The career of Mao Zedong, longtime chairman of the Chinese Communist Party and leading architect of the Chinese Communist revolution, presents historians with a host of interpretive problems. Virtually deified during his lifetime, he has been excoriated by many Chinese since his death. Yet both the present regime and some of its opponents invoke his name to legitimize themselves. In this course, we shall examine his life and analyze his politics. In the process, we shall engage some of the central issues in understanding modern Chinese history. The work for the course will include extensive reading, regular attendance at the discussion sessions, the writing of one short and one long paper, and a final exam. The reading will consist of Mao's own writing and a variety of scholarly analyses of his role. Some previous study of modern Chinese history is recommended. (Young)

Section 005 "FACING DEATH IN THE WESTERN TRADITION. Philosophical and religious thinking about death from the Old Testament and the Greeks to the eighteenth century. Topics considered will include the meaning of death, fear of death and hell, sin and death, preparation for death, the decline of hell, and the good, happy, or admirable death. The assigned reading will emphasize major authors and works, SUCH AS, the Old Testament, the New Testament, Plato, Seneca, Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, St. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, THE ART OF DYING, Jean Garson, THE IMITATION of Christ, Erasmus, Luther, Calvin, Montaigne, Pascal, John Donne, Jeremy Taylor, and Voltaire. Weekly assignments will be designed to be manageable so that weekly discussions will be lively and those are the only readings assigned in the course. No midterm, no final students will be graded on four essays (three short, one somewhat longer exercise on a topic or theme in the course) with rewards for active and intelligent class participation. (Tentler)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them.

402. Problems in Roman History I. (4). (Excl).

A survey of the Roman Republic, from the foundation of Rome in 753 B.C. to the establishment of the Principate by the emperor Augustus. Topics to be discussed include: Etruscan; assimilation of Italy; overseas expansion; social problems in Italy; the breakup of Republican institutions; and the rise of Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Augustus. Classes will include lectures and discussions of the assigned readings. Readings will include translations of original sources, and books about Roman imperialism, social conflicts, and other issues. Final grade will be based on participation in class discussions and either two tests and a paper or three tests. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. (Van Dam)

412/MARC 414. Social and Intellectual History of the Florentine Renaissance. (4). (Excl).

The course begins with a general view of Renaissance culture in Italy, then turns to a discussion of Florentine civilization in the age of Dante. Next it treats political and economic change in the 14th and 15th centuries. The texture of social life will be considered featuring demography, the family, work, and leisure. Florentine humanism, as well as Neoplatonism will be dealt with, and Tuscan literature from Petrarch and Boccaccio to Machiavelli and Benvenuto Cellini will be reviewed. Finally, the genesis of the fine arts from Giotto to Michelangelo will be presented. A midterm will be given and the student will select a research topic or do a final examination. The method of instruction will be lecture and discussion. (Becker)

416. Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (4). (Excl).

This is a lecture course which discusses and attempts to account for changes in the configuration of European thought from the advent of Romanticism (1750) to the "anti-positivist revolt" in the 1870s. The course considers the content of the determinative ideas in culture and society, and an attempt is made to provide an explanation for the process of ideological change. There is heavy emphasis on the transition from the enlightenment to romanticism and the emergence of realism and naturalism. Roland N. Stromberg's EUROPEAN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY SINCE 1789 (third ed.) will serve as the text. The student will be expected to read Ernst Cassirer's THE PHIOSOPHY OF HISTORY, J.S. Mill's ON LIBERTY, Marx-Engels' THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO and Harry Levin's THE GATES OF HORN. There will be regular class discussions of these texts and participation will constitute 1/4 of the grade. There will be a midterm examination and a final examination. There will be no term paper. (Tonsor)

423. Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (4). (Excl).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French Revolution to the 1930's, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure and role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write three essays on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided): there will be a final take-home examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew)

430. Byzantine Empire, 284-867. (4). (Excl).

The Byzantine Empire is what succeeded the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean and the East for one thousand years. It was a source of mystery, envy, loathing, and at the same time great beauty to those whom it touched. Modern Greek, Turkish, Slavic, and Arabic speakers uncounsciously preserve elements of Byzantine culture. Among the topics we discuss in the Fall Term are the causes of the successes of Christianity and Islam, how the barbarians learned how to behave, the twenty year binge that ended late antiquity, the development of separate Greek and Latin civilizations, life in the world's biggest and brightest city (and also underground, in the countryside), reciprocal influences of East (including China) and West upon each other, organizing an agrarian society, and the creation of popular culture and religion. We will look at magic mortar, Greek fire, the origins of porridge, and saints' eyes. The readings will be contemporary sources (chronicles, propaganda, biographies, folktale, personal invective) which we will discuss in class. Students will write three reading reports and a take-home final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Lindner)

432. Russia to Peter the Great. (4). (Excl).

Since medieval times, Westerners have brought back tales of exoticism and barbarism from Russia to their homelands, but few have taken the time to understand the nature of Russian society and culture. This course attempts to examine early Russian society in its own terms, while also studying the historiographic tradition and the issues at stake for the various historians of the field. The course spans the history of Russia from the ninth century, when written records begin, to Peter the Great at the end of the seventeenth century. Topics include the formation of the Russian state, the conversion to Orthodox Christianity, the invasion of the Mongol horde, and the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The course emphasizes interpretive issues, historiographic debates and questions of historical method. Class sessions will combine lecture and discussion. Texts include: Nicholas Riasanovsky, A HISTORY OF RUSSIA; Charles Halperin, RUSSIA AND THE GOLDEN HORDE; Serge Zenkovsky, MEDIEVAL RUSSIA'S EPICS, CHRONICLES, AND TALES; and a photocopied course reader. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two short papers (5-7 pages), a midterm and a final exam. There are no prerequisites. (Kivelson)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (Excl).

A history of Russia from Peter the Great to World War I, with emphasis on the problems of modernization, political institutions, economic development, and the revolutionary movement. Lectures, supplemented by discussion section. (Rosenberg)

442/GNE 442. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Team taught by Professors Luther (NES) and Lindner (History), this is the first course in a two-course introductory sequence (442 and 443) that covers Near Eastern history from the era of Muhammad to the present. Our purpose is to introduce you to (and give you some practice in) the methods of studying the Near East as well as to some of the content of Near Eastern history; we expect no previous background in the field. This course begins with the background and rise of Islam and ends in the heyday of the Ottoman Turkish and Safavid Persian empires, circa 1600. Although the basic organization of the course is chronological, we will discuss topics in such areas as politics and governance, religion (formal and "folk," including theology and mysticism), law, foreign relations and war, art and architecture, literature, economics, and social life. The classes will include lectures by (and probably discussions between) the instructors, and there will also be weekly class discussion of the assigned readings. In addition to the final examination, students will be expected to prepare two three-page exercises based on the readings, which will consist of modern scholarly works and translated medieval sources. (Luther and Lindner)

451. Japan Since 1800. (4). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is Miikiso Hane, MODERN JAPAN: A HISTORICAL SURVEY, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1986). Other reading assignments will be organized in a course pack. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Hackett)

458. Twentieth-Century India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. (4). (Excl).

This course will explore certain problems in understanding modern South Asia, but will not cover events after 1947 in any systematic way. In particular, the course will concentrate on colonialism and nationalism, assessing the contradictory impacts and legacies of British colonialism as well as the continually shifting character of "traditional" and "modern" forms in the development of social, political, and cultural institutions in India. Careful attention will be paid to (1) British colonial politics of representation; (2) movements based on shared commitments to social reform, cultural revitalization, and political change; (3) the politicization of caste and community; (4) nationalist politics and rhetoric; and (5) the special and controversial roles played by Ghandi and Nehru in twentieth-century India. The course will also include theoretical and comparative material of relevance to the framing of the study of contemporary India. Two short critical papers will be due during the term and a longer research paper should be prepared by the end of the term. (Dirks)

460. American Colonial History to 1776. (4). (SS).

A different course every term it is taught, in general "Colonial America" focuses on the people of the time, often encountered speaking in their own voices, and on their broad cultural characteristics and problems as the nation moved toward the Revolution. Few lectures; mostly discussion. An exam, two quizzes and a paper are the usual assignment. Standards are high, and it is not unusual to find that students are asked to re-write papers which are not clear (with a 1/3 grade penalty). So, lucid, precise, well-organized writing skills and the use of evidence is, if not a prerequisite, something we hope to achieve. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Lockridge)

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups and women in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Review sessions will be scheduled. S. [Cost:3] [WL:3 and 4] (S. Fine)

470. Irish American History. (4). (Excl).

This is a course in the history of the Irish people in America, particularly the United States. We will survey the literature on this subject and develop from readings in several texts a knowledge of the main features of the history as presently construed. Following that, lectures and discussions will focus upon selected topics in Irish American history and historiography. Three instances of writing will be required each of about 3000 words and on these the grade will be based (with a fourth component being an evaluation of contribution to the on-going work of the course). First, a journal of commentary on/or annotated bibliography of assigned readings will be made. Second, a term paper on a particular topic worked up by the student will be written. Third, a report of original research into family, local, or regional history (relative to Irish American history) will be drawn up. There will be no examinations set in this course. Regular attendance at and participation in the meetings of the course will be expected, to contribute to its success. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (McNamara)

477. Latin America: The National Period. (4). (Excl).

This course examines the history of Latin America from the early nineteenth century until the present. The approach is thematic, focusing on a series of topics: (1)the colonial heritage and political independence, (2) political systems and the search for order, (3) economic dependency and development, (4) labor systems (including slavery, sharecropping, wage labor, peasant cultivation and peonage), (5) class and ethnicity, and (6) revolution and reaction. Selected countries will be discussed under each topic, with particular emphasis on Mexico, Brazil, Cuba, the Andes, and Central America. The method of instruction will be lecture/discussion, with strong encouragement of student participation. Requirements include a short book review, a longer paper, a midterm, and a final. There will be readings in primary and secondary historical and anthropological sources, including Gibson, SPAIN IN AMERICA, Stein and Stein, THE COLONIAL HERITAGE OF LATIN AMERICA, Keen and Wasserman, A SHORT HISTORY OF LATIN AMERICA, Reed, THE CASTE WAR OF YUCATAN, Stein, VASSOURAS, Mintz, WORKER IN THE CANE, Fredrich, AGRARIAN REVOLT IN A MEXICAN VILLAGE, Knight, SLAVE SOCIETY IN CUBA, Castro, HISTORY WILL ABSOLVE ME, as well as selected fiction by Arguedas, Asturias, Fuentes and Garcia Marquez. (Scott)

487/Engl. 416. Women in Victorian England. (4). (Excl).

See English 416. (Vicinus)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (Excl).

See Economic 493. (Clark)

542. Modern Iran and the Gulf States. (4). (Excl).

This course will concentrate on the 20th century evolution of Iran. The course will focus on the rise and fall of the Pahlevi dynasty with appropriate attention given to those elements of Safavid and Qajar Persia which shaped the formation of modern Arab sates around the Gulf and the evolution of the "Arab Gulf" concept. The histories of these nations will be treated in the context of the regional and international relations of these countries to both the Eastern and Western worlds, "defense" strategies in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean and, of course, the central issue of energy and oil. A central concern will be the implications for internal, regional and international policies of the rising wave of Muslim "revival" and "fundamentalism" as dramatised in the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Lectures will be laced with discussions; term paper, midterm and a final examination are required. [Cost:4] (Cole)

551. Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (4). (Excl).

In this course, we shall seek the origins and lineaments of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, so powerfully footed in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely in the preceding century and more for antecedents and predisposing social change. We shall examine the testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, trends in Confucian thought and the role of popular culture, nationalism and women's liberation, cultural iconoclasm and neotraditionalism, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Maoism and its debunking. Previous familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful but is not required. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write two short papers and take a final exam. (Young)

558. U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (4). (Excl).

This course examines American foreign policy from the Revolution to the outbreak of World War I. Special attention is given to the origin of American diplomatic principles, the diplomacy of the American Revolution, the coming of the War of 1812, the conquest of North America, the War with Spain and the imperialist surge of 1898, and, finally, the incomplete American adjustment to its position as a new world power. Hour exam, term paper, final. (Perkins)

562. American Intellectual History to 1870. History 160 and junior standing strongly recommended. (4). (Excl).

A study of intellectual history from the early English settlement to the middle of the nineteenth century. Emphasis falls especially on writings about religion, government, natural science, education, and the nature, history, and interrelations of human beings. The European backgrounds and contexts of American thought also receive attention. Imaginative literature is neglected, on the assumption that courses in the English Department cover thoroughly. Readings are in primary sources: the writings of individuals studied in the course. Undergraduates are required to write a midterm examination, a final examination, and a 10-15 page term paper on a topic selected with the advice of the instructor. Requirements differ somewhat for graduate students. Freshman and sophomores are not admitted except with prior permission from Professor Turner. Students who wish more information about the course should communicate with him. (Turner)

582. History of Criminal Law in England and America. (4). (Excl).

This course traces the history of the criminal justice in England and America from the medieval period to modern times. It deals with political and social theories regarding the institutions and ideas of the criminal law and with the relationship between society and legal norms. Among the subjects included in the scheme of the course are: the history of the criminal trial jury, its relationship to other institutions of the criminal law and its role with respect to the interaction of social attitudes and the formal processes of the criminal law; the use of the criminal law for counteracting disintegration of basic social institutions; political trials; theories of punishment; the development in the United States of constitutionally protected rights of defendants in criminal cases. This course is intended for students interested in Anglo-American history, for those interested in government and law, for those interested in the history of the relationship between social institutions and theories of criminal sanctions and for those interested in the origins and development of the central ideas and institutions of American constitutional and legal history. Course requirements: twelve-pg., take-home, midterm essay based in part on documents, and a final examination. (Green)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (4). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

TOPICS IN ASIAN HISTORY: HISTORY OF INDONESIA, c. 1870-1990. Taught by Prof. Rudolf Mrazek, who was trained in Czechoslovakia and Indonesia and is one of Europe's most distinguished Southeast Asian scholars, this course will examine the modern history of Indonesia from c. 1870 to the present day. It will explore inter alia the transformation of the Indonesian economy and society under the impact of growing colonial investment, the rise of Indonesian nationalism and Communism in the pre-war era, the radical impact of World War Two, the Sukarno era, the bloody coup of 1965, and the economic and social policies of the current military regime. Meets twice a week for one and a half hours. Final, midterm, and paper. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Mrazek)

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