Courses in Psychology (Division 455)

The Department of Psychology offers three regular introductory courses which differ in focus: Psychology 170, Psychology 171, and Psychology 172. Psychology 170 is offered as a natural science and stresses experimental psychology; Psychology 171 is offered as a social science and stresses social psychology and interpersonal behavior; Psychology 172 is approved for social science distribution but treats both perspectives with about equal weight. Students may elect Psychology 170 and 171, but students may not receive credit for Psychology 172 and either Psychology 170 or 171. Any of the three courses meets the prerequisite requirement for concentration and serves as a prerequisite for advanced courses.

Honors students, and others with permission of the instructor, may take Psychology 190 or 192. Psychology 190 is offered as a natural science course and stresses experimental psychology. In Psychology 192 the coverage of basic material is rapid, leaving some time for specialized topics.

100. Learning to Learn. (4). (SS).

This is a course in cognitive psychology intended for students who wish to improve their skills and strategies for learning and memory. The topics to be covered will include an introduction to cognitive science; the comprehension of both oral and written language; attention; memory and retrieval; mnemonics; organization, memory; cognitive skills; problem solving; creativity; learning styles, motivation, anxiety; learning in groups; and self-management. The class will include a lecture hour two days a week and weekly three-hour laboratory. The laboratory session is essential for helping to improve student learning and thinking. Nonetheless, simply carrying out the exercises in laboratory would be meaningless if students did not have a clear understanding of the conceptual base which will enable them to generalize beyond the specific exercises of the laboratory. Thus the lectures and readings are also an essential part of the course. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (McKeachie)

170. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172, 190 or 192. Psych. 170 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (NS). Students in Psychology 170 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

The course emphasizes the biological, experimental, and comparative approaches to psychology. Topics will include the biological foundation of perception, motivation, emotion, development, and psychological disorders. Also included are a discussion of learning theory, memory, cognitive development, intelligence, and personality. The students will be evaluated on the basis of three exams, short take-home essay questions and discussion participation. The course meets four hours per week, two hours in lecture and two hours in discussion sections taught by graduate teaching assistants. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Lee)

171. Introduction to Psychology as a Social Science. Credit is granted for both Psych. 170 and 171; no credit granted to those who have completed 172 or 192. Psych. 171 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 171 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

Students must register for the Lecture (section 001) as well as one of the Discussion sections (sections 002-013). This course typically covers such topics as child development, interpersonal relations, social psychology, psychopathology, treatment approaches, learning, memory, personality, and others. The course meets four hours a week, two hours in discussion sections taught by graduate teaching assistants. If a student is unable to attend the first lecture or discussion class for which they are registered, they must notify the Introductory Psychology office IN WRITING prior to beginning of classes to reserve their space in the course. [COST:2] [WL:1] (Holden)

172. Introduction to Psychology. Psych. 172 is equivalent to either Psych. 170 or 171 as a prerequisite for advanced courses in the department and as a prerequisite to concentration. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 190 or 192. Psych. 172 may not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 172 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

This course is a one-term survey which integrates material from Psychology 170 and 171. The course serves as a basic preparation for most advanced level courses in psychology. The aim of the course is to acquaint students with the major approaches psychologists use to understand people and the aspects of human thought, feeling, and action that psychologists have studied. Lectures and readings first present the major ways of thinking about psychological issues (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and biological) and then address the nature of thought, emotion, development from infancy through death, and interactions of individuals with family, social, and cultural forces. Discussion sections offer students the opportunity to discuss and critically examine what they are learning, to analyze case studies, and to participate in more experiential forms of learning. Students must keep Wednesday evenings open for course-wide examinations and occasional films from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. The final course grade is based on two course-wide examinations and additional work (group presentations, research papers, etc.) assigned in section. [COST:2] [WL:1] (Westen)

192. Honors Introduction to Psychology. Open to Honors students; others by permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed 170, 171, 172, or 190. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (4). (SS). Students in Psychology 192 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

SECTION 001. This section introduces psychology by covering topics like the brain and nervous system, sensation, perception, consciousness, motivation, emotion, learning, memory and cognition, intelligence, development across the lifespan, personality, psychopathology, clinical psychology, social cognition and attitudes, interpersonal relations, group processes, and sexuality. Each topic will be organized in terms of issues of enduring concern to psychologists. Nuts and bolts of the course: lecture, discussion, and perhaps several films; textbook and course pack; short-answer exams; one paper. A good time will be had by all. (Peterson)

SECTION 002. This course is intended to provide an in-depth survey of psychology, with an emphasis on the links between psychology and other disciplines, including philosophy, biology, medicine, law, and literature. Through exposure to the thought and writing of scientists and non-scientists who have applied their minds and sensibilities to the same subjects, we will consider some questions that have important implications for modern life, including the following: (1) How accurately do we perceive, remember, and think? (2) To what extent are intelligence, personality and action influenced by nature versus nurture? (3) What is the proper relationship between reason and emotion? (4) How are the thought and behavior of individuals affected by group membership? A variety of class formats will be used, including lecture, discussion, films, labwork, and class demonstrations. Readings include a textbook, two additional books (THE INSANITY DEFENSE AND JOHN W. HINCKLEY, and BORN RED: A CHRONICLE OF THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION) and a course pack consisting of diverse readings (essays, short stories, autobiographical accounts, etc.) that correspond to the topics presented in the textbook. The final grade is based on your performance on frequent quizzes, frequent papers, and a comprehensive final examination. [Cost: 4] [WL: 1] (Landman)

SECTION 003. This course is designed to explore contemporary psychology. It will cover a broad area of topics: Part 1 presents a general introduction to Psychology (definitions, history, methods). Part 2 is designed to give an overview of four different levels on which psychological phenomena can be studied. First, the biological perspective will be discussed (evolution, genetics, nervous system). Second, some basic processes, namely perception, learning, information processing, motivation and emotion are studied. Third, the individual is in the center of attention (development, personality, clinical approaches). Finally, individuals in their social context will be considered (social cognition; intra-and intergroup processes). Part 3 of this course is devoted to the application of psychological knowledge to one specific problem, the adaptation to the transition from high school to college. This problem will be analyzed on the four different levels that were presented in part 2 of this course. Grades are based on two papers (one empirical group project, one literature review), five quizzes (spaced approximately biweekly) and one final exam. The text used is Gleitman, PSYCHOLOGY, 2nd edition, plus readings in a course pack. The format of the class is lecture and discussion. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Inglehart)

SECTION 004. This course provides a broad introduction to the field of psychology. We will cover such topics as physiology and behavior, sensory and perceptual processes, states of consciousness, learning and memory, thinking, intelligence, development across the life-span, motivation and emotion, personality, stress and adjustment, abnormal behavior and therapy, and social psychology. The text is Morris PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION (the new 7th edition) supplemented by a book of readings PSYCHOLOGY 89/90. Each student will also be expected to participate at least once a week in a computer conference set up for the course. For a term project, students can elect either to write a term paper reviewing the literature on a topic of special interest, or to participate more extensively in the computer conference. Grades are based primarily on three exams, participation in the computer conference and the term project. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Morris)

201. Outreach. Prior or concurrent enrollment in introductory psychology. Credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and Psych. 300-309. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-3). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Laboratory fee ($15) required. (EXPERIENTIAL). Psych. 201 may be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Project Outreach enables students to do field work in local community settings. The purpose is to gain an understanding of yourself, the agency in which you will work, and the people whom you will serve. Outreach includes approximately 55 agencies in which you can provide direct service to children in day care settings, adolescents in after-school programs, handicapped children and adults, retarded and emotionally impaired, agencies dealing with women's issues, physically ill adults and children, persons legally confined to institutions including mental health and criminal; social advocacy organizations concerned with rights of consumers, battered women, foreign students, and others. All sections are two (2) credits requiring six hours of work per week including four (4) of fieldwork, log writing, readings, papers, one hour lecture and one hour discussion. Students need to check the Final Edition of the Time Schedule lecture/discussion times and meeting places per section. Information regarding registration, field work and course information for the Fall Term, 1990, will be available at a Mass Meeting on Monday, April 2, 6-8 pm in Auditorium D Angell Hall. For information, call the Outreach Office at 764-9179 or 764-9279. Psychology majors electing two separate sections in Psychology 201 (4 credits) will have the option to waive their second advanced lab requirement. [COST:1, not including $15 lab fee.] [WL:5, After classes begin, go to Outreach Office L218 Winchell House, West Quad.] (Miller)

204. Individual Research. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course. [WL:5, P.I. only]

206. Tutorial Reading. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. May not be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course. [WL:5, P.I. only]

300. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of instructor. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

This general description covers Psychology 300-309. The field practicum course offers an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students work in various community agencies and organizations; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to their experiences; and create some form of written product that draws experiences together at the end of the term. Obtain materials as early as possible as it generally takes students some time to meet requirements necessary to register for the course. N.B. This course is an Experiential course and no more than 30 credits may be counted toward the 120 hours required for graduation. [WL:5, P.I. only]

305. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl).Offered mandatory credit/no credit. (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

MICHIGAN PROGRAM IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL POLICY is a training program for predoctoral fellows and undergraduate interns. Students participate in a weekly, interdisciplinary seminar and small work groups that focus on the interaction of child development research with the making of social policy. Undergraduates must apply to the program, and admission is based on the student's credentials, interests and an interview. For further information, contact Catherine Arnott or Nancy Thomas at 763-3717. Deadline for application is April 9, 1990. (Thomas)

308. Field Practicum. Introductory psychology and permission of a departmental Board of Study. Degree credit is granted for a combined total of 15 credits elected through Psych. 201 and 300-309. A combined total of 6 credits of Psychology 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-12). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected through the series Psych. 300-309.

SECTION 001 WORKING WITH CHILDREN. Directed experience with children aged eighteen months to five years at the University of Michigan's Children Center and Children's Center for Working Families for approximately six to ten hours per week on a regular basis. Seminar relating theoretical issues to applied practice is held every two weeks. No prerequisites required. Course is intended to introduce students to children in a child care setting. [Cost:1] [WL:5, Permission of instructor required for all students] (Sternberg)

310. Superlab in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory Psychology or a strong background in the natural sciences. (3). (NS).

This course fulfills one of the advanced laboratory requirements in Psychology and may be counted toward either a B.A. or B.S. degree. It is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with a wide range of methods and topics applicable to the scientific study of behavior. Topics of study include vision and perception, neural information processing, pattern recognition, memory systems, language, problem solving, and decision making. Particular emphasis is placed upon experimental methods and design, data analysis and statistical inferences. Student evaluation is based upon laboratory reports and participation, two exams, and one term paper. The course is also appropriate for students in various other degree programs related to the scientific study of psychology. [Cost:1-2] [WL:1]

331. An Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology. Introductory Psychology or permission of instructor. (4; 3 in the half-term). (NS).

This course surveys the field of Biopsychology and introduces the kinds of questions addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Biopsychology is an area of study concerned with physiological and evolutionary explanations of perception, cognition and behavior. Among topics to be discussed are the following: animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective; psychological and neural mechanisms involved in sensory processes, motor control (movement and posture), regulatory behaviors (feeding, drinking), learning, memory, and cognition in humans and other species. Students must register for the lecture and one discussion/practicum session. NOTE: This course is intended for second term Freshmen and Sophomores. Psych 331 will be the prerequisite for many upper-level Biopsychology courses. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Berridge)

362. Teaching or Supervising Laboratory or Fieldwork in Psychology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). May not be elected for credit more than once.

Open to departmental undergraduate Teaching Assistants. Provides an opportunity to take part in the instructional process in areas in which the student has demonstrated prerequisite knowledge and skills. Under staff supervision, students teach and supervise other students in discussions, labs and field work. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. MAY NOT BE ELECTED FOR CREDIT MORE THAN ONCE. [WL:5, P.I. only]

363. Individual Behavior in Organizations. Introductory psychology or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of organizational psychology, emphasizing individual behavior in organizational settings particularly work settings. It is designed to be the first course in the organizational psychology sequence which also includes 464 (group behavior in organizations) and 565 (organizational systems). Major topics include work-related attitudes; motivation; leadership; decision-making; group-behavior; organizational design; organizational change; quality of working life; and work and society. Each week there will be a general lecture and one group discussion section. The discussion section will review the materials of the readings and lectures and will illustrate through cases and other means the application of some of the concepts introduced in the readings and lectures. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Rafaeli)

368/Anthropology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

See Anthropology 368.

370/Rel. 369. Psychology and Religion. Introductory psychology or senior standing. (4). (Excl).

This course explores various forms of experiencing and expressing the sense of the sacred. Emphasizing the common themes, techniques, and insights of apparently divergent religious traditions, the course aims primarily at appreciation of the creative process of spiritual growth. Some of the issues which will be central are the nature of meditation and contemplation, the integrity and the synthesis of various paths of spirituality, the meaning of visionary experience, implications of spiritual development for appropriate social action, and ways to tap personally significant levels of creativity and self-expression. To provide some focus for all this there will be a required reading list which emphasizes transpersonal psychology, writings on mysticism and spiritual practice, poetry and fiction. Authors include Hesse, Lessing, Eliot and Feild. There will be short papers assigned weekly. The class time will be arranged as a series of lectures and small discussion groups. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (R. Mann)

372. Introduction to Community Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course provides an overview of the problems and perspectives addressed by community psychology. It reviews the history and context for community psychological approaches, discusses ecological and systems concepts employed by this perspective, and presents a wide range of interventions and programs that have been developed from within this framework. Students are expected to gain a greater understanding of the larger external forces that shape their own behavior and lives, and learn how these forces can be modified. Course requirements include a community assessment project and term paper, and midterm and final examinations. [COST:2] [WL:1] (Miller)

382. Introduction to Social Psychology. Introductory psychology. (4). (SS).

SECTION 001. This course introduces students to the field of social psychology by covering such basic theoretical concepts as social beliefs and social inference; conformity and power; altruism; aggression; interpersonal attraction; and persuasion. Material from each unit is applied to a variety of contemporary social and psychological concerns. Students are evaluated by means of exams, classroom contributions, and through a series of short papers. Instructional methods include assigned readings, lectures, films, demonstrations, and weekly discussion sections. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Manis)

385. Marriage and the Family. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

The course covers theory and research about marriage and family life in contemporary society. The various forms and functions of the family currently and in earlier periods of history are discussed and analyzed, and an effort is made to clarify and understand factors that lead to stability and well being in marriage and family life. The life course of the family is also presented as a frame for understanding family functioning. Students are evaluated on essay exams and a final paper based on an interview with a married couple. Lectures and discussions are the dominant modes of instruction. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Douvan)

SECTION 010 This course will examine the clinical and research literature concerning the contemporary family. We will begin with the history of marriage as a cultural institution and trace the development of the modern family. The course will also focus on alternatives to marriage and the nontraditional family (e.g., divorce, single parent families, remarriage families, families headed by gay partners, etc.). Students will be expected to attend weekly lectures and will be evaluated on the basis of examinations and assignments. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Leary)

400. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Introductory psychology; intended for freshmen and sophomores. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402 and 500, 501, 502 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 DRUGS, BRAIN, AND BEHAVIOR. (3 credits). Psychology 331 (Introduction to Physiological and Comparative Psychology) is a prerequisite, and Intro. Biology and Chemistry are recommended. This course provides an introduction to the neuropsychopharmacology of drug abuse and addiction. The acute and long-term effects of selected drugs of abuse on behavior, mood, cognition, and neuronal function are explored. Material from studies with humans is integrated with preclinical studies on the biopsychology of drug action and drug abuse including an introduction to pharmacological principles, behavioral pharmacology and detailed coverage of synaptic transmission and the distribution, regulation, and integration of brain neurotransmitter systems. The focus is on ILLICIT drugs of abuse, including opiates (heroin, morphine, opium), sedative hypnotics (barbituates), anxiolytics (benzodiazepines), psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine), hallucinogens (LSD, mescaline), hallucinogenic-stimulants (MDA, MDMA), dissociative anaesthetics (PCP) and alcohol. The course has a natural science orientation and is intended for students concentrating in psychology as a natural science, biology, or the behavioral sciences (e.g., pre-med). A lecture format is used, with required reading from a text and a course pack, including articles from the research literature. Grades are based on objective-type exams. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Robinson)

SECTION 002. INTORDUCTION TO COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: MEMORY, THINKING, AND PERCEPTION. It will provide an introduction to cognitive psychology. The topics to be covered include various aspects of the psychology of human memory, thinking (including problem-solving and reasoning), and perception. The course will emphasize not only the content material represented by these topics, but also the process by which researchers develop theories and collect evidence about relevant issues. Students are required to have taken an introductory psychology course that included material on psychological experimentation. Performance will be evaluated via three objective examinations that will stress knowledge of the material and understanding of the relationship between theory and data. Readings will be drawn from a text and several primary sources that will be collected into a course pack. The course will include lecture, discussion, demonstrations, in-class experiments, and practice on problem-solving exercises. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Jonides)

415. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology. Psych. 475 or 575; and permission of instructor. (See LS&A Course Guide for policies in different sections.) (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. This course is intended as an advanced laboratory experience focusing on dynamic theories of psychopathology and related psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic methods. Emphasis is on the raw data of psychopathological difficulties, the kinds of questions clinicians raise about these difficulties, the tools and methods by which they attempt to understand them, and the modes by which they interpret and apply their understanding therapeutically. Students who have taken Psychology 475 or 575 and are graduating seniors may pick up an override at the Undergraduate Psychology Office (K-106, West Quadrangle) beginning April 9. Enrollment is limited to eighteen students who are graduating seniors. Non-graduating seniors may place their names on the waitlist which will be used to fill any remaining spaces after graduating seniors have been accommodated. The goals of the section are (1) to acquaint students with various modes of clinical inference, action, and research among professionals engaged in the practice of psychotherapeutic intervention; and (2) to provide students with a direct supervised experience which elucidates the dynamic theories of the genesis, meaning, and treatment of psychopathology. These goals are implemented by a practicum experience in which students are expected to spend at least two hours a week in a psychiatric treatment setting. An additional hour each week is spent in a meeting with the TA or a representative of the regular ward staff. There are weekly two-hour class discussions which concentrate on integrating case material, assigned readings, and ward experiences. There are written reports, and a final examination. The course grade is based on the final examinations, written reports, and on each student's involvement as reflected in the practicum experience and class discussions. [COST:1] [WL:1] (Heitler)

SECTION 002 CLINICAL APPROACHES TO CHILDHOOD DISORDER. The central focus of this course is the process of clinical inference in exploring the nature of children's difficulties, planning patterns of intervention, and engaging in the intervention process. Students will work with such clinical material as case histories, interview materials, and children's responses to frequently used instruments for clinical assessment. Assigned readings will be used to place these clinical data in a broader perspective. The course includes an experimental component in which students will observe children for at least two hours weekly. The course format will include a two hour class meeting and a one hour meeting with a TA focused on the student observations. Course evaluation will be based on the student's response to the experimental component. (Fast)

430. Comparative Animal Behavior. Introductory psychology or introductory biology or equivalent. (3). (NS).

This course presents a broad introduction to animal behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology (sociobiology). Topics include Darwin's theory of evolution, the relationship between genes and behavior, the evolution of group-living, and social interactions between close genetic relatives (e.g., parent-offspring, siblings), mates, and other conspecifics. Terms such as aggression, territoriality, and mating systems are considered in light of how they have evolved and how they contribute to daily survival and reproductive success. Examples from a wide variety of animal species are used to help emphasize various points. A lecture format is used, and students are encouraged to question and comment during class. Grading is based on two in-class essay exams and a term paper. The class is open to sophomores and is well suited for any student interested in animal behavior, biological psychology, or the relationship between evolution and social behavior. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (W. Holmes)

431. Biopsychology of Animal and Human Behavior. Psych. 331 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Selected topics in the biopsychology of animal and human behavior will be discussed at a level appropriate for students who have a serious interest in the field of brain and behavior or the behavioral neuroscience. Among topics discussed are hormones, development, and behavior; neuropsychology; emotion, stress and motivation; physical and psychic pain; mental disorders. Two ( 1 1/2 hr.) lectures and one discussion period. Midterm and final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:2] (Valenstein)

432. Reproductive Behavior in Mammals. Psych. 331, 368 or 430 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course emphasizes a biological and ecological approach to mammalian reproductive behavior in a cross-species, comparative framework. The course is appropriate for students who have a basic background and interest in biological approaches to behavior (e.g., Psych 331,430, Anthro 368 or Intro Biol), and both undergraduate and graduate students can take the course for credit. Humans are considered in the course, but only as one of many species that are studied. Course format involves a combination of lectures and student discussions of research articles from a course pack. The proximate basis of reproductive behavior is stressed in an ecological approach to various topics: genetic determination of sex, sexual development and puberty, hormonal influences on sex behavior, seasonal breeding and timing of reproduction, and the effects of various social and environmental factors on reproduction. Grades are assigned based on three or four take-home essay exams, a short paper and class participation. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Holmes)

442. Motivation and Behavior. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course surveys psychological perspectives on the question, "Why do people act as they do?" Major topics include theories about human motives, physiological and cognitive mechanisms regulating motivated behavior, and ways of studying major dimensions of social motivation (achievement, affiliation, intimacy and power). [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Ametrano)

443. Psychology of Thinking. Introductory psychology. (3). (NS).

SECTION 001. Recognizing patterns in a complex and uncertain world is extremely difficult. The fact that people do it so well is an amazing accomplishment. The course begins by looking at some ways this impressive feat might be carried out. To solve this theoretical challenge it turns out to be necessary to look at the way people acquire and store knowledge about their environment. The knowledge people have (and the way it is organized) provide a way of looking at not only how people recognize patterns, but also how they think and solve problems as well. Class sessions are somewhat disorganized discussions. The reading list is extensive and doing the reading is essential if what goes on in class is to make sense. Grades are based on a midterm, a final, and a one-page paper that attempts to summarize the principles learned in the course. [Cost:2] [WL:5, Enrollment in this course is by application only; application forms are available in K106 West Quad.] (S. Kaplan)

SECTION 002. This course reviews our psychological knowledge about thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. We draw upon a number of sources: laboratory research, field studies, cross-cultural research, biographical material, cognitive theory, computer simulations of thought, and other interdisciplinary findings. There will be a special focus on thinking, reasoning, and problem solving in the context of everyday activities. This includes an analysis of how artifacts and other people play a role in cognition. We will cover this material through lectures, demonstrations, discussion, and active class participation, with a stress on the practical effects of the psychological knowledge we examine. There will be 3 one-hour exams, plus a number of short written projects. (Olson)

444. Perception. Psych. 170, 172, 192 or 310. (3). (NS).

SECTION 001 This is an advanced undergraduate course that focuses on basic perceptual phenomena and theories. At its most general level, human perception concerns the questions of how and why human beings conceive of, and experience immediate reality on the basis of sensory information. Topics covered include: Psychophysics, sensory transduction, Gestalt organization, constancy and contrast effects, expectation, selective attention, perceptual learning and symbolic representation. While the course is oriented toward the natural sciences, it also considers social, philosophical and esthetic perspectives. The instructor assumes some sophistication on the part of the students, however, no particular background is necessary. Thus, students with little specific knowledge of psychology are welcome. Grades will be determined on the basis of three short papers (each worth 20% of the grade) and one longer paper (worth 40% of the grade). The instructor also anticipates the development of a conference for the course on the MTS system. Questions concerning this class can be messaged to Robert Pachella using the MTS-UB message system. [Cost:1] [WL:5 Get on waitlist. At beginning of term be sure telephone number at CRISP is correct. If not call 764-1590 to give correct telephone number. As places in the course open up, we will call people IN ORDER from the waitlist.] (Pachella)

SECTION 002. This is an advanced undergraduate course that concentrates on visual and auditory perception. There are three lectures per week with time set aside during class hours for demonstrations of perceptual phenomena. Evaluation is based on three one-hour exams and a project. The first theme of the course is the problem of perception: How does an organism build a stable and accurate representation of its world given the fragmentary, often noisy information available to it? The second theme is the duplication of these perceptual abilities: How could you build a machine that can see or hear? I will draw on three sources of information: (1) perceptual psychology and psychophysics, (2) neurophysiology, and (3) recent results in computer vision and audition. The primary emphasis is on the strategies by which organisms extract information from the environment embodied in perception. (Maloney)

448. Learning and Memory. Psych. 170, 172, 192, or 310. (3). (NS).

The focus of this course is adult human memory. The course examines a body of research that is concerned with investigating the mental processes involved in initially learning materials, storing away in memory, and retrieving it sometime later. Since much of the research is experimental in nature, the course will also stress the principles that underlie experimental research on psychological problems. There will be very little material that concentrates on either children's learning or memory, or on learning processes in animals other the humans.

451/Ling. 451. Development of Language and Thought. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course will focus on the question of how children acquire their first language (including its sounds, meanings, grammatical structures, and rules of use) and the many psychological issues related to this process. Approximately two-thirds of the course will be concerned with the path of acquisition and an examination of the theories about how acquisition is achieved. The remainder of the course will address the question of how language and language acquisition are related to thinking. Student evaluation will be based on in-class hour exams and a paper reporting on a course project. Classes will meet twice weekly for lecture, with some time reserved in most class periods for discussion. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Shatz)

452. Psychology of Personality. Introductory psychology and upperclass standing. (3). (SS).

This course will survey the principal theories and current research on personality. It will focus especially on (1) motives and defenses, (2) cognitive style, beliefs, and the sense of self, (3) traits and temperament and (4) social learning as the major components of personality. Case studies of historical persons will be used to illustrate and integrate these components. (Winter)

453. Socialization of the Child. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001 The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with major psychological research and theory on the processes by which the child becomes a social being. Attention is given to the influence of the family, and particularly the parents, and also to the influence of the school, peers, and the community. Topics include the development of attachment, peer interaction, moral development, sex roles, and the stability of personality. The role of social change and its impact on development will be considered. There will be three exams and one paper. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Mangelsdorf)

455. Cognitive Development. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course addresses questions such as: What do young children know? What is intelligence? How does thinking change in adolescence, adulthood, and old age? What accounts for the range of individual differences in cognitive development? In order to answer these questions, we will examine various theories (e.g., Piaget, information processing) as well as empirical research across the life-span. There are several prominent themes in this class including developmental changes, research on children's thinking, and implications for education. Grades will be based on a combination of examinations, quizzes and papers. Students are expected to have a familiarity with psychology research and journals, a solid background in psychology (at least two courses), and a curiosity to learn about thinking from infancy to old age. Although the course is organized in a lecture format, there will be ample opportunities for student discussion. [WL:1] (Perry)

456. Human Infancy. Introductory psychology. (3). (Excl).

This course covers phenomena of human development and maturation from conception to the third year of life. Topics include physical growth, elements of early attachment and relatedness, cognitive development, emotional expression and communication, the growth of personal and interpersonal competence, the role and status of infancy in the family and society, and careers centered on early human development. The course also presents material related to pre-term birth and its outcomes. Sessions will include lectures, audio-visual presentations and discussions. Exams: Midterm and a final. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Horner)

457. Child Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001. This course surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the development of the child from conception to adolescence. Physical, cognitive, and social/emotional development, and the interaction among them, are examined. Students are expected to read a textbook plus assigned readings, and to attend lectures and discussion sections. Opportunities to work directly with children are optional but can be arranged. Grades are based on three or more exams, a paper, and participation in discussion. [Cost:2,3] [WL:1] (Nadelman)

SECTION 010 This course covers child development from conception to adolescence. We will be covering general theories of child psychology as well as specific topics in normal physical, cognitive, language, and social development. The main goal of the course is to familiarize students with current theories, research, and methodology used to study the development of children. There will be three non-cumulative exams and a number of short written assignments. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Rosengren)

459. Psychology of Aging. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

This course covers major behavioral changes throughout adulthood, particularly in old age. Special emphasis is given to such topics as changes in biological functioning including sensation and perception, and changes in cognitive processes including intelligence, learning, memory, and in problem-solving. In addition, psychosocial aspects of adulthood are discussed. These include family roles, personality, coping mechanisms, psychopathology and treatment, and dying, death and grief. The course also considers environmental facilitation of psychological adjustments to both normal and pathological processes in old age, with special emphasis on dementia. Students do assigned readings, class exercises, projects, and take two examinations. Projects primarily include interviewing two people throughout the term and writing a research review paper. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Weaverdyck)

464. Group Behavior in Organizations. Psych. 363 or equivalent or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on work group behavior in organizations. It is the second class in a series that includes Psychology 363 (Individual Behavior in Organizations) and Psychology 565 (Organization Systems). The course discusses psychological perspectives on group behavior. Topics include the formation and development of groups, their decision-making and problem-solving processes, the influence of groups on individuals, group process, and intergroup relations. The class focuses on the understanding of groups in organizations along with methods of diagnosis and intervention. Both experiential and didactic teaching methods will be used. The course material will include research literature, case studies, and examples from contemporary organizations. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Rafaeli)

475. Abnormal Psychology. Introductory psychology. (3). (SS).

SECTION 001. This course overviews abnormal psychology, emphasizing psychological explanations of such problems in living as anxiety, depression, drug abuse, and sexual dysfunction, as well as their treatment by psychological means. There are two lectures and one discussion per week. Grades are based on examination performance and activities assigned in discussion sections. Books include Rosenhan and Seligman's 2nd edition of ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY. Additional readings may be assigned. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Peterson)

SECTION 020. This course will review classifications of psychopathology and consider various theories of the causes and treatments of psychological disorders. We will examine a wide range of disorders including schizophrenia, depression, personality disorders, phobias, and sexual dysfunctions. The emphasis will be on case studies and psychological theories of psychopathology. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Hansell)

476/Environ. Studies 355. Environmental Psychology. Psych. 443 or 444; or introductory psychology and Environ. Studies 320. (3). (Excl).

Psychology 476 is cross-disciplinary both in emphasis and in student population, with psychology, environmental studies, planning, design and natural resources among the disciplines which are typically represented. The course deals with how people experience the physical environment, with what people care about most and with the condition under which people act most reasonably. The course focuses on human needs in terms of informational requirements and on the ways in which environments support or hinder the processing of information. Such topics as environmental perception and knowledge; community and privacy; conservation and stewardship; and the role of culture are viewed in the context of this informational approach. Course requirements include take home mini-papers, a final exam and participation in classroom discussion. [Cost:2] [WL:3] (DeYoung)

486/Soc. 486. Attitudes and Social Behavior. Introductory psychology; or senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. An extremely difficult and unusual course. Not suitable for many students. Each student selects a group of people of particular interest. Usually people in a neighborhood that is very different from the sort of neighborhood she grew up in. Sometimes, alternatively, people whose lives have special relevance to her, such as people practicing a profession she plans. The student must then create in-depth prolonged meetings with a small number of these people and write up each week these meetings and her reflections on them. This journal is checked every two weeks. The course also will deal with about five books. Last term these were one technical book on attitudes, three sociological books of participant observation, and one novel by Lessing and Achebe. Real investment of time: about ten actual hours/week, EVERY week. NOT for students with a high need for structure from an authority figure. NOT for the uncurious. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Ezekiel)

SECTION 002. This section assumes that students have taken Psychology 382. In the course we will examine how people form and change their beliefs, attitudes, and self-concepts, and how social behavior is regulated. Specific topics to be covered are: attitude formation and change, the nature of the self and how self-concepts change, human judgment (its nature, how it can go wrong, and how it can be fixed), social perception, the nature of emotions, and so on. To emphasize the interrelationships among these phenomena, the material will be organized around theories of social psychology that explain the processes that underlie them. Special emphasis will be given to cognitively-oriented theories such as social learning, dissonance, self-perception, and contemporary information processing theories. Evaluation will be based on exams and short papers. Lecture-discussion. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Hilton)

500. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science. Psychology 170, 172, 190, 192, or 310, and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR. (3 credits). Prerequisite: Psych 331 or equivalent. Do hormones influence behavior? Yes. Hormones can have a profound effect on the brain and this can produce changes in behavior. Hormone-brain-behavior relations in humans, dogs, rats, frogs, moths and other animals will be the topics of discussion. Behaviors to be discussed include sex differences in the brain, as well as hormonal influences on mating behavior, courtship behavior, parental behavior, aggression, thirst, feeding, cognitive functions, and stress responses. Grades will be based on the results of 3 exams. (Becker)

SECTION 002 NEUROETHOLOGY (3 credits). (Prerequisite: Psychology 331 or equivalent course on brain and behavior). This seminar will review what we know about the neural control of instinctive behavior. How do brains meet the specialized behavioral challenges faced by particular species? The two major issues will be the design of a) sensory/perceptual systems that recognize meaningful events, and of b) action production systems that coordinate natural behavior. How are neural systems programmed to detect and recognize particular stimuli that are important to survival? How are appropriate responses generated? Specific topics will include: visual recognition of predators, prey, parents, & others; auditory localization of prey, and programmed recognition & production of social calls & song; specialized systems for echolocation & electroreception; the neural generation of walking, swimming, grooming, escape, and predatory actions. The focus will be upon nonhuman species. Examples will range from insects and crustaceans, to fish, amphibians, rodents, carnivores, and primates. Our goal will be to abstract general rules of neurobehavioral function from these diverse examples. Format will be mixed lecture/seminar; grades will be based upon essay exams, papers, and seminar presentation. The course is intended for Junior, Senior, or Graduate level students who have taken at least one course on brain function and behavior. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Berridge)

501. Special Problems in Psychology, Social Science. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (2-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 DREAMS AS MODELS OF PERSONAL CONFLICTS AND RESOLUTION. (3 credit). The purpose of the course is to review historical developments in the conceptualization of the meaning of nocturnal dreams from the late 19th century to the present. The major emphasis will be on the use of dreams to explicate personal problem solving hence clinical data will be made the focus the aim of developing students' ability to read, interpret, and understand the meaning of dreams (their own and others) the main practical skill developed. In the course of the term, issues from psychopathology, personality, psychotherapy, creativity, literature and development will be discussed in respect to dream material which presumes the student has some degree of familiarity with these fields and topics. The classes will involve discussions of readings in which students will be expected to take active roles. The course readings will consist of Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams" and a course pack. The particular discussion of readings will be announced in class each week as on a course reading list. Course evaluations will be determined by quality of participation in the class, one or two exams (announced in class) and by (largely) a course paper on dreams (outline to be discussed) which will focus on a series of dreams of one's own or someone else in regard to cognitive structure, psychodynamic content and adaptive problem solving strategy. (Wolowitz)

SECTION 002 PSYCHOLOGY AND HOMELESSNESS. This seminar will focus on psychological themes, mental health issues, and community interventions associated with homelessness among children, families, and single adults. Operating from the perspectives of clinical, community, and social psychology, this course will explore a broad range of historical, theoretical, social and practical concerns regarding the still-emerging problem of homelessness in our society. Through extensive readings, lectures, discussions, and field-investigation, students will examine the causes and experiences of homelessness as they affect the behavior, development, and emotional lives of both children and adults. Substantial time will also be devoted to exploration of the rational and effectiveness of various sheltering and supportive services programs now being developed and implemented. Students will be asked to complete a lengthy term project and series of "community research" assignments and reports which will help shed light on these issues as they are impacting on the local community. Extra credit may be earned for a term-long commitment to substantial volunteer effort in a related community agency. Prior coursework in clinical, social and/or community psychology is desirable. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Kieffer)

SECTION 003 GENDER AND ETHNIC CONSCIOUSNESS. (3 credits). This section is offered jointly with Women's Studies 343 for the Fall Term, 1990. (Gurin)

SECTION 004 INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY. (3 credits). This course will detail the expanding role of psychology in health care. The major topic areas will include the role of personality and sociocultural factors in medical illness, behavioral approaches to the treatment of medical disorders and chronic physical disability, and the integration of biological and psychological processes to promote a biopsychological model of health care. Specific content areas will further include the effect of psychological treatment on health care utilization costs and the prevalence of psychological distress among medically ill populations. This course is intended to broaden the student's view of the role of psychology in health care. Students will be exposed to the growing impact of psychology on conceptualizations of disease and health care delivery, the benefits of psychological intervention in the treatment of medical disorders, and the application of psychological concepts and behavioral therapies in the investigation and remediation of physical illness. Completion of Psychology 474: Introduction to Behavior Modification is a recommended, but not required, prerequisite. The course will utilize a lecture and class discussion format and students will be evaluated based on the completion of three examinations and a review paper addressing a specific aspect of health psychology. (Roth)

SECTION 005 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY. (3 credits). The first half of the course will present an introduction to the research and theoretical background of sport psychology. Later in the course the techniques of applied sport psychology, team dynamics, and special issues (such as injury, burn-out, and drug-abuse) are covered. Students taking this course should have a strong background in social science psychology classes. [WL:1] (Smokler)

502. Special Problems in Psychology. Introductory psychology and junior standing, or permission of instructor. Only 6 credits of Psych. 400, 401, 402, 500, 501, and 502 may be counted toward a concentration plan in psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation. (1-4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 001 INRODUCTION TO EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY (2 credits). This course will examine major topics within psychology from an evolutionary perspective. A major theoretical focus will be on PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS that have been shaped by natural selection to solve PROBLEMS that humans face in the course of survival and reproduction. Topic areas of special focus will include: fears and phobias, social exchange, cooperation, parent-offspring relations, conflict in close relationships, sexual jealousy, and decision making processes. (Buss)

SECTION 002 COMPUTER SIMULATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES (3 Credits). This course is intended for upperclass psychology concentrators with very little experience in computer programming who are curious about the ways in which computers might be used to simulate psychological processes such as memory, problem solving, perception, etc. Some prior exposure to the fundamentals of Pascal programming and to Macintosh computers is assumed. The first portion of the course will provide a review of the basics of Pascal programming. During the remainder of the term, students will work in small groups that attempt to develop simulations of interesting psychological processes. The software and manuals for the course may be available at no cost, but if that is not possible students will be able to rent the necessary materials from the Department for $25. Grades will be determined primarily by performance on proficiency tests during the first portion of the course and by the final simulation project. Students will be expected to participate regularly in a computer conference related to the course. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Morris)

503. Special Problems in Psychology: Advanced Laboratory. Introductory psychology. (2-4). (Excl).

SECTION 001 LABORATORY IN RELIGION AND PSYCHOLOGY. (3 credits). This lab will explore techniques for describing and analyzing the process of spiritual development. We will be examining the records of prior laboratory groups as well as creating a new culture of our own. The techniques used will be primarily those of thematic analysis and ways of describing the evolution of groups. THE PREREQUISITES (Psychology 370 or 403 or Religion 369 or 424) WILL BE ENFORCED, and the required permission of the instructor may be obtained at L-218 Winchell House, West Quad. There will be weekly writing assignments and one final, integrative essay. Early in the term students will be trained in the use of MTS and CONFER which will be used to create an electronic conference containing both the data and the commentary of the lab members. [Cost:2] [WL:3, Permission of instructor only. THE PREREQUISITES (Psychology 370 or 403 or Religion 369 or 424) WILL BE ENFORCED, and the required permission of the instructor may be obtained at L-218 Winchell House, West Quad.] (R. Mann)

SECTION 002. LABORATORY IN JUDGEMENT AND DECISION. (3 Credits). A Collegiate Fellows course; see page 3 of this COURSE GUIDE for a complete list of Collegiate Fellows courses. This course initiates the student to the process of creating new knowledge about judgment and decision making in the behavioral sciences in general. Essentially, class members are co-investigators on research projects that address two original problems of current interest in the field. The problems examined differ from one term to the next. An illustrative problem is understanding the foundations of people's typical overconfidence in their answers to factual questions, e.g., "Which is farther north, New York or London?" Each student participates fully in all phases of the research process, from the conceptual analysis of the given problem and review of the pertinent literature through the collection and analysis of data, and the interpretation and reporting of results. Classes consist mainly of intensive discussions of relevant articles and of design and interpretation issues. Grades are based on students' reviews of articles, their contributions to the execution of various aspects of the class projects, their written reports, and their participation in discussions. The prerequisite is a course on behavioral decision making, e.g., Psychology 522. It satisfies one of the advanced laboratory requirements for a concentration in psychology. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Yates)

SECTION 003 LAB IN APPLIED COMMUNITY RESEARCH METHODS. (3 credits). (Prior enrollment in either Psych 474 OR Community Psych/Child and Institution AND Permission of Instructor.) Students will address the information needs of community intervention programs for clinical and at-risk populations and will learn basic steps in organizing a study that impacts on services. The range of settings may include: preschool and child care settings; emergency shelters; homeless outreach project for mentally ill adults; community mental health; and psychiatric inpatient units. Students will be exposed to archival, observational, key informant, and self-report data sources in order to help design and/or evaluate interventions. Coursework entails two months of weekly on- site contact and several staged, written assignments that lead to a final paper in journal article format. (Cohen)

SECTION 004 ADVANCED LABORATORY IN ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. (3 credits). (Prerequisite courses are 363 or 464 or 382 and junior or senior standing). This advanced laboratory will cover several approaches to enhancing individual, group, and organizational effectiveness. We will focus on role analysis and negotiation, competencies of an effective consultant, impression management, group planning and decision making, diversity, goal setting processes, types of organizations, and work redesign. The instructor will introduce each topic to the class members by giving a brief overview of the framework, lecture or workshop to provide some firsthand experience with the concepts and phenomena we are studying. Subsequently, the class will reflect on the presentation and discuss relevant readings, processes and assignments. Finally, students (individually and in groups) will conduct field research projects, deliver class presentations and complete written reports which will then be delineated in class. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Beale)

504. Individual Research. Permission of instructor. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research under the direction of a member of the staff. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies - contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval. [WL:5 P.I. Only]

506. Tutorial Reading. Permission of instructor and a prior or concurrent course in an area related to the one in which tutorial reading is to be done. A combined total of 6 credits of Psych. 300-309, 504, and 506 may be included in a concentration plan in psychology. (1-6). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual plans of study under the direction of a member of the staff. Students are provided with the proper section number by the staff member with whom the work has been arranged. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course, which includes a contract signed by the instructor and student, and approval of the Committee on Undergraduate Studies contracts are available from the Undergraduate Psychology Office, K106, 580 Union Drive, and must be returned there for approval. [WL:5 P.I. only]

513. Advanced Laboratory in Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 523. (3). (Excl).

This course involves the student in a series of demonstration projects designed to show diverse approaches to the measurement of human traits, ranging from intellectual abilities to personality characteristics, interests, and attitudes. In addition, projects are undertaken in test design and construction, item analysis, validation, reliability determination and in the multivariate analysis of trait structure. Several extensive data sets have been put on computer files and students are introduced to MTS and SPSSX procedures to carry out psychometric analyses on these data. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Norman)

516/Soc. 587. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology. Stat. 402; and Psych. 382 or prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 486. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001 "Do the life stories of leaders of highly-active political groups sound like the life stories of leaders of highly-active religious groups?" "When members of extremist groups discuss their family lives, do we hear dimensions that also arise when they discuss national events?" Questions of this order questions that try to link social and political events to currents within the lives of individuals are the subject for our inquiry by both quantitative and non-quantitative methods. The ideal student is one hungry to explore because she has a rather deep need to understand social and political developments they are not casual interests. She also is ready to work in a collaborative, independent fashion with other students and the instructor. Each student will work out a research question of her own and will pursue it for the term. She should arrive at class with a good start toward identifying those aspects of the environment that raise deep needs for understanding on her part. We will need attendance at all class meetings and some six additional hours of work each week. A rewarding course for independent souls with active minds and social passions. [Cost:1] [WL:1. Must attend the first two meetings] (Ezekiel)

SECTION 002 INFERENCE AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR. This section will demonstrate a variety of techniques of experimental social psychology. Special emphasis will be placed on the study of social inferences judgments that we make about ourselves and others. Students will carry out their own study or experiment. (Nisbett)

SECTION 003. Students will design and implement a survey and laboratory experiment on a standard social psychological topic. Instruction will be carried out by means of discussion and demonstration. Grades will be based primarily on papers in which students analyze and write-up the results of their research projects. Credit will also be given for contributions to class discussion. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Burnstein)

517. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology. Stat. 402, prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 457 and/or 459. (3). (Excl).

This course provides training in the skills necessary to critique and conduct research on children's perceptual, cognitive, social, and emotional development. This is a laboratory course: students engage in the design, data collection, analysis, and write-up of developmental psychological research. Tuesday meetings are lectures and discussions covering theories, research issues, methods, and actual studies in developmental psychology. Thursday meetings are workshops on campus devoted to planning and implementing a collaborative developmental study using subjects from a local elementary school or the U-M Children's Center. Two different research projects will be conducted off campus, each involving different-aged subjects. Evaluation is based primarily on participation in research projects and written reports of this research. Quizzes will cover research issues and methods. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Parker)

519. Advanced Laboratory in Personality. Stat. 402, and prior or concurrent enrollment in Psych. 452 or 559. (3). (Excl).

Personality research methods will be explored in detail in this course. Techniques involved in assessing personality will be introduced, including attention to social and ethical issues. These will include scale construction, content analysis, interviewing and observation. Issues of experimental design will be discussed, and students will gain experience administering, coding and evaluating personality measures. In addition, individually and in groups, students will plan and execute analyses of data drawn from one or more of ten different samples (of students, midlife adults, Presidents of the U.S., survivors of an earthquake, musicians, etc.) contained in the Personality Data Archive at The University of Michigan. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Stewart)

522. Decision Processes. An introductory course in statistics. (3). (NS).

This course is about how people make decisions and the judgments on which those decisions are based. It examines such questions as these: What do we take into account and ignore when we form opinions about what will happen in the future? How do we reconcile conflicting considerations in a decision problem? How and to what extent are our choices shaped by how the alternatives are presented to us? There have been many indications that human decision making is flawed to the extent that we expose ourselves to the risk of serious errors. The course considers when those errors should and should not occur. It also discusses ways of preventing such mistakes. Thus, the course should be of considerable relevance to students interested in such fields as medical or psychological clinical judgment and managerial decision making. Classes consist of lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in which students participate actively. A prior or concurrent introductory statistics course is recommended, but not essential. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Yates)

523. Human Traits and Their Assessment. Stat. 402 or 300. (3). (Excl).

This course considers methods for assessing human traits (abilities, interests, attitudes, personality characteristics, etc.) and the uses of such assessments in practical decisionmaking and scientific theory testing. Tests, inventories, questionnaires, rating scales and other procedures will be evaluated in terms of their reliabilities, validities, and other relevant criteria. Introductory psychology and elementary statistics are the relevant prerequisites and an advanced laboratory (Psych. 513) is offered concurrently for those wishing additional practical work in this area. Student evaluation will be by means of objective (multiple-choice) exams and a term paper. Methods of instruction will include lectures, demonstrations and discussion. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Norman)

558. Psychology of Adolescence. Psych. 453 or 457; or permission of instructor. (3; IIIa and IIIb, 2-3). (Excl).

The primary goal of this course is to provide an overview of development during adolescence. The focus will be on normal adolescent development, rather than on behavior problems. However, we will examine those problems which are often considered to be characteristic of the adolescent period, such as eating disorders, delinquency, and teenage pregnancy. There will be a midterm exam, a final exam, and a term paper. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Rosengren)

572. Development and Structure of the Self. Introductory psychology and junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course examines major psychological conceptions of the self. It is organized around such topics as the self as meaning-maker, identity achievement in young adulthood, the emerging self of infancy, the integration of self, the gendered self, the moral self, the self and social institutions. It is designed for a group of 20-25 students who have a general background in psychology. It will emphasize the critical examination of a relatively small number of texts. The class format will be centered in discussions of assigned readings, and will regularly require brief prepared reactions to them to open class discussion. Student evaluation will be based on class participation, a paper, a midterm, and a final examination. (Fast)

573. Developmental Disturbances of Childhood. Psych. 452, 453, or 457; and Psych. 475 or 575. (3). (Excl).

This course focuses on basic knowledge in the field of children's developmental disturbances. It includes basic points of view, selected syndromes (with a discussion of many clinical illustrations), and etiological concepts. It suggests fruitful ways of analyzing and conceptualizing issues and data in the field, also alerting students to gaps in our knowledge. In addition, the instructor hopes to communicate an inner, affective feel for the phenomena of childhood disorders, to interest some students in this field as a possible profession, and to encourage others to incorporate certain knowledge, attitudes, and ways of approaching issues into their own fields. Student work is evaluated on the basis of 2 short papers, a midterm, final examination and term paper. [COST:2] [WL:1] (Miller)

574. Clinical Psychology. Psych. 474 or Psych. 575 and psychology concentration; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. Psychology 574 is a small seminar (limit of 20) for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, and papers) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate his knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2) to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. [COST:1] [WL:1] (Lohr)

SECTION 002. Psychology 574 is for junior and senior psychology majors who think they might be interested in a career in clinical psychology or a related field. The student is expected to have a general psychology background, including psychopathology. The purpose of the seminar (which includes reading, class discussion, papers, clinical diagnostic interviewing, and a final) is threefold: (1) allow the student to consolidate knowledge of psychology and apply it to real clinical materials; (2)to develop the student's capacity for making disciplined clinical inferences; and (3) to introduce the student to the realities of training and work in the profession. In order to facilitate in-depth discussion of clinical materials, the class size will be limited to approximately twenty students. Evaluation of students will be based on a combination of several brief analytical papers, a midterm and a final exam. [COST:4] [WL:1] (Hatcher)

575. Perspectives in Advanced Psychopathology. Two courses from among Psych. 442, 444, 448, 451, 452, 453, 457, 475, and 558. (3). (Excl).

The evolution of conceptualizations of psychopathology as internalized conflict is reviewed leading into contemporary forms of theory. Case material is utilized as the data in conjunction with detailed descriptions of some of the major types of syndromes comprising the range of pathological adaptations. Personal historical narratives and symbolic representations of conflict in symptoms, dreams, fantasies, action, interpersonal relations and literature are examined in respect to their origins, structure and function in contrast to denotative forms of data. Problems in the collection, utilization and status of personal narratives are considered and evaluated in the context of scientific, humanistic and creative traditions of knowledge. Students are evaluated on essay and short answer exams to determine their ability to receive clinical meanings, make appropriate inferences, understand theory and apply it to personal disclosures in psychotherapy. In addition to a comprehensive final and two prior exams, a term paper is required for ECB credit. In addition to Freud's case histories, two textbooks and a course pack are required reading. [COST:8] [WL:6] (Wolowitz)

590. Senior Honors Research I. Psych. 391 and permission of the Psychology Honors concentration advisor. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 002. The main event in Senior Honors is thesis production. (Get thee to your tutor, get your thesis underway, make normal progress.) The goal is a thesis that makes one justifiably proud. Early on, each student will present thesis background and design to the class. Class discussion topics: school/job decisions and application strategies; a review of the basics of statistical reasoning and statistical tests that students intend to use (including quizzes). Drafts of segments that can later be incorporated into the thesis are to be submitted periodically. However, the main order of business, and classwork will not interfere, is, get thee to your tutor.... [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Weintraub)

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