ROMANCE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

Courses in French (Division 371)

ELEMENTARY LANGUAGE COURSES.

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school MUST take the Placement Test to determine the language course in which they should enroll. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction in high school. Students who began French at another college or university must take the Placement Test.

101. Elementary French. Credit is not granted for more than two courses from French 101, 102, and 103. (4). (FL).

Students with any prior study of French must take the placement test. The sequence French 101/102 presents the essential elements of French grammar and vocabulary which students need (1) to understand the French of everyday life when spoken at moderate speed; (2) to be understood in typical situations of everyday life; and (3) to read non-technical French of moderate difficulty. French structures are taught in class through many communication exercises stressing listening and speaking. Readings on subjects dealing with French culture and civilization are introduced in French 101, with an increased amount of reading in French 102. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20 to 25 students. Homework consists of studying vocabulary and grammar, writing exercises and compositions, video viewing, and laboratory work (l l/2 2 hours per week) on pronunciation, vocabulary, structural exercises, and listening comprehension. There are weekly quizzes or tests as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations, listening comprehension and speaking tests. Sections 012-018 are not open to students with any previous French in high school or in college. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

102. Elementary French, Continued. French 101 or equivalent. French 102 may be followed by 231. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

See French 101. French 102 is NOT open to students who have begun instruction at the high school level. College or university transfer students who have received credit for one term are encouraged to enroll in French 103. It is STRONGLY suggested that transfer students see H.Neu or for advice regarding placement in the appropriate course. [Cost:1, Same texts as 101] [WL:4]

103. Review of Elementary French. Assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

The course objectives and methods of instruction are identical to those of French 101/102. It moves at a rapid pace, covering about 60 percent of the French 101 materials by midterm, and about 60 percent of the French 102 material by the end of the term. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework is similar to French 101 and 102, but its daily amount is up to 60 percent more than in either French 101 or 102 because of the rapid pace. Videos will be viewed about once a week to complement lessons. Examinations are similar to 101/102, and the final examination is identical to that of French 102. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

205. French Conversation for Non-concentrators. French 102, or 103, or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 205/206 are informal mini-courses with emphasis on self-expression in conversational French. (Only French 205 is offered in Fall Term). It is for students who would like to keep up with their knowledge of the language. Class work consists of studying the essential vocabulary, reading of simple journalistic prose, and conversation based on the reading material. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-24 students. There are no examinations, and the grading is Credit/No Credit only, determined on the basis of attendance, homework, and participation in classroom activities. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

231. Second-Year French. French 102, or 103, or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

Students whose last French course was NOT at U of M Ann Arbor must take the placement test. The sequence French 231/232 are the third and fourth terms of language study offered. It presents a comprehensive grammar review, study of finer points of French structure, and the reading of journalistic prose, short stories, and plays. Both courses include the use of French movies and video TV excerpts. In addition, French 232 has outside reading: students read a book on their own, and take a reading comprehension test. The proficiency gained by the end of French 232 should enable students to express themselves in French on topics of interest, to understand conversations on such topics. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. Homework consists of grammar study, written exercises, and laboratory work. There are comprehensive coursewide tests as well as the midterm and final examinations. [COST:2,3] [WL:4]

232. Second-Year French, Continued. French 231 or equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

See French 231. [Cost:2,3] [WL:4] (Smail)

Special Elementary Reading Courses

French 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language. Completion of these courses does not satisfy the LS&A language requirement.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have received credit for college French. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

This course is for undergraduate and graduate students who would like to gain a good reading knowledge of French in one term. The essentials of French grammar as well as vocabulary and idioms are presented for passive recognition, followed by translation and sight-reading exercises on materials taken from both humanities and sciences. The skills gained in the course should enable students to read technical writings of moderate difficulty. Toward the end of the term students select a short article or a chapter of a book in their field of interest for outside reading. Classes meet four times per week in sections of 20-25 students. There are weekly quizzes as well as course-wide midterm and final examinations. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

Other Language Courses

305. Practical French. French 232 or equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

French 305 is a minicourse for students who would like to keep up with their French in an informal atmosphere. It is organized like French 205/206, but cultural and intellectual readings provide topics of conversation. Classes meet twice a week in sections of 20-25 students. There are no examinations, and attendance, homework and active participation in classroom activities determine the credit/no credit grades. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

361. Intermediate French. French 232 or equivalent. (3; 2-4 in half-term). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to help students develop a proficiency in the spoken language and improve their writing skills. French grammar is reviewed, and a discussion of materials on various aspects of contemporary French life permits participants to expand vocabulary, and to increase their understanding of French daily life. Outside readings in connection with the basic cultural themes are studied. Press articles, interviews and the like are used to stimulate discussions. Classes meet three times a week in section. All classes are taught in French. Laboratory activities (listening comprehension program), and videos, two novels. Bi-weekly essays. Two examinations, one final composition. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Gabrielli)

362. Advanced French. French 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course stresses the improvement of students' written and spoken French. Using a selection of literary and cultural material organized by theme as the basis of round-table discussions and written exercises, students will increase their ability to write and converse fluently as they think about the ideas that have shaped French culture and history. Material is both audio-visual and written, and includes fiction by authors such as Christiane Rochefort and Voltaire, films by directors such as Jean-Luc Godard and Jean Renoir, literary correspondence, songs, and press articles. Classroom activities and discussion topics vary with instructor. Required work in all sections include active participation in class, weekly compositions, and study of audio-visual material at the language lab. The course is designed as a bridge between the highly structured activities of language courses and the more independent work required in literature and civilization courses; grammatical difficulties will be treated as needed. Midterm and final examinations will test level of spoken and written fluency. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

371. Writing French. French 361. (3). (Excl).

The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays and their diaries. Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the term, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Gabrielli)

SECTION 002. The main objective of the course is to develop the skills necessary to writing correct, fluent French. In order to achieve it we will work on three levels: (a) development and reinforcement of correct grammar through presentation of specific syntactic problems, practice exercises, and individual diagnosis of students' writing; (b) development of vocabulary (elimination of faux-amis, finding "le mot juste"); (c)development of quality in composition from imitation to creation (learning how to organize an essay and how to write in tight sparse prose). Students are expected to write frequent essays (one a week). Final course grade is based on the level of proficiency achieved at the end of the term, with important consideration given to the quality of the work throughout the term. This course is elected primarily but not exclusively by students majoring in French. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Muller)

372. Problems in Translation. French 371 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the problems of translation from English into French as well as from French into English. The aim of the course is to introduce students to the basic prerequisites of translation, helping them to develop a proper attitude toward the original and the target language, and to give them some practical training. Students work on a variety of texts on different levels ranging from newspaper articles or magazines to technical texts, literary texts. In the second half of the term students will be responsible for individual translation projects which will serve as a basis for class discussion. Evaluation: day to day preparation, participation, homework, in-class assignments, individual project. The course is viewed as a continuation of French 371 and is open to students who have completed more advanced classes. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Belloni)

380. Intermediate Business French. French 361 and 362. Students may be permitted to take 380 and 362 concurrently. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the LANGUAGE of business transactions in France. It deals with both written and spoken commercial French. It is partly built around a fictitious company whose activities are divided into themes dealing with various aspects of the business world: banking, advertising, claims and disputes regarding products, organization and hierarchy of the enterprise, applying for a job in France. The writing will concentrate on commercial correspondence and will stress the formal nature of written business French. Attendance mandatory. NO AUDITORS. Maximum enrollment is 25. [Cost:1] [WL:4] (Gabrielli)

426(453)/Rom. Ling. 453. French Phonology and Morphology. French 361 or 362 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

This course will introduce you to the basics of French phonology and phonetics and offer you a review of French pronunciation and vocabulary. We first compare written and spoken French in order to analyze the numerous gaps between the two, which cause learning problems for many speakers of American English. We then study prosodic features such as stress, syllabic structure, and intonation, and proceed to compare French and English vowels and consonants to see how they are organized into their respective phonological systems. We will also examine briefly some of the salient features of very colloquial French and of a few dialects (e.g., French spoken in the south of France and Canada). Under morphology, we will study the evolution of the French language in terms of sound changes that help explain the seeming "irregularities" of Modern French as well as derivation of words. The course will be conducted in French, and the classroom work will consist of lectures, discussions and TRAVAUX PRATIQUES, which emphasize practical work with the language. Your course grade will be based on two in-class one-hour examinations and the TRAVAUX PRATIQUE, some of which must be submitted. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Hagiwara)

Civilization

384. Origins of Contemporary France: From the Gauls to de Gaulle. French 361. (3). (HU).

This course attempts to give the student a sense of the complexity of French history. It focuses on a few key periods starting from the Renaissance, the age of Louis XIV, the enlightenment and the Revolution up to the Vth Republic hopefully and to the expanded European Economic Community. It is less the sequence of events that interests us than the evolutions of institutions and "mentalities," the daily life and the transformations of the society. Three classes per week. The course is conducted in French. Three papers and a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Gabrielli)

Literature

387/388/389

INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH LITERATURE. The objective of this series of courses is to acquaint students with significant literary works and literary theories drawn from the entire range of French literature. Each work is analyzed (in French) individually for its own merit and is then placed within the context of its period. Students are asked to read carefully the assigned works, to reflect on them, and to express their reactions and ideas in class. The instructor holds class discussions, points out the artistic values of the work, and attempts in many cases to show the evolution of literature as it reflects various external factors. Grades may be based on discussions, papers, and a midterm and/or final examination.

387. Introduction to French Literature (1600 to 1800). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course's basic objectives are to familiarize students with the study of literature in French and to help them read texts critically and creatively. A further goal will be to acquaint students with some more or less representative masterworks from an important period of French history and a major segment of the French literary tradition. Works studied will come from several genres: comedy, tragedy, fable, fiction, autobiography. We will be asking ourselves about the nature of literary rhetoric and literary forms, and also trying to understand the relations between literary works and the social and historical circumstances of their production and reception. Several short writing assignments [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Mermier)

388. Introduction to French Literature (1800 to 1900). French 232. (3). (HU).

This course will focus on five of the most important writers of 19th century French literature, namely Balzac, Flaubert, Baudelaire, Zola and Maupassant. Emphasis will be placed on the literary aspects of the works read as well as the historical, political and artistic context of the day. A typical assignment will consist of reading some twenty pages of a given work and preparing to discuss them in class. Students will write four papers in French (three or four pages in length). Each paper will be corrected for grammar, choice of expression and content. The course grade will be based on the results of written work and on classroom participation. Regular attendance is required. There is no final examination. The course is conducted in French. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Gray)

389. Introduction to French Literature (1900 to present). French 232. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001. This is an invitation to explore some of the significant moments in the development of 20th century French literature. We will ask ourselves such questions as: How does a new perspective on the human subject and on historical reality alter the way in which literature is written? What happened to the "traditional" genres (the lyric poem, the psychological novel, the bourgeois drama)? These issues will be discussed through a selection of works by Valery, Eluard, Ponge, for poetry; Colette, Sarraute, for the novel; Sartre, Genet, for the theatre. Glimpses into recent theories of literary analysis will provide a critical insight into these new forms of writing. Evaluation will be based on class participation and discussion (in French), three short papers and a final essay. No examinations. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Clej)

SECTION 002. This course's primary objectives are to introduce students to the study of literature in French and to help them read texts critically and creatively. A further goal will be to see what a varied group of novels and poems can tell us about the rapidly changing French-speaking world in the twentieth century, and about the role of literature in that world. Students will read and discuss four novels (Marcel Proust, CROMBRAY, Georges Perec, LES CHOSES, Marguerite Duras, LE RAVISSEMENT DE LOL V. STEIN OR L'AMANT, Cheikh Hamidou Kane, L'AVENTURE AMBIGUE) and a selection of poems by Apollinaire, Eluard, Prevert, Senghor, and Bonnefoy. Classes will be above all discussions, with only occasional lectures. Several short writing assignments (including both critical papers and creative exercises in style and writing); individual and oral examination. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Paulson)

455(463/464). Introduction to French Literature of the Nineteenth Century. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The word ARTIST in its modern sense is a creation of the nineteenth century. Faced with a society in which their role seemed uncertain, changing, and subject to uncomfortable economic constraints, creators in many genres attempted to assert the autonomy of art and the singularity of the artist. Yet most continued to seek or at least dream of public success, social prestige, or political influence. Artistic creation and the status of the artist thus became major artistic themes, especially in literature, and this will be the subject of the course. We will examine (1) what literature can contribute to a sociology of the artist, and (2) what the preoccupation with artistic themes reveals about literary works and genres. The course will also provide an introduction to the reading of 19th-century French texts and to sociological approaches to literature. Readings include novels by Flaubert (L'EDUCATION SENTIMENTALE) and Zola (L'OEUVRE), two short stories by Balzac (LE CHEF D'OEUVRE INCONNU, PIERRE GRASSOU), Gautier's preface to MADEMOISELLE DE MAUPIN, excerpts from Murger's SCENES DE LA VIE DE BOHEME and from Baudelaire's poetry and art criticism. Informal lectures, discussions. Two papers of medium length. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Paulson)

456(475). Symbolism. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

SECTION 001. SYMBOLISM. "To say that literature has its own language, one which does not coincide with its natural language but is superimposed on that language, is merely another way of saying that literature possesses an exclusive, inherent system of signs and rules governing their combination which serve to transmit special messages, nontransmittable by other means" (Jurij Lotman). The course attempts to uncover the "signs" and "rules" (and agrammaticalities) of the more-than-denotative language of symbolism. Nearly all of the exploration takes place in poetry; after brief reference to Baudelaire as precursor, the class undertakes analysis of poems by Verlaine, Rimbaud, Laforgue, Mallarme, and Valery. In four or five short papers (original analyses of poetic texts) students have the opportunity to hone their skills with traditional EXPLICATION DE TEXTES, and/or with the more precise, if sometimes more reductive, techniques of discourse analysis. Readings, lectures, and discussions in French. Final examination. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Nelson)

460(442). Topics and Themes in French Literature. French 387, 388, 389, or the equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

SECTION 002 THE MEDIEVAL STORYTELLER. An introduction to the "caravan of tales" which spans the continents and the centuries, studied in the craft of the medieval storyteller and the body of stories, myths and legends it propagated. We will be concerned both with the perennial themes of tales (sexuality, religion, death, transgression) and how each telling of a tale reveals a specific cultural and historical moment. While the course is centered on the French Middle Ages and the unique cultural conditions which fostered the development of the storyteller's art, we also consider the AFTERLIFE of the medieval storyteller, from the Renaissance into the 19th century, and finally some broader approaches to myth and to the comic which draw from classical antiquity and non-Western culture. Students will read a collection of medieval French short fiction, in modern translation, comprised of FABLIAUX, LAIS, short romances, saints' lives and troubadour biographies. Written work consists of a midterm, one or two papers on works discussed in class, and a 10-page final paper, which may treat a relevant work of another time or place (acceptable topics might range from Chaucer to non-Western mythology or from classical antiquity to contemporary American culture). Students will be asked to make a brief oral presentation outlining the topic of the final paper. Taught in French. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Graham)

Courses in Italian (Division 399)

Elementary Language Courses

101. Elementary Italian. (4). (FL).

This course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Italian grammar with parallel emphasis on conversation. Text, workbook and lab manual required; Italian 101 covers the first half of the text Course topics include (1) fundamental sentence structure, (2) verb conjugations, (3) adjectives, adverbs, and sentence agreement, and (4) nouns, pronouns, and conjunctive pronouns and their position. Methods of instruction include (1) grammar drill, (2) conversation exercises, (3) translation both oral and written, and (4) weekly quizzes. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, midterm, and a final examination. Cost:2] [WL:4]

102. Elementary Italian. Italian 101 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

This course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Italian language and attempts to broaden the student's knowledge of Italian life and culture. Conversation in the language is also emphasized. The course covers the second half of the text with workbook and lab manual; readings supplements this set of texts. Course topics include a continuation of Italian grammar; use of idiomatic expression; the culture, geography, and everyday life of Italy; and conversation topics that encourage discussion. A variety of instructional methods are used: grammar presentation and exercises, readings in Italian (dialogues, short articles, Italian newspapers, and magazines), original writing and oral discussion. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

231. Second-Year Italian. Italian 102 or equivalent; or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course reviews grammar, introduces students to standard modern Italian through the reading of short stories, plays and poetry, and increases student facility in writing and speaking Italian. Compositions are required and are based upon reading or other topics of interest. Class discussions center on readings or current events. Grading is based on class participation, compositions, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

232. Second-Year Italian, Continued. Italian 231 or permission of course supervisor. No credit granted to those who have completed 112. (4). (FL).

This course aims at a further development of each student's reading and speaking knowledge of Italian, including increased facility in both conversation and oral comprehension. There is a continuing review of grammar, and the elements of composition. Various genres of literature are read and discussed, and occasional short papers are required on these or other related topics. Oral reports on various topics are also required. Grading is based on short papers, class participation, quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

Other Language and Literature Courses

359. Italian Culture and History to the Eighteenth Century. (3). (HU).

The course, which will be taught in English, aims (1) to familiarize students with the major texts of the Italian Medieval and Renaissance worlds; (2) to introduce students to the historical and cultural changes of the period; and (3) to understand the shift from Medieval to Renaissance culture. Texts to be read include: selections from ST. Augustine's CONFESSIONS, St. Francis, Provençal poetry, Sicilian poetry, Sweet New Style, Dante's VITA NUOVA and INFERNO, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Ficino, Alberti, Pico della Mirandola, Michelangelo, Ariosto and Machiavelli. While not essential, a working knowledge of Italian is useful. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Lucente)

361. Intermediate Italian. Italian 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

All the basic skills of the language will receive attention in this course, the primary goal of which is the improvement and refinement of oral, reading and writing proficiency. Review of difficult points of grammar will be taken up when necessary, but the major concentration will be on class discussion of short reading materials ranging from newspaper and magazine articles, short fiction and poetry to polemic essays on contemporary cultural, political and social topics. Short essays will be part of the regular assignments, as will occasional prepared oral presentations, translations, and dictations. The variety of the materials covered will be as broad as possible to introduce students to the several different writing styles and manner of presentation of the language. The course will be conducted in Italian and will meet three hours weekly. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

412. Politics, Poverty and Poetry. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (1). (HU).

The early middle decades of the twentieth century in Italy, spanning the period of Fascism, the Second World War and a time of problematic economy, produced a literature of strong social and political import. An entire culture was in crisis, and the intellectual community that had been, for the most part, academic and conservative, began to insert itself forcefully into the mainstream of European cultural reality. Reevaluation of the "official" Italian ethic, and a questioning and challenge of traditional mores resulted in political and philosophical polemic which was as a new translated lyricism into Italian fiction. Among the most effective writers of this period, Ignazio Silone, Carlo Levi, Elio Vittorini, and Vasco Pratolini, typify the several approaches that were being taken to renew commitment and taste. Their most influential novels will be studied, following introductory lectures on the general literary climate of the 1930's and 1940's, with short readings by some of their "precursors," including Alvaro and Rea. Lectures, class discussion, short papers and exams. [WL:4] (Olken)

420. Topics and Themes in Modern Italian Literature. One literature course (in any field); knowledge of Italian is not required. (2-3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

SECTION 001 THE HISTORICAL NOVEL FROM MANZONI TO MORANTE. This course will trace the development of the historical novel in Italy from the nineteenth through the twentieth century. We will begin with Manzoni's romantic prose masterpiece, THE BETROTHED. We will then treat Ippolito Nievo's mid-century CONFESSIONS OF AN ITALIAN before moving onto Giovanni Verga's late realist novel set in rural Sicily, MASTRO-DON GESUALDO. Two twentieth-century novels will be read in class, Tomasi di Lampedusa's THE LEOPARD and Elsa Morante's HISTORY: A NOVEL. In each case, discussion will focus both on sociohistorical and literary questions. There will be two short essays and a final exam. Prerequisite: One literature course in any filed). A knowledge of Italian is not required. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Lucente)

468. Studies in Modern Italian Literature. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

No course description available at this time. Prerequisite: Permission of Instructor. (Olken)

485. Directed Reading. May be elected only with permission of concentration adviser in Italian. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

No course description available at this time. Prerequisite: May be elected only with the permission of the concentration advisor in Italian. (Lucente)

Courses in Portuguese (Division 452)

101. Elementary Portuguese. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to give students the ability to understand the Portuguese of everyday life when spoken at a moderate speed, to be understood in typical situations of everyday life, and to read non-technical Portuguese of moderate difficulty. The course covers units 1-10 of MODERN PORTUGUESE by Ellison et al. Because of the nature of the text and accompanying tapes, and the nationality and training of the present staff, students will learn the variety of Portuguese spoken in Brazil by educated speakers. Classroom work involves gradual introduction of Portuguese structure through dialogues and communication exercises which stress listening and speaking. Homework consists of studying grammar, memorizing structures and verb forms, writing exercises and time in the lab. Grading will be based on three hourly quizzes, oral exercises, homework, class participation and a final exam. Portuguese 101 is offered only in the Fall Term. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

231. Second-Year Portuguese. Portuguese 102 or equivalent. (4). (FL).

Second year Portuguese is designed to develop and enhance the work done in Portuguese 101/102. (See description above). It aims at perfecting writing and speaking skills, and giving students a deeper understanding of the literature, history, and culture of the Portuguese-speaking world. The required texts at the moment are King and Suner, PASA A FRINTE! and selected short stories and other materials made available as hand-outs. Classroom work involves an intensive grammar review, the study of finer points of Portuguese grammar as made necessary from daily observation of students' writing and speaking performances, oral presentations and discussion of short stories and texts from newspapers and magazines. Homework involves studying grammar, preparing oral presentations, and writing guided essays. Grading is based on quizzes given every other week, oral presentations, essays, class participation and a final exam. Portuguese 231 is only offered Fall Term. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

Courses in Romance Linguistics (Division 460)

300. Introduction to the Romance Languages. French, Spanish, or Italian: five terms at college level or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The purposes of this course are to discuss the relationships which exist among the various Romance languages, and to acquaint students with the methods and objectives of Romance linguistics. Following a brief introduction to the methodology of linguistic analysis, the grammatical structures of French, Spanish, Italian, and Rumanian are compared. The course is conducted in English, and all required reading is in English. Students who can read other languages are encouraged to pursue certain topics in these languages. The text is a course pack supplemented by handouts. In recent years, students have come to the course with knowledge of several Romance languages and of general linguistics. This adds to the interest of the course, but should not discourage the student who knows only French or Spanish. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Leonard)

453(553)/French 426. French Phonology and Morphology. French 361 and 362, or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See French 426.

Courses in Spanish (Division 484)

Elementary Language Courses

Students who intend to continue a language begun in high school are given a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college language instruction. Students who began Spanish at another college or university must also take the placement test.

101. Elementary Spanish. (4). (FL).

For students with little or no previous study of Spanish, this course provides a basic introduction to Spanish grammar and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on developing functional, communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and writing Spanish. Grade based on three departmental exams, quizzes, written work and daily oral work. (Spanish 101 AND 102 are the equivalent of Spanish 103.) [Cost:3] [WL:4]

CSP section available. See Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this GUIDE.

102. Elementary Spanish, Continued. Spanish 101. No credit granted to those who have completed 103. (4). (FL).

A continuation of Spanish 101; composition and reading skills given more practice. Grade based on three departmental exams, three oral exams, other examinations, quizzes, written assignments (including several compositions) and daily oral work. Open only to students who have completed 101 at the University of Michigan. [Cost:3, Same texts as 101] [WL:4]

CSP section available. See the Comprehensive Studies Program (CSP) section in this GUIDE.

103. Review of Elementary Spanish. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed 102. (4). (FL).

A refresher course for students with two or three years of high school Spanish whose previous study did not occur within the preceding two years. Equivalent to 101 and 102 condensed into one term. It prepares students for Spanish 231. Transfer students should elect Spanish 102 if they have completed the equivalent of Spanish 101 elsewhere. [Cost:3] [WL:4]

205. Spanish Conversation for Non-concentrators. Spanish 102 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purpose of this one credit hour course is to develop confidence in the use of the spoken language and to encourage development of listening comprehension and oral skills. Most of the course work is done in class, but outside readings which are later discussed in class are sometimes assigned. Often the class is divided into small groups which then pursue activities which are of special interest to the group. These classes meet two hours each week, and the most important qualities necessary to participate successfully are a willingness and a desire to learn. Grades are based solely on class performance. There is no standard text. THIS COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS. [NO textbook] [WL:5, Mass Meeting 6 or 7 days after classes start]

231. Second-Year Spanish. Spanish 102, or 103, or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 112 or 230. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, listening, reading and writing skills of students; to review the fundamentals of Spanish grammar; to build vocabulary; and to provide some insight into the literature, history and culture of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade based on a series of exams designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation. [WL:5, Mass meeting 6 or 7 days after classes start]

232. Second-Year Spanish, Continued. Spanish 231 or the equivalent; or assignment by placement test. No credit granted to those who have completed 230 or 112. (4). (FL).

This course is designed to develop fluency in understanding, speaking, reading and writing Spanish and to provide a deeper understanding of the literature, culture, outlooks, and habits of Spanish-speaking peoples. Course grade is based on three exams, designed to assess ability to read, write and understand Spanish, plus periodic written work (including compositions), and oral class participation. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

Special Elementary Reading Courses

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for juniors, seniors, and graduate students interested in gaining a reading knowledge of the language.

111. First Special Reading Course. No prerequisite; may not be elected for credit by undergraduates who have already received credit for high school or college Spanish. No credit granted to those who have completed 101, 102, or 103. (4). (Excl).

Spanish 111 and 112 are designed for students interested mainly in the acquisition of a reading knowledge of the language. They are open to graduates, juniors, and seniors; and to others by special permission. For graduate students, a grade of B or better in Spanish 112 satisfies the basic reading knowledge requirement for the doctorate. [Cost:1] [WL:4]

Other Language Courses

305. Practical Spanish. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

The purposes of this one credit hour course are (1) to apply Spanish to real-life situations and (2) to increase the linguistic skills necessary for mastery of conversational Spanish. While the instructor serves as the leader in determining classroom activities, the class is often divided into small groups of three or four students. The class meets two hours each week, and the course grade is based primarily on class work. There is no standardized text. THIS COURSE CANNOT BE USED TO SATISFY SPANISH CONCENTRATION REQUIREMENTS. [, No textbook] [WL:5, Mass Meeting 6 or 7 days after classes start]

361. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. (3; 2-4 in the half-term). (Excl).

Spanish 361 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used, centered on a grammar-based course book. The student will do readings in Spanish, prepare discussion topics, revise and extend grammar, prepare exercises and translations, and expand vocabulary. Ample time is allotted to class discussion of the readings, and to the treatment of recurrent problems of grammar. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on weekly translations, tests, exams, and participation in discussion. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Anderson)

362. Introductory Composition and Conversation. Spanish 232 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Spanish 362 is intended to improve the student's written and spoken Spanish. A variety of instructional methods are used depending on the instructor: translations, presentations, readings in Spanish (short stories, plays, newspaper and magazine articles, etc.). Compositions of at least two pages will be assigned weekly. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor. Brief presentations by individual students are occasionally required. Classes are taught in Spanish exclusively. The final grade is based on compositions, exams and participation in discussion and other class projects.[Cost:2] [WL:4] (Anderson)

Literature

350. Independent Studies. Permission of concentration adviser. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit more than once with permission.

This course exists to enable students who have begun work on some author or topic to carry their study further under a professor's guidance. The work to be done should not be the same as that done in a regular course offering. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Concentration Adviser no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course. (Hafter)

371. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

How does a literature begin? This course discusses the development of a literary language, the themes and forms of literary expression from the Middle Ages to the Golden Age of Spanish literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. How does a MEDIEVAL period become a RENAISSANCE much less BAROQUE period in literary terms? Ballads, epic and lyric poetry, the first picaresque novel, LAZARILLO DE TORMES, and a least one play will constitute the readings. Conducted in Spanish. Term paper, hour and final examinations or equivalent. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

372. Introduction to Spanish Literature. Spanish 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

The late eighteenth-century and the 1930's mark the two extremes of the period represented in this survey of modern Spanish literature. The course will thus lay a good historical foundation for further Spanish courses and for comparisons to readings from other literatures. Essays, plays, poems and novels are analyzed as individual works for the beginning student, methods and approaches of literary criticism are considered, and an effort is made to show how the works exemplify their historical and cultural context ranging from the Enlightenment through Romanticism, Positivism, Symbolism to Existentialism. Representative authors who may be studied are Moratin, Larra, Becquer, Galdos, Azorin, Machado, Jimenez and Lorca. The class format is basically recitation, but lectures and reports will also be used. Exercises consist of periodic tests, midterm and final papers, and a final exam. The course is conducted in Spanish. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Anderson)

373. Topics in Spanish Literature. Spanish 232. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.

THE ROMANCE LANGUAGES OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA. This is a non-technical introduction to the structure and history of Spanish, Portuguese, and Catalan. The first part of the course will examine the main linguistic features of these three languages, with emphasis on (a) features all three languages have in common; (b) features shared by two of the three languages under study; (c) features unique to one of these languages. The second part will trace the linguistic history of the Iberian peninsula in order to explain how the spoken Latin of the Iberian peninsula evolved into these separate yet closely-related languages. No previous knowledge of Portuguese, Catalan, Latin, or linguistics will be expected. The course will be taught in Spanish. Readings in Spanish and English will be made available in a course pack. There will be a midterm, a final exam, as well as written assignments. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Dworkin)

375. Civilización de Espa a (Spanish Civilization). Spanish 232. Spanish 375 and 376 may not both be included in a concentration plan in Spanish. (3). (Excl).

This course will focus on some current issues that confront Spanish democracy. Social, economic, political and cultural aspects of Spanish life will be discussed. For example, what do the Spanish people think about abortion or the relationship between the Church and the State? How has the Spanish economy changed since Spain's entry into the Common Market? Are the Spanish people satisfied with their monarchy and the present socialist government? What do the Spaniards think changed when Spain joined NATO. How did the cultural life improve after the death of the dictator Francisco Franco? The objective of the course is to discuss the contemporary problems as well as the historical origins of these and other questions and to expose students to the perspective that the current democracy introduced. The course will cover information about these issues through readings and lectures. The goal is to stimulate critical thinking by the students and discussion in the class. [WL:4] (Calvo)

435(450). Independent Study. Permission of department. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for a total of 3 credits.

This course exists to enable students who have begun work on some author or topic to carry their study further under a professor's guidance. The work to be done should not be the same as that done in a regular course offering. A description of the project and the required exercises to be completed, as well as a list of pertinent bibliography must be submitted to the Concentration Adviser no later than the second week of the term, for the approval of the Spanish Undergraduate Curriculum Committee. The Committee is to receive a copy of any lengthy paper submitted in the course. (Hafter)

451(468). Spanish Literature of the Fifteenth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388. (3). (Excl).

About half of the term will be dedicated to a study of the Celestina, the great Renaissance tragedy, which is the flower of Spanish letters. The rest of the term will be spent studying the other major figures of Castilian literature of the time, Snatillana, Mena, Perez de Guzman, Manique. Although this is not a thematic course, we will, in great part, be taking note in it of the arrival, under various aspects, of the Renaissance in Spain. Lecture; two or three papers, a final exam. (Fraker)

456(462). Golden Age. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The one hundred and fifty years that followed the unification of the Spanish monarchy and the discovery of the New World witnessed an extraordinary invigoration of creative life that flowered into a Golden Age. The course will study the immense contribution of Spain to Renaissance literature by close analysis of the plaintive love lyrics of Garcilaso de la Vega, the spiritual and mystic poetry of Fray Luis de Leon and San Juan de la Cruz. Representative prose will be an Erasmist dialogue and the first picaresque novel of European literature, the LAZARILLO DE TORMES. Seventeenth century literature will include plays by Lope de Vega and Calderon de la Barca, to exemplify the unique characteristics and achievements of Spain's national theater, an exemplary novel of Cervantes, and Quevedo's picaresque novel, the BUSCON. Conducted in Spanish. Term paper, hour and final exams. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Hafter)

464(425). Spanish Romanticism. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Spain was one of the most ROMANTIC countries for Europeans in the period 1830-1860. Bizet's CARMEN attests to the outsider's conception of Spaniards as colorful, violent, and passionate, but Spanish writers neither shared that skewed view nor took up such exotic topics. Blanco White, who fled Spain and the priesthood he no longer believed in wrote from England of his spiritual unrest. The Duque de Rivas and other playwrights dramatized human anguish over an incomprehensible divine order. Larra's bitter satire's of contemporary middle-class society, an historical novel, and Becquer's exquisite and enigmatic legends make up the prose works to be studied. One of the major poems of Espronceda will be analyzed to show his preoccupation with the mystery of human desires. Becquer's love poetry will reveal through its delicate verse a deeper spiritual reality present in the universe. These texts in sum illustrate the problematic nature for 19th-century Spaniards of the classical and Christian world order they inherited from their forebears. Conducted in Spanish. Hour and final exams and a term paper. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Hafter)

465(471). The Modern Spanish Novel I. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

VALLE-INCLAN AS NOVELIST. This course will center on the narrative of Ramon del Valle-Inclan, one of the most provocative and innovative of Spain's twentieth-century writers. We will read selected narrative works by Valle: FEMENINAS (stories), the SONATAS, LA CORTE DE LOS MILAGROS, VIVA MI DUENO, and TIRANO BANDERAS, as well as selected secondary criticism on Valle. There will be a midterm exam, an oral report, term paper, and final exam. Class will be conducted in the form of lectures and discussions, in Spanish. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Valis)

475(488). Latin American Narrative of the Twentieth Century. Spanish 361 and three courses chosen from among Spanish 371-388 or equivalent. (3). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 9 credits.

NOVISSIMI NARRATORES. In this course the students will have the opportunity to read the most recent and significant works by the Spanish American novelists born after 1935, including the so-called JUNIOR BOOM and others. The course will focus on close reading of the narratives and some time will be devoted to describing the main trends within the current contemporary period. Among the novelists considered are Mario Vargas Llosa, Reynaldo Arenas, Severo Sarduy, Christina Peri Rossi, Luisa Valenzuela, Luis Refael Sanchez, Fernando del Paso, Gustavo Sainz, and Eduardo Gudino Kieffer. The format of the course will be lecture and discussion. Students will be required to write a number of assignments and short reports, a midterm and a final paper. Text: C. Goic, HISTORIA Y CRITICA DE LA LITERATURA HISPANOAMERICA, Barcelona: Editorial Critica, 1989. Vol. 111. (Goic)


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