ANTHROPOLOGY

COURSES IN Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

The course explores the biological basis for variation in human morphology, physiology, and behavior across different modern populations around the world, and through human evolutionary history. Major topics discussed are evolutionary theory, genetics, human adaptation, primate and human behavior, and the human fossil record. No special knowledge is required or assumed. Cost:2 WL:2 (Hill)

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures, discussion section, laboratory and reading, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual sexual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early ecology shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology and the changes in physical form that are the consequence of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. The origin of races and their development and relationships are discussed in this context. Class participation and discussion are emphasized and there is a required discussion/laboratory section for elaboration of lecture topics and supervised hands-on experience with primate skeletal material and replicas of human fossils. Student evaluations are based on a midterm and final examination. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Wolpoff)

368/Psychology 368. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order The major focus of the course will be the behavior or prosimians, monkeys and apes in the wild. Special attention will be given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, kinship systems, sexual behavior, vocal communication, competition, and other topics will be described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, and serves as an introduction to Anthropology 369, PRIMATE SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS. Three lecture hours, and one discussion weekly. Two midterms and a final exam. (Mitani)

398. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors adviser for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program. (Livingstone)

468/Psychology 468/Women's Studies 468. Behavioral Biology of Women. Introductory psychology or anthropology. (4). (Excl).

See Psychology 468. (Smuts)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory|slash|Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

Exposure to anthropology's cross-cultural, comparative and holistic viewpoints, and to ethnography, the field's characteristic data-gathering procedure, are important in a liberal arts education. Anthropology 101, which surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology) provides students (generally freshmen and sophomores) with a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. Anthropology 101 stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. Anthropology 101 teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. As is proper for a distribution course, the principal aim of Anthropology 101 is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology, as well as surveying its content. (As such it is also recommended for anthropology concentrators.) Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex-gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings include several paperbacks. Students must register for the three weekly lectures (section 001) and a discussion-recitation section. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. [Cost:2] [WL:1,3,4] (Kottak)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist primarily of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Lockwood)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of anthropological archaeology as a social science with a general survey of world prehistory. The presentation of method and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in anthropological archaeology as a social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on four major problems in the development of human culture: (1) the emergence of Africa, between two and six million years ago, of the first proto-humans; (2) the appearance approximately 40,000 years ago of the first anatomically and behaviorally "modern" humans; (3) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the development of the first village farming communities; and (4) the rise of more complex, stratified societies from these simpler farming societies. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators. There will be three lectures (one hour each) plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include three in-class hourly exams and a final examination, plus two take-home exercises that give students firsthand experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. Required Readings: ARCHAEOLOGY (2nd edition, 1989), by David Hurst Thomas, plus a course pack with articles supplementing the text. (Speth)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

315. Indians of North America. (4). (SS).

Native American communities, often deeply rooted in traditional places and voices despite relocations and losses of native languages - all involve strong family ties and histories of local and regional power struggles. This course allows students to explore in some depth particular Native American cultural traditions emphasizing both the "old ways" and how such ways are interpreted by community members and outsiders. Secondly, we will look at cross cultural dynamics in the fields of political encounter between various Native American peoples and various others: developers, environmentalists, educators, other governmental authorities, poets, and social scientists, to name a few. Key issues include family relations, alcoholism, land rights, and freedom of religion. A recurrent question: what are the limits and possibilities of self-definition for Native American peoples, in what circumstances? Finally, we look at contemporary Native American fiction and non-fiction as cultural forces which challenge Western constructions of who Native American peoples are. Here we use traditional anthropological methods and "postmodern" deconstruction in a questioning manner. How can we understand images and image-makers from different cultural, historical and political positions? Grades will be based on four short papers.

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (Excl).

This course deals with late traditional and contemporary China, with an emphasis on the peasantry. The focus is on continuities and changes over the past 200 years. The first part of the course deals with regional and cultural variations, including the cultures of some of China's minority peoples, and with the socio-economic organizations of traditional China. The next segment deals with popular interpretations and expressions of China's major religions, folk art and literature, and forms of rebellion. In the last segment we discuss the reorganization of Chinese society since 1949, dealing with contemporary family and community organization, social stratification, the successes and failures of different forms of "collectivization," and some of the current social problems in the Peoples Republic of China. This is a lecture course with in-class discussion, open to students with junior standing or above. The readings are drawn mainly from the ethnological/cultural anthropology literature, supplemented with materials from the fields of literature, sociology, history and economics. They are drawn from Western and Chinese scholarship with translations of Chinese primary sources provided in a course pack. There is a midterm (essay) and a final exam (essay). Undergraduates have the choice of writing two short critical papers or a longer research paper on a topic of their choosing. Graduate students are expected to write a research paper or a review of a significant segment of the scholarly literature on Chinese society and culture. [Cost:3] [WL:2] (Diamond)

405. Peoples and Cultures of India. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

Following a survey of the peoples and cultures of South Asia - which will include the Indian sub-continent and Sri Lanka - the course will focus on five culturally salient phenomena: person, family, caste, labor and ethnicity. A course pack in addition to several monographs will constitute the required reading for the course. A paper, a midterm and a final examination will be required of all students. The course will be structured on a lecture-seminar format. Cost:3 WL:3 (Daniel)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, with the emphasis on Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is first looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant and urban. The conceptual and historical relations between these are examined with reference to the writings of Ibn Khaldun and to such events as the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. In the second half of the course some cultural themes are discussed that recur throughout the area: the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from classics such as Doughty and Snouck-Hurgonje, as well as from recent anthropology.

410. Ethnography and Politics in Southern Africa. One course in anthropology. (3). (Excl).

ETHNOGRAPHY AND POLITICS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA. This course explores some of the ways that political processes in southern Africa have been illuminated through ethnographic accounts. After situating anthropological discourse on southern Africa in its colonial and post-colonial political contexts, the course examines distinctively ethnographic contributions to understanding such things as migrant labor and rural transformation, urbanization, ethnicity, and political resistance. The emphasis throughout is on showing how a grasp of local social and cultural structures illuminates larger-scale political and economic processes. Material will be drawn from South Africa, Lesotho, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia. Course prerequisites: Students enrolling in this course should have a familiarity with basic concepts in the social sciences, and should have taken at least some anthropology. Some prior knowledge of southern Africa will be extremely helpful, but is not required. Course requirements: The course will be run as a lecture/discussion course, with considerable attention devoted to the discussion portion. Students will be expected to keep up with readings and to be prepared to participate in discussions as a matter of course. In addition, students will be urged to write a series of four short (4 to 5 pages typewritten) papers during the course of the term. Students who do not write four papers will have to write a final exam instead. The final exam will be a take-home essay examination. Each student taking the final will be obliged to give essay-length (4 to 5 page) answers to however many questions corresponds to the number of papers they did not write. A student who wrote two papers during the term would have to answer two exam questions; a student who wrote no papers would have to answer four. Student who have written all four papers will have the option of taking the final if they wish and replacing lower grades they may have earned on earlier papers if they score better on the final. Short oral presentations may also be assigned from time to time. (Ferguson)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films and videos on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: FOUR 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize READING and LECTURE materials; participation in CLASS discussions; regular class attendance. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Owusu)

Ethnology-Theory/Method

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an upper-division introduction to anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. It is recommended for concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels; graduate credit can be arranged. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construct "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics. There are no prerequisites. Lectures will focus on: 1) the analysis of ethnographic text; 2) the critical reading of ethnographic reports; 3) the criteria for constructing ethnographic reports. Several sessions will also be devoted to the techniques of writing short essays, and special guidance will be given to those who wish to improve these techniques. Readings will (mostly) be about other cultures. Ample opportunity will be devoted to discussion of the lecture material and the readings. Grades will be based on six short papers (six pages each). [WL:1] (Carroll)

447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of HOMO SAPIENS. It reviews the theories of Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss and others who have attempted to comprehend that origin and development. The course will trace the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? Is racism, like modernity and its other social problems, a characteristic of civilization? These are some of the questions with which students will wrestle. The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:2 WL:3 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, function and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why is law obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs; infants, women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal, or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers, or 3 6-8 page student papers. Lecture/discussion format. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Owusu)

336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of warfare (armed conflict) in pre-modern tribal societies drawing on materials from Melanesia, Africa and South America. The social, economic and political factors that elucidate the causes and conduct of tribal warfare are investigated through a comparison of case studies. The general applicability of theories that emphasize resource competition, balance of power, structural predispositions and adequacy of dispute settlement are assessed. Consideration of the conduct of warfare include: diplomacy, alliance, organization, mobilization, strategy, tactics, codes of conduct, casualty rates, territorial consequences, and the motives of participants. Course format consists of lecture and discussion. Course requirements include a class report and a take-home exam (final). This course is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of particular interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kelly)

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

SECTION 001 THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF COLONIALISM. This course offers an overview of anthropological approaches to the colonial encounter, focusing on the cultural representation and political economy of European rule in Asia, Africa and South America. It will focus on the historical processes by which the categories of COLONIZER and COLONIZED have been created and contested by looking at the gender politics, racial thinking and class visions which those categories implied. We will explore the changing interface between anthropological knowledge and colonial power by tracing the participation of anthropologists in the colonial enterprise and their post-colonial treatments of that history. Attention will be given to how colonial relations of control and resistance have shaped the contemporary landscape of the THIRD WORLD today. Grades will be based on class participation and preparation, weekly commentaries and a set of critical essays or research paper. Cost:2 WL:2 (Stoler)

Section 002. THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD: GROWING UP IN CULTURE. Children don't speak, think, and behave like adults. Anthropology is largely the enterprise of documenting and interpreting what differences in speech, thought, and behavior mean. This lecture and discussion course will combine and explore these two pieces of conventional wisdom. To what extent do children in different cultures and different historical epochs resemble each other? How do children acquire knowledge of the cultures they live in? Is learning the same in all cultures? Do children learn about different things in the same way? To what extent do the attitudes parents hold about learning and teaching affect the way knowledge acquisition actually occurs. Much anthropological research, beginning with Mead's work in Samoa and New Guinea and continuing up to contemporary anthropological research in both complex and small-scale societies, permits us to formulate answers to these and similar questions. It also helps us assess prominent perspectives, particularly in psychology, on child development. Course requirements include two short-answer exams, a weekly journal of notes and queries and active classroom participation. (Hirschfeld)

Section 003 PEOPLES AND CULTURES OF THE HIMALAYAS. The Himalayan region is a cultural watershed inhabited by descendants of immigrants both from South and Central Asia. It has until recently been one of the least ethnographically known regions of the world. Much of the research in the region has, as a result, been largely descriptive. This course is intended to be a general survey of Himalayan peoples as well as an introduction to current research issues in the area. Lectures will discuss the varieties of ethnic groups in the region (cultural and social variations and similarities), the incorporation of multiple ethnic communities into state societies, ecological issues, and current social change. The course materials will focus largely on Nepal, but students with interests in other Himalayan countries and regions Bhutan, Sikkim, India, Tibet, and Pakistan - will have an opportunity to explore their interests through additional reading assignments and other course requirements. The final reading list is currently being developed. Among the texts being considered are Sherry Ortner's HIGH RELIGION: A CULTURAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF SHERPA BUDDHISM, Nancy Levine's THE DYNAMICS OF POLYANDRY: KINSHIP, DOMESTICITY, AND POPULATION ON THE TIBETAN BORDER, and Stan Mumford's HIMALAYAN DIALOGUE: TIBETAN LAMAS AND GURUNG SHAMANS IN NEPAL. There will also be a course pack. Assignments will include a review of a book not covered in class and a term paper. Prerequisites: At least one class in cultural anthropology. Students are strongly recommended to have had exposure to the ways that anthropologists talk about kinship. (Fricke)

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration adviser.

SECTION 001. This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week in seminar to read and discuss a selection of significant monographs and papers in ethnology, and a selection of writings on fieldwork methods and research strategies in ethnology. This seminar provides background for the students to define their own senior Honors thesis project. By the end of the term, the students will have decided on a project, and begun preliminary work on it. In consultation with the Honors advisor the student may request any member of the Anthropology Department to serve as a main thesis advisor or second reader. In the Winter term, the students will convene periodically in seminar with the Honors advisor to discuss their research projects and get feedback from the group, as well as staying in contact with the Honors advisor and second reader. By the end of the term, each student should have completed the research and write-up for their thesis so that they can make a formal summary presentation of it for the group. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects. (Diamond)

Section 002. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. This seminar provides background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)

427(353)/CAAS 427/Women's Studies 427. African Women. One course in African Studies, anthropology, or women's studies; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 427.

431. American Kinship. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

The notion of 'the person' in EuroAmerican culture, and its prime constituents: 'adults'/'children'; 'male'/'female'; etc. The "life-cycle" (as culturally construed) from conception to death. The ideology of 'kin ties' where they derive from; what they are supposed to entail. 'The family' (as a cultural construct), nuclear and extended; 'distant kin'. Cultural dimensions of the 'household'. Living arrangements. Cultural aspects of the physical apportionment of living (and working) space. 'Motherhood'/ 'Fatherhood', 'childhood and 'adolescence'. Adoption. Siblingship. Marriage, courtship, sex. Kinship as an autonomous cultural (i.e., symbolic) domain (independent, to a large extent, of non-kinship considerations, such as economics). Kinship as an "idiom" in which other matters are expressed. Constants and variables in American kinship historically. Constants and variables in American kinship geographically, by ethnic group, and by class. Other sorts of relationships that are like kin relationships: 'friendship', etc. Conclusion: what a specifically anthropological approach can add to other sorts of studies of kinship. Preliminary oral reports and final written reports (every three weeks about 8-10 pages of well-edited essay each time) will constitute the basis for assigning final grades. [WL:4] (Carroll)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course approaches universal aspects of religion-religious experience, the concept of the sacred, the sense of the divine, the notion of occult power, through an analysis of the most prevalent form of religious behavior, namely ritual. Having examined and discussed religious concepts and actions in their own right the course will consider their places in human affairs. Although the course will be universalist in its orientation, illustrative materials will be drawn from a range of simple and complex societies. There are two take home examinations. Although there are no prerequisites a background in anthropology, the social sciences generally, religion or philosophy will be helpful. Enrollment is generally about 75% undergraduate, 25% graduate students. [Cost:3] [WL:2] (Rappaport)

454. Symbolic Anthropology. Anthro. 101, 330, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course outlines major anthropological approaches to symbolism while also trying to sharpen student's skills in symbolic analysis of the world around them. It first examines the classic anthropological work on myth, ritual and magic, and then considers texts that treat symbolic analysis as a necessary perspective on all fields of activity, including the apparently prosaic realms of politics and economics. Finally, it looks at recent work that deals with symbols as instruments of domination and vehicles of resistance. Throughout, selected readings and discussion are used to show how these approaches can be used to make sense of life in the United States. Lectures are combined with a certain amount of class discussion and both are tied closely to the reading of required texts. Grades for undergraduates are based on several short papers and a final exam. For graduate students, a research paper takes the place of the exam. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Rouse)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.

SECTION 001 TELEVISION, SOCIETY, AND CULTURE. Television has been compared to a new religion, cultivating homogeneity, uniting adherents in a common set of images and symbols. Television executives have become "key gatekeepers" assuming roles played historically by political and religious leaders. TV has been labeled "narcoticizing" and faulted for diverting attention from serious social issues and replacing effective thought and action with passive absorption in portrayals. Television has been said to reinforce existing hierarchies and impede social reform. It also stimulates participation in a worldwide cash economy, and TV's worldwide spread has raised concerns about cultural imperialism. Ethnocentrism is common in the evaluation of television and its effects. Understanding of TV impact can be broadened through cross-cultural research about this medium, which, specific content and programming aside, must be recognized as one of the most powerful information disseminators, socializing agents and public-opinion molders in the contemporary world. This seminar will consider cross-cultural diversity in TV and will assess the medium's various social, cultural, and psychological effects. Students who will include seniors, concentrators and graduate students in American Culture or Anthropology, will each investigate an aspect of television. Students will be responsible for attending class, organizing and participating in discussions of particular readings, and presenting, orally to the class and in writing, a term paper based on research concerning some aspect of TV impact. (Kottak)

Section 002 ETHNOGRAPHY IN AMERICA. This course explores the picture of American society and culture that emerges from ethnographic studies, that is, from extended resident fieldwork within various communities. Particular attention is paid to issues of class, race, ethnicity and gender, and the relationships between those factors. Attempts will be made to include studies from a range of historical periods (within the 20th century), from different parts of the country, and covering a variety of classes, ethnic groups, and other sorts of social entities (e.g., religious groups, occupational groups, activity centers). Reading will involve about a book a week. The class will be conducted as a seminar. There will be two short papers and one long final paper. [Cost:5] [WL:2] (Ortner)

Section 003 COGNITION IN CULTURE. This upper-level lecture/seminar has a double focus: On one hand, we will explore the anthropological claims that member of different cultures use incompatible logics, subscribe to distinct world views, and have different senses of otherness in light of recent work in cognitive science. On the other hand, we will examine how well cognitivist characterizations of thinking and reasoning hold up in a cross-cultural perspective. Increasingly anthropologists have come to accept that we cannot discuss cultures and their institutions without making some strong claims about human cognition. Understanding what it means to be or become a competent cultural performer requires understanding something about mental representations and the nature of human cognitive endowment. By the same token, many psychologists are beginning to appreciate that thinking and reasoning are not independent of what we think and reason about. Special emphasis will be placed on developing the analytic skills needed to compare and evaluate a diverse range of empirical work ranging from controlled experimentation to ethnography. Course requirements include a short answer midterm and final, a research paper, class presentation, and active classroom participation. (Hirschfeld)

Section 004. CROSSING BORDERS: LATINO MIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. For Fall Term, 1991, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 410. (Rouse)

Section 005 HUNTERS AND GATHERERS. The course will combine the ethnographic look at the world's surviving hunting and gathering societies (e.g., Bushmen, Eskimos, Pygmies, and Australian Aboriginies), people who still make their living largely or entirely without agriculture or domestic animals, with a general survey of what these living societies can tell us about the way of life of our prehistoric ancestors before the advent of farming and herding. The ethnographic presentation will cover the social, political, and economic organization of contemporary and historically documented hunter-gatherer societies from around the world, as well as current debates about the kinds of changes these societies have undergone in the past few centuries under the impact of European colonialism. The archaeological survey will explore the kinds of insight that these living societies provide us about hunters and gatherers in the distant past, and about the processes that eventually led to the development of the first farming communities and ultimately to the emergence of complex, socially and politically stratified societies, in which wealth and power became concentrated in the hands of a privileged few. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the field as toward students who are concentrators. There will be one 2-hour lecture (with discussion) each week. Requirements include three in-class exams and a final examination. A short research paper will be required of undergraduates concentrating in Anthropology and is optional for non-concentrators. Required Readings: several short ethnographies about living hunter-gatherers in the arctic, desert, and tropical forest environments; additional readings of contemporary and prehistoric hunter-gatherers will be provided in a course pack. (Speth)

Linguistics

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 417. (Dworkin)


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