Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

History 110 is a survey designed to introduce students to the development of western civilization from the fall of Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages to the scientific revolution and the rise of the modern state. It is "introductory" not only because it presents a narrative history over a period of fourteen centuries, but also because it introduces students to the subjects and techniques that comprise the study of history. From biography and political narrative to demography and the history of science, from art to economics, the focus of History 110 is on the people and forces that have created the world in which we live. The reading will concentrate on primary sources works written by those who made this history and these readings will be discussed in sections that meet twice weekly. Lectures are designed to provide some sense of order in this expanse of time as well as to introduce students to various kinds of history and ways of posing historical questions. Examinations will emphasize understanding, not rote-memorization. (MacCormack)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course is designed as a general introduction to modern European history since 1700 for those without previous college-level work in history. It is designed to meet the needs both of those looking for a general survey course to broaden their education and of those thinking of concentrating in history. While History 110 provides an excellent background for History 111, it is not a required prerequisite. Some of the themes emphasized in History 111 are: the breakdown of traditional monarchial, aristocratic, and church domination in the age of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; the intensification of nationalism and the reunification of Germany and Italy; the industrial revolution and the changing quality of European life (urbanization) and politics (the emergence of socialist and working-class parties); the middle-class domination of politics and its disintegration; the impact on popular thought of the new scientific advances of the nineteenth century; the expansion of the rival European powers overseas in the age of imperialism; the intensification of international rivalries and the First World War; the Russian Revolution and the emergence of the Communist challenge; the rise and fall of Fascism; the place of Europe in the post-imperialist world. The course is conducted in lectures and discussions, with readings in both textbooks and contemporary writings. One or two short papers are usually required. (Tonsor)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

This is an introduction to the civilizations of China, Vietnam, Korea, and Japan, from their origins to about 1800 A.D., within the context of East Asia as a whole. The major emphasis is on China as the oldest, the largest, and the original model for the rest of East Asia, but the course also traces the varying adaptations of that model in the other three major East Asian traditions, and the increasingly separate paths of the history of each. The approach is mainly historical, but attention is given also to art, literature, society, and religion. A single text is supplemented by a varied course pack which includes contemporary accounts and additional perspectives. There is a midterm, a final, and quizzes in the weekly sections, but no paper. There are no prerequisites, but the course may be used as essential background for understanding modern East Asia, which is covered in History 122 in winter term; either may be taken separately. Since this course, like 122, deals with the history of about half of the civilized world, and over some 4000 years, it can be only an introduction, but aims to acquaint students with the varied riches of the Great Tradition. (Murphey, and visiting lecturers)

143(445). Europe Discovers the World: Travel and Exploration from the Middle Ages to the Present. (3). (Excl).

"The bear went over the mountain, to see what he could see." You may have sung this as a child; we will use this course to ask why it has been European bears who, historically, have explored the world and how explorations have changed Europe - and us. Using contemporary accounts of explorers, which we discuss in class, we will see how other worlds came slowly into focus and after too long a time received respect. In one term we can discuss only some of the extraordinary literature of travel. Beginning with barefoot Franciscan attempts to convert mounted Mongols, we move to the technology of discovery, then sail to the New World, consider the impact of the Americans on European history, witness a world war in the Indian Ocean, and disentangle scientific exploration from piracy through an examination of Captain Cook's legacy at UM. As the days grow warmer, we will turn to polar exploration and consider ambition, heedlessness, and fraud. Then we will turn to the heights, beginning with the Himalayas, and rising into space. For a final comparison, you will read our "descriptions" of extraterrestrial and one of their sermons to us. You will write two short exercises and a take-home final examination. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lindner)

151/Asian Studies 111. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

This is an introduction to the civilization of the Indian sub-continent, from its origins about 3000 B.C. to the present, where it comprises over a fifth of the world's people and its oldest living civilized tradition, its largest political democracy, a major component of the Third World. The course progresses from origins and the Indus culture through the Aryans, Hinduism, caste, and classical India to the succession of empires from the Mauryas to the Mughals and the British, colonialism, independence, and partition. We then consider current problems and changes topically: regionalism and language, agriculture and rural development, population, urbanization, industrialization, and "modernization," and the rise of separate nation-states (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka). Lectures and varied readings (via a course pack) are designed to stimulate class discussion, and there will be some use of slides and films. Art, literature, and religion will also be discussed. There will be a midterm, and a final exam. There are no prerequisites and no previous knowledge is assumed. (Murphey)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

The usual, from Jamestown to Jackson, etc. survey, hopefully more alive than the title indicates. Readings and assignments are up to the teaching assistants. Roughly, expect two papers and a final. (Lockridge)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 has three basic objectives. First, we expect you to gain a better understanding of some of the social, cultural, political, economic, and demographic forces that have shaped the American experience since the Civil War. Lectures, discussion sections, and readings will focus on transformations in the labor force and workplace; the significance of race, ethnicity, gender and class in defining American identities; changes in family life and community networks; and the shifting scope of the public and private sectors. Second, the staff wants you to refine basic reading and writing skills that can be applied throughout your undergraduate education. There will be a midterm and final examination and several short papers. Finally, the course is designed to give you some historical direction as you think about where you are heading and why. Cost:3 WL:2 (Achenbaum)

197. Freshman Seminar. (4). (Excl).

This seminar will be concerned with the social history of the United States in the latter nineteenth and earlier twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be placed upon examining the living conditions, way of life and problems of working people and families during these years. Other social groups and other time periods will also be considered, however, in part for comparative purposes. The seminar will provide an opportunity to gain familiarity with methods of historical research and to work with unusual historical primary source materials bearing upon the conditions of working people as well as other groups. Secondary studies will also be employed. Instruction will be conducted primarily through class discussions and "laboratory" work. Student evaluations will be based primarily upon a combination of brief examinations and papers. No special background or preparation is required. (Clubb)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Greece to 201 B.C. (3). (HU).

A Collegiate Fellows course: see the front section of this Course Guide for a complete list of Collegiate Fellows courses.

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. There are two hour examinations (an optional paper may be written for extra credit) plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Humphreys)

211/MARC 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500. (3). (SS).

This course will study the institutional, economic, and intellectual development of Europe from the time of the Crusades, when contact with the East were reestablished, to the discovery of the New World, when European expansion moved west over the Atlantic. Some important themes will be the nature of kingship and representative institutions; patterns of urban, economic, and demographic growth; and movements in religious and intellectual life. Some specific topics to be covered include the demands of the secular world for greater religious experience; definitions of orthodoxy and the development of the Inquisition; scholastic thought and Western creativity; feudalism, chivalry, and the Hundred Years War; the Black Death and a fascination with the macabre. Modern interpretations of the period will be supplemented with readings from contemporary documents (chronicles, romances, poetry, sermons, etc.). In addition to a midterm and a final examination, students will write a paper. This is a lecture course, but some periods will be reserved for discussion. (Hughes)

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (3). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of early Chinese history, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, and lectures on literature and society in premodern China and Classical Opera (historical significance, intellectual and social themes and roles, and demonstrations). [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Chang)

274/CAAS 230. Survey of Afro-American History I. (3). (SS).

See CAAS 230.

283. Survey of the History of Science. (3). (HU).

Mention of the history of science usually brings to mind the names of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and the like. These are the persons who are thought to have been responsible for the rise of modern science. But there is more to the history of science than great names. Present society not only has had its ideas but also its social institutions, its culture, its economic foundation, and its values shaped by the growing wave of scientism that began in antiquity and has crested in the twentieth century. In this course we will survey the history of science, looking at all the factors involved in the shaping of modern society, and with the ultimate objective of understanding our origins. The course is introductory. No background is expected, although some familiarity with Western Civilization would be helpful. Cost:2 WL:1 (Steneck)

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (3). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. The course will study four different historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Native Americans, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries; and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. We will focus on American history, although comparisons will be drawn to other societies. The course is a basic introduction, however, first-year students must obtain permission of the professor to enroll. Classes are taught in lecture format, and will include a variety of audio-visual sources. Reading assignments will range from modern histories to poetry and old medical journals. There will be two essay-style examinations, and frequent short quizzes. This is a challenging and demanding course. Those who miss the first meeting without advance permission will be dropped from the course. [Cost:1-5 Required purchases cost $15, but additional required reading assignments, available on reserve or for optional purchase, cost up to $110 additional if bought] [WL:4] (Pernick)

286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (3). (HU).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all majors, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantine's conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic & Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the 11th century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Considerable attention is given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam and a final are required. (J. Fine)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

318. Imperialism and After: Europe 1890-1945. (4). (SS).

This course examines social, cultural and political responses to the disruptive forces of industrial development, war, revolution and depression experienced from 1890 to 1945 in both western and eastern European societies. At the heart of the course lie such questions as: Who holds the political power and on what basis have they acquired this power? How are the political systems structured to exclude various social groups (women, ethnic minorities, the working class) and in what ways do the excluded organize to press on these systems. To what extent are 19th century elites able to resist the pressure for change. These questions will shape our approach to the distinctive issues of twentieth century European politics, including: the impact of two world wars on state and society, imperialism and the rise of European nationalist movements, the political mobilization of economically and disadvantaged groups (industrialized workers, women, peasants, disgruntled strata of the middle classes), and the emergence of fascism from the crises of liberalism and capitalism. (Downs)

332/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/REES 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395 (Szporluk)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

History 366 will examine via talks, books, films and discussion sections America's wars of the past 90 years, with emphasis on those that have engaged this society since 1940. The stress will fall on individual perceptions of war's purposes and meanings as they are revealed in autobiography and fiction and on the patterns of personal experience in combat as they alter from war to war. In larger historical perspective, the following themes will receive attention: American society's patterns of response to situations of conflict; methods of mobilizing the nation for war; the experience of the homefront; American images of ally and enemy; and the role of technology in altering the nature of war. There will be little discussion of tactics or the technical processes of war-making. Students are asked to select one of the lecture sections, and to register as well for one of the discussion sections scheduled to meet an additional hour each week. There are no history-course prerequisites for History 366. Cost:4 WL:2 (Linderman)

381. History of the Jews from the Moslem Conquests to the Spanish Expulsion. (3). (Excl).

This course will survey major trends in medieval Jewish society under Islam and western Christendom respectively. Broadly, the course will fall into three parts: the Jews of the Muslim world in the Geonic period, the rise and decline of Spanish Jewry, and the rise and decline of the Jews of northern Europe. It will look at the impact on Jewish society of the Crusades, the Reconquista, the emergence of the mendicant orders, the Black Death, and the Spanish expulsion. It will examine the interaction of Jewish society with the majority culture at various junctures, as well as changing cultural trends within Jewish society. The distinctive religious climate of the medieval period will serve as a unifying theme throughout. Requirements for the course: midterm and final examinations, term paper. Cost:2 WL:1 (Bodian)

393. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

SECTION 001 BLACK WOMEN IN AMERICA. This course will introduce students to the experiences of Africanamerican women in the United States. We will examine Black women's experiences in the family, the work force, and the community and explore elements of Black women's culture. Class and regional diversity as well as historical changes and continuities will be consistently analyzed. In the process, we will compare Black women's own self-perception and behavior with the social norms and ideals about women and examine the racial/sexual politics of Black women's lives. Course organization and course assignments will be designed to encourage collective effort and collective responsibility. At least 50% of students' grades will be based upon participation in various forms, including class discussions, class presentations, and group assignments. Written work may consist of academic journals, short (3-4 page) papers, or longer essays. (E.Brown)

394. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

This is an independent 1-4 hour course open only to history concentrators by written permission of the instructor. It may be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Registration is restricted to History concentrators by override only; priority will be given to seniors. Override information available from 3607 Haven Hall Mondays through Fridays 1-4 p.m. ONLY NO EXCEPTIONS.

SECTION 001. "SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE U.S. CIVIL WAR." Although much has been written about the political and military aspects of the Civil War, scholars have almost completely ignored the social history of that conflict. This undergraduate research and writing seminar will try to advance our limited knowledge of this area by having the participants do original research on the social aspects of that struggle on the homefront and on the battlefield. After some introductory readings about the Civil War, each student will select a research topic. The course is designed to teach students how to do original research and to write a comprehensive research paper. The instructor and a graduate student assistant will work with the students on a series of short written assignments in preparation for their final paper. The final paper for the course will be approximately 30-50 pages long and will be based upon primary and secondary sources about the social history of the Civil War. (Vinovskis)

Section 002 THE ENTRY OF THE JEWS INTO EUROPEAN SOCIETY, 1750-1850. The theme of this colloquium is the integration of Jews into European society in the period 1750 to 1850. Students will read both primary and secondary accounts describing how Jews moved from the cultural and social isolation of the pre-modern quasi-autonomous Jewish community to participation in new spheres of activity in the larger society. Two themes in particular will receive emphasis: the transformation and/or abandonment of traditional practices, values, and beliefs in the face of new circumstances; and variations in the forces promoting and hindering Jewish integration from country to country. The course will use a discussion format. Students will be evaluated on the basis of their preparation for class, their participation in discussion, and, above all, on a series of assigned papers. Enrollment is limited to those students who have had at least TWO courses in modern European and/or modern Jewish history. (Endelman)

SECTION 003 THE 1950s IN AMERICA. This reading-and-discussion seminar will focus on major episodes in the cultural and intellectual history of the U.S. in the 1950's, broadly construed to run from about 1948 to 1963. Each week, students will read and discuss at least one book historians now regard as especially revealing or representative document of the period. Readings are likely to include J.D. Salinger, CATCHER IN THE RYE; Gould Cozzens, GUARD OF HONOR; H. Whyte, THE ORGANIZATION MAN; Friedan, THE FEMININE MYSTIQUE; J. Boorstin, THE GENIUS OF AMERICAN POLITICS; Ellison, INVISIBLE MAN; Heller, CATCH-22 Kerr, THE USES OF THE UNIVERSITY; Kesey, SOMETIMES A GREAT NOTION; .W. Rostow, THE STAGES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH; S. Kuhn, THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS; and selections from Whittaker Chambers, WITNESS. Students will write several short, critical essays. (Hollinger)

SECTION 004 FAMILY AND SEXUALITY IN CLASSICAL GREECE AND ROME. An examination of recent work on family, gender, and sexuality in classical Greek and Roman society. Classes will be discussions of assigned reading. Final grade will be based on participation in class discussions and a series of papers. Some familiarity with Greek and Roman history would be helpful; but everyone welcome. Cost:1-2 WL:4 (VanDam)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Registration is restricted to History concentrators by override only; priority will be given to seniors. Override information available from 3607 Haven Hall Mondays through Fridays 1-4 p.m. ONLY NO EXCEPTIONS.

SECTION 001 THE CONVERSOS. This course will deal with the history of the Conversos, i.e., the baptized Jews of Spain and Portugal and their descendants. It will follow converso society from its origins in Spain in 1391 to the essential completion of Conversos resettlement in the Mediterranean and western Europe towards the end of the seventeenth century. Among the topics to be discussed will be: the background of mass conversions, the practice of crypto-Judaism, the role of the Inquisition in converso life, popular attitudes to the Conversos, spiritual and intellectual currents in converso society, the formation of the converso diaspora and the attempt to return to normative Judaism. Requirements for the course: two one-to-two page papers and a term paper. (Bodian)

Section 003. MISSIONARIES IN CHINA: CONVERSION, CULTURAL CONFLICT AND POLITICS. We shall study the history of Christian missions in China from the end of the 16th century. The tale has been marked by contention, both within the missionary body and between the evangelists and important elements in Chinese society. We shall devote special attention to the last hundred years of the experience, when the Christian movement in China became intertwined with the intrusive presence of Western political and military power within China. The work for the course will include extensive readings, participation in the discussions, and the writing of papers. Cost:2 (Young)

Section 004 JAPAN IN WORLD WAR II. This course will examine the causes, course, and consequences of Japan's involvement in World War II, from the Manchurian incident in 1931 to the surrender aboard the MISSOURI in 1945. We will examine different aspects of the war through a text, Ronald H. Spector's EAGLE AGAINST THE SUN: THE AMERICAN WAR WITH JAPAN (Free Press, 1984), and readings in a course pack. Classes will be devoted to specific themes based on assigned readings and the presentation of oral reports on designated topics. Students will be evaluated on their contributions to discussions and their oral reports, but special weight will be given to two written reports (eight to ten typewritten pages). (Hackett)

Section 006 SAMURAI IN JAPANESE HISTORY. Who were the samurai? How were they transformed over nearly a millennium of their history? What variations were there within the samurai class and status? What was the relationship of the samurai to the people of other classes? What were the gender-specific roles of women and men in samurai society? How did the samurai fight and how did they play? What were their ethos and beliefs? This course will examine the changing reality and ideals of the samurai from their origins in ancient Japan to their disappearance in the face of Western encroachment in the nineteenth century. We will read tales, legends, and documents as well as a textbook and interpretive essays. In addition, we will view films and analyze them from a historian's perspective. The course is structured to provide one hour of lecture and two hours of discussion per week. Extra hours will be assigned for film viewing. Requirements include class participation, discussion, and presentation as well as three short papers. [Cost:3] (Tonomura)

SECTION 008. BROADSIDES AND MANIFESTOES: THE AMERICAN LEFT IN THE 20TH CENTURY. Radicals in the U.S. have managed to get their hands on the reins of political power much less frequently than their counterparts in other parts of the world. This circumstance has inspired many social theorists to inscribe a deep-seated hostility to socialism within American social conditions and/or political and cultural traditions. In this course, we will test the validity of such "exceptionalist" notions by examining the theory and practice of a wide variety of American radicals socialists, syndicalists, anarchists, communists - in this century. While we will survey the entire century, we will spend most of our time studying three generations of radicals - those of the Progressive era, the Depression decade, and the 1960's. Throughout, we will assume a tight relationship between what radicals thought and what they did, between philosophical commitments and political strategies. We will, among other things, try to figure out how American radicals (a) attempted to make theoretical sense of the shift from competitive to monopoly capitalism; (b) confronted the problems posed by world war and nationalism; (c) assimilated, or tried to assimilate, the Russian and Chinese experiences; and (d) reconciled revolutionary ambitions with an ingrained reverence for bourgeois democracy. We will pay particular attention to the effort to translate Marxism into an American idiom. (Lloyd)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them.

404. The Later Roman Empire. (3). (Excl).

A survey of the later Roman empire, from Constantine to Justinian. Topics to be discussed include the rise of Christianity, the fall of the western empire, the foundation of the barbarian kingdoms, and the emergence of a Byzantine empire. Classes will include lectures and discussions of the assigned reading. Final grade will be based on participation in class discussions and three tests. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. Cost:1-2 WL:4 (VanDam)

412/MARC 414. Social and Intellectual History of the Florentine Renaissance. (3). (Excl).

The course begins with a general view of Renaissance culture in Italy, then turns to a discussion of Florentine civilization in the age of Dante. Next it treats political and economic change in the 14th and 15th centuries. The texture of social life will be considered featuring demography, the family, work, and leisure. Florentine humanism, as well as Neoplatonism will be dealt with, and Tuscan literature from Petrarch and Boccaccio to Machiavelli and Benvenuto Cellini will be reviewed. Finally, the genesis of the fine arts from Giotto to Michelangelo will be presented. A midterm will be given and the student will select a research topic or do a final examination. The method of instruction will be lecture and discussion. (Becker)

416. Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (3). (Excl).

This is a lecture course which discusses and attempts to account for changes in the configuration of European thought from the advent of Romanticism (1750) to the "anti-positivist revolt" in the 1870s. The course considers the content of the determinative ideas in culture and society, and an attempt is made to provide an explanation for the process of ideological change. There is heavy emphasis on the transition from the enlightenment to romanticism and the emergence of realism and naturalism. Roland N. Stromberg's EUROPEAN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY SINCE 1789 (third ed.) will serve as the text. The student will be expected to read Ernst Cassirer's THE PHIOSOPHY OF HISTORY, J.S. Mill's ON LIBERTY, Marx-Engels' THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO and Harry Levin's THE GATES OF HORN. There will be regular class discussions of these texts and participation will constitute 1/4 of the grade. There will be a midterm examination and a final examination. There will be no term paper. (Tonsor)

423. Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (3). (Excl).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French revolution to the 1920's, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure of the role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write three essays on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided); there will be a take-home final examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew).

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (Excl).

A history of Russia from Peter the Great to 1917, with emphasis on society transformations and continuities in elite and popular cultures, autocratic and opposition politics, economic and social structures. Lectures and discussion section. Students will read and interpret political documents and fiction, in addition to secondary works. Requirements: participation in discussion sections, one short essay, midterm exam, final exam. Optional: a second longer paper. (Burbank)

438. Eastern Europe from 1500 to 1900. (3). (Excl).

This course is a general survey of early modern and modern history of Eastern Europe up to the outbreak of World War I (1914), but its special focus is the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1795) and the subsequent history of its peoples - the Poles, Lithuanians, Belorussians, Jews, and Ukrainians - in the Russian Empire, Austria, and Prussia/Germany, during the nineteenth century. The course will examine the formation of a modern national identity in the period of political, social and economic change inaugurated by the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Readings will include Norman Davies, GOD'S PLAYGROUND, Piotr S. Wandycz, THE LANDS OF PARTITIONED POLAND, 1795-1918, Andrei S. Markovits and Frank E. Sysyn, eds., NATIONBUILDING AND THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM: ESSAYS ON AUSTRIAN GALICIA. There will be a midterm and a final exam, as well as a paper. In justified cases, students may write, as an alternative to the final, a more substantial paper. (To be arranged with the instructor after the midterm.) (Szporluk)

442/GNE 442. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Team taught by Professors Luther (NES) and Lindner (History), this is the first course in a two-course introductory sequence (442 and 443) that covers Near Eastern history from the era of Muhammad to the present. Our purpose is to introduce you to (and give you some practice in) the methods of studying the Near East as well as to some of the content of Near Eastern history; we expect no previous background in the field. This course begins with the background and rise of Islam and ends in the heyday of the Ottoman Turkish and Safavid Persian empires, circa 1600. Although the basic organization of the course is chronological, we will discuss topics in such areas as politics and governance, religion (formal and "folk," including theology and mysticism), law, foreign relations and war, art and architecture, literature, economics, and social life. The classes will include lectures by (and probably discussions between) the instructors, and there will also be weekly class discussion of the assigned readings. In addition to the final examination, students will be expected to prepare two three-page exercises based on the readings, which will consist of modern scholarly works and translated medieval sources. [Cost:2] (Luther, Lindner, Bonner)

451. Japan Since 1800. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is Miikiso Hane, MODERN JAPAN: A HISTORICAL SURVEY, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1986). Other reading assignments will be organized in a course pack. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (Hackett)

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (3). (Excl).

This course describes the modern European conquest and transformation of Southeast Asia, and the indigenous responses to external influences. Geographic coverage will include the principal countries of the mainland (Burma, Thailand, Vietnam) and the island world (Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines). The course will conclude with an examination of post-World War Two developments, including the Vietnam Wars. In particular the course attempts to explain why individual Southeast Asian countries have developed military, Western parliamentary, or Communist regimes. Lectures and readings assume no prior knowledge of the region. There will be a midterm, a final, and an optional term paper. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Mrazek)

454. The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A.D. (3). (Excl).

India is among the world's oldest and most long lived civilizations. In this course we will examine its evolution, from the ancient civilizations of the Indus Valley (c. 2300-1700 B.C.) to the beginnings of the classical period. Topics will include the arrival of Indo-European languages, the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism, the formation of the Mauryan empire, relations of India with Greeks and Central Asian nomads, and the structure of family life and the caste system. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of the participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautman)

460. American Colonial History to 1776. (4). (SS).

A different course every term it is taught, in general "Colonial America" focuses on the people of the time, often encountered speaking in their own voices, and on their broad cultural characteristics and problems as the nation moved toward the Revolution. This instance, we will focus primarily on Puritans, in England and in New England, and on Puritanism's consequences for the American tradition. Few lectures; mostly discussion. An exam, two quizzes and a paper are the usual assignment. Standards are high, and it is not unusual to find that students are asked to re-write papers which are not clear (with a 1/3 grade penalty). So, lucid, precise, well-organized writing and skills in the use of evidence is, if not a prerequisite, something we hope to achieve. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Lockridge)

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (3). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups and women in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Review sessions will be scheduled. S. [Cost:3] [WL:3 and 4] (S. Fine)

516. History of Ireland to 1603. (3). (Excl).

This is a survey of political, social, and cultural history of Ireland from the earliest times to the destruction and close of the Gaelic order at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The course is conducted mainly by lecture in which, complementing the treatment accorded in textbooks, we will endeavor to realize the historical reality of a millennium of Irish Gaelic history, in itself and in relation to the rest of the medieval world. Two relatively brief papers and one extended one, two hour exams, and a final examination. There is no prerequisite for this course, only a willing and competent zeal for learning of a culture much more diverse from contemporary experience than you will readily imagine. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (McNamara)

523. France, 1661-1789. (3). (Excl).

A study of the French Old Regime and the causes of the first great revolution of the modern era. The course undertakes a selective examination through lectures of certain problems and themes - the feudal background, state-building and its social consequences, the corporatist society, the aristocratic resurgence or reaction, the Enlightenment, and the meaning and limits of reform. In these lectures several questions are posed: what did the revolution change? why did large-scale revolutions take place in France rather than elsewhere in Europe? why did revolution come when it did? in what senses was revolution inevitable? accidental? Comprehensive coverage and narrative treatment of the period are obtained through the readings. These will include: Tocqueville, OLD REGIME AND FRENCH REVOLUTION; Goubert, LOUIS XIV AND THE TWENTY MILLION FRENCHMEN; Cobban, A HISTORY OF MODERN FRANCE; Lefebvre, THE COMING OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION; various articles and parts of Descartes, Voltaire, Monesquieu, the Rousseau. There is an hour exam, a final exam, and one essay of 8 or 10 pages on a topic and problem to be arranged consistent with the student's particular interest. Cost:2 WL:3 (Bien)

530. History of the Balkans from the Sixth Century to 1800. (3). (Excl).

A general survey of the Balkans (including Medieval Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and the relations of these states with Byzantium and Hungary) from the arrival of the Slavs in the 6th and 7th century through the Turkish period. The reading list consists of monographs, articles, and a few translated sources. The reading list can be altered (with permission of the instructor) and to accommodate special interests. There will be an hour exam, a paper (topic to be chosen by student with permission of the instructor) of about 15 pages and a final exam. Students who prefer to write a major paper (ca. 25 pages) can skip the hour exam. (J.Fine)

542. Modern Iran and the Gulf States. (3). (Excl).

This course covers the early modern and modern evolution of the Persian Gulf region, giving especial attention to Iran, but also attempting to give insights into the development of neighboring Gulf states such as Iraq, Bahrain, and Kuwait. The early part of the course will look at the rise of Shi'ite Islam as a political factor in Iran and Iraq during the Safavid era, and will also examine the early impact of the European trading empires, such as the Portuguese, the Dutch and the British, on the Persian Gulf region. Important social groups such as pastoral nomads, urban guilds, and peasants will be analyzed. The course will then cover the nineteenth century, a time of increased Russian and British influence over Iran, and of British hegemony over the Persian Gulf. The second half of the course will cover the twentieth century, dealing with the heyday and decline of British and Russian imperialism in the region, the impact of petroleum, Pahlavi absolutism and Islamic revolution, the rise of the Baath party and Saddam Hussein in Iraq, the Gulf wars, and American involvement in the region. Lectures will be interspersed with discussions. A midterm, final and a short term paper are required. Cost:4 (Cole).

551. Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (3). (Excl).

In this course, we shall seek the origins and lineaments of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, so powerfully footed in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely in the preceding century and more for antecedents and predisposing social change. We shall examine the testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, trends in Confucian thought and the role of popular culture, nationalism and women's liberation, cultural iconoclasm and neotraditionalism, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Maoism and its debunking. Previous familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful but is not required. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write two short papers and take a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Young)

558. U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (3). (Excl).

This course examines American foreign policy from the Revolution to the outbreak of World War I. Special attention is given to the origin of American diplomatic principles, the diplomacy of the American Revolution, the coming of the War of 1812, the conquest of North America, the War with Spain and the imperialist surge of 1898, and, finally, the incomplete American adjustment to its position as a new world power. Hour exam, term paper, final. (Perkins)

563. Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the intellectual discourse of educated Americans since the Civil War. Its focus will be on ideas about human nature, politics, society, knowledge, gender, morality, the physical world, and American national destiny as these ideas surface in the writings of leading thinkers. Attention will be given to the scientific and literary cultures of the Victorian era, and to the legacies of these two, often conflicting cultures in the twentieth century. Attention will also be devoted to: (a) the shifting social foundations for American intellectual life, (b) the emergence of cultural modernism, (c) the political arguments of American intellectuals in relation to Stalinism, the Cold War, McCarthyism, and the crisis of the 1960's, and (d) the reconsideration of "positivistic" social science. Readings are likely to include works by William James, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dewey, Robert Penn Warren, Reinhold Niebuhr, Oliver Wendall Holmes, Jr., Josiah Royce, Margaret Mead, Sinclair Lewis, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lionel Trilling, Thomas S. Kuhn, Edmund Wilson, and Randolph Bourne; while some attention will be given to prominent Europeans whose work was widely discussed in the States (e.g., Charles Darwin, W.K. Clifford, James Joyce, and Leon Trotsky). Students will be asked to complete one midterm, one paper, and one final examination. (Hollinger)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

A study of the origins and development of and growth of business. The course traces the beginnings of business enterprises in Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the anti-trust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920's, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, postwar business developments and the current business trends. (Filgas)

582. History of Criminal Law in England and America. (3). (Excl).

This course traces the history of the criminal justice in England and America from the medieval period to modern times. It deals with political and social theories regarding the institutions and ideas of the criminal law and with the relationship between society and legal norms. Among the subjects included in the scheme of the course are: the history of the criminal trial jury, its relationship to other institutions of the criminal law and its role with respect to the interaction of social attitudes and the formal processes of the criminal law; the use of the criminal law for counteracting disintegration of basic social institutions; political trials; theories of punishment; the development in the United States of constitutionally protected rights of defendants in criminal cases. This course is intended for students interested in Anglo-American history, for those interested in government and law, for those interested in the history of the relationship between social institutions and theories of criminal sanctions and for those interested in the origins and development of the central ideas and institutions of American constitutional and legal history. Course requirements: twelve-pg., take-home, midterm essay based in part on documents, and a final examination. (Green)

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