Courses in Philosophy (Division 442)

The Philosophy Department offers a series of 150-level courses that serve as introductions to specific areas of philosophical thought. Each probes a group of philosophical issues related to certain other fields or areas of human concern, and each is designed to show how questions in these fields or areas can lead naturally to larger philosophical matters. Philosophy 151, "Personal Decisions," will be offered Fall Term, 1991. It will be taught by a faculty member and will be limited to 50 students.

Philosophy 181, 202, 231, 232, and 297 are general introductions designed to acquaint the student with a representative sample of philosophical problems concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self, morality, religion, and society. They deal with such questions as: If a person's actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is he capable of free actions for which he can be held morally responsible? What is a person just a very complex machine, a combination of a mind or soul and a body, or what? How can such common sense beliefs as that other human beings are conscious, or that there exists an external physical world, be justified? What are scientific theories, and what kinds of considerations bear on whether they should be accepted? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Are value judgments (e.g., moral or aesthetic judgments) "objective" or "subjective"? What are the basic differences between the major kinds of social, political and economic organizations, and what reasons are there for preferring any one of them to the others? How should one live one's life? What is the "meaning" of life, and what does this question mean?

The 200-level philosophy introduction and 181 vary in their instructional format. Philosophy 202 (three hours) approaches issues through a mixture of twentieth century writers (e.g., Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer) and seminal figures in Western intellectual history (Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant). It is taught by graduate student teaching assistants in sections of approximately 25 students. Philosophy 231 (three hours) and 232 (four hours) can be expected to cover similar issues and texts, but in a different format; a faculty member delivers two lectures each week, and students are divided into groups of approximately 25 for discussion sections which meet one (231) or two (232) hours per week. Philosophy 181 has yet a different format. It is smaller, limited to 50 students, and is taught in a combination lecture/discussion format three times a week. Finally, Philosophy 297, Honors Introduction, is taught by a member of the faculty to small groups of 25-30 students.

The Department offers three elementary introductory courses in logic: 180, 201 and 203. 180 and 201 both cover some informal logic, while 203 introduces students to symbolic logic. 180 is taught by faculty in a section of 40-50, while 201 and 203 are taught in sections of 20-25 by advanced graduate student teaching assistants.

Some 300-level courses do not have prerequisites and can serve as introductions to particular branches of philosophy. Two such courses will be offered Fall Term, 1990: Philosophy 365, "Problems of Religions," and Philosophy 375, "Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud."

180. Introductory Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This is a beginning, and rather slow-paced, course in formal logic. Following a brief introductory segment on logic in general, we will study the propositional (truth-functional) logic, and then the predicate logic for one-place predicates. If there is sufficient time, we may have some brief discussions of additional topics, such as the idea of a proof, modal logic, inductive logic, etc. The text will probably be Irving Copi, INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC. In the 7th edition of that book, the material to be covered is treated in chapters 1, 8, 9, 10 and appendices A and B. Grades will be based on one or more hourly exams and a final cumulative exam. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Mavrodes)

181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

The approach to philosophical topics in this course is partially historical. There will be some attention to the origins and evolution of central ideas in the Western philosophical tradition, and to the long term influence on Western culture. Students will read the writings of four Western philosophers and one Chinese philosopher in the history of philosophy rather than a textbook of articles by contemporary philosophers. Lectures will explain the doctrines of the thinkers, and, in so doing, illuminate certain enduring problems in philosophy and types of answers to them. A partial list of these answers includes materialism and idealism with respect to questions about what exists; rationalism, empiricism, and pragmatism with respect to questions concerning what we know and the nature of truth, and hedonism with regard to standards of good and evil. In addition to learning about these problems and types of answers, students will examine and evaluate arguments in the texts. They will gain practice in writing a paper that draws upon skills in argumentation. Evaluation of course work will be based primarily upon the paper and on three, one-hour examinations. There is no final examination. Lectures and discussion will be intermixed in the same class room setting, the discussions focusing on the texts as illustrations of topics covered in the lectures. No previous philosophy course is required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Munro)

201. Introduction to Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This course aims to give the student a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument. Students will be expected to master some technical detail, but the emphasis in this course is on non-technical, informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. Sections usually have about twenty-five students each. Each section meets three hours per week and is generally conducted with some informality and considerable student participation. Discussion and questions are encouraged, particular problems are analyzed, and students are required to demonstrate mastery of assigned material. Course requirements for grading vary from instructor to instructor. Normally there are weekly assignments frequently in written form and short, periodic quizzes.

202. Introduction to Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with philosophical thinking on the great questions that have moved mankind throughout history, and to discuss possible solutions to them. The course is taught in independent sections of approximately twenty-five students. Each section is taught by a teaching assistant who selects the topics and readings. Some sections examine the systems of such major historical figures as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Hegel, and Nietzsche, while others employ primarily the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and others. The subject matter generally includes ethics, free will and responsibility, philosophy of mind, epistemology and skepticism, and perhaps arguments for the existence of God. The text is either a book of readings or a set of larger selections from separate editions of well known philosophical works. During the term each student is usually required to submit a total of at least fifteen pages of critical discussion through a series of short papers varying in length from three to five pages. Several short quizzes may also be given as well as a final examination.

203. Introduction to Symbolic Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 203 or 296. (3). (N.Excl).

Common sense classifies arguments as good or bad according to a variety of formal and informal criteria. Roughly speaking, we count an argument good if it makes plausible assumptions which exhibit its conclusion as likely to be true. Though the common sense classification is familiar and useful, sometimes we want something more precise and more amenable to systematic investigation. Thus we idealize from the intuitive notion of a "good" argument and call an argument VALID if it is impossible for its assumptions to be true without its conclusion being true as well. Logic can now be defined as the study of validity. As it turns out, this study is best pursued by constructing artificial languages designed to replicate in purer form the logically relevant features of natural languages like English. Symbolic logic, the subject of this course, is the study of validity by preference to these formal languages. Students meet in sections of about 25 students each. Each section meets three hours per week and has a lecture/discussion format, with considerable student participation. Course requirements and grading vary from instructor to instructor, but normally there are weekly homework assignments and periodic quizzes.

230(335)/Buddhist Studies 230/Asian Studies 230/Rel. 230. Introduction to Buddhism. Buddhist Studies 220 or the equivalent. May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy. (4). (HU).

See Buddhist Studies 230.

231. Introduction to Philosophy: Problems and Principles. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

This course is open to students from all areas of the University. No previous work in philosophy is required or assumed. First term undergraduates are welcome. The course has two principal goals. The first is o provide an introduction to a number of fundamental philosophical problems drawn from a variety of branches of philosophy. The following issues will be discussed (1) determinism and free will; (2) arguments for and against the existence of God; and (3) the nature of moral obligation. Some attention will be paid to interconnections between these issues. The second goal is to develop the philosophical skills, and more generally the critical and argumentative skills, of those enrolled. Philosophy 231 and 232 share a common lecture for two meetings per week. Philosophy 231 carries three hours of credit, has one discussion meeting per week and requires two short papers. Philosophy 232 carries four hours of credit, has two discussion meetings per week, and requires three short papers. Students who feel they would benefit from the additional hour of discussion or from the additional required writing are advised to consider enrolling in 232 rather than 231. The course has a single text, an anthology: Joel Feinberg, editor, REASON AND RESPONSIBILITY (Dickenson Publishing Co.) [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Loeb)

232. Problems of Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 231. (Loeb)

296. Honors Introduction to Logic. Honors students or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 203 or 296. (3). (N.Excl).

Logic is valuable, first, as a tool for theoretical clarification. That makes it indispensable for many of the purposes of philosophy, particularly for the purpose of analyzing the structures of sciences, mathematics, and other systems of thought. Logic is valuable in the second place because it provides methods for the evaluation of reasoning, regardless of the subject matter with which the reasoning is concerned. This course is designed to introduce the student to the concepts and methods of modern deductive logic. It will deal with such key logical ideas as validity and invalidity of arguments, entailment between propositions, and logical truth. It will examine such properties of logical systems as consistency and completeness, and ask which branches of logic can be formulated as complete, consistent systems. Examples of the use of formal logic as a tool of clarification will be discussed. Students, it is hoped, will acquire considerable skill in applying various logical techniques for evaluating reasoning and for analyzing the logical status of propositions. There will be two or three exams, and satisfactory completion of homework will be required. (Taschek)

297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy. Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).

SECTION 001. This course will examine some of the major philosophical problems: the existence of God, the nature and limits of human knowledge, the idea of freedom, the basis for ethical judgments, and the grounds of legitimate political authority. The readings will consist of a series of primary sources. Works by such philosophers as Plato, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Mill, Marx, and Camus will be included. Class sessions will follow a lecture and discussion format and students will be evaluated on the basis of a combination of papers and exams. No prerequisites. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Lipschutz)

SECTION 002. An initiation into some of the characteristic aims, attitudes, and methods of philosophy. After some warming-up exercises on the nature of philosophical problems and arguments, we'll look at three major traditional texts (by Plato, Descartes, and Hume) and two major contemporary topics (freedom of the will and the nature of subjectivity). Then we'll conduct brief explorations of a wider range of current philosophical issues and current philosophical styles. Among other things, we shall be wondering how philosophy differs from other forms of inquiry, where its peculiar fascination and its peculiar inconclusiveness come from, and what would be lost if we stopped doing it.

319(369). Philosophy of the Arts. Philosophy 202 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Philosophy 419. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the arts from a philosophical perspective. It will investigate what art is, the nature of creation, criticism, interpretation, evaluation, and appreciation, and the ways in which the various arts are important, concentrating on several specific art forms such as the novel, photography and film, representational painting, and music. It will treat questions such as: What, if anything, is distinctive about art and aesthetic experience, and how are they related to other aspects of life and culture?, In what ways are works of art expressive of feelings?, Do they have cognitive content?, In what ways do we learn from them, and how do they work to change people's perspectives or attitudes?, What is fiction and why are people interested in it?, Why and in what ways is photography more (or less) powerful than painting and drawing?, What is it for a painting or a novel to be realistic?, What is meant by indeterminate art, conceptual art, found art, and performance art?, How are these forms of art interesting, and how do they compare with more traditional ones (e.g., do they deserve to be called "art"?). Written work for the course will consist of a short paper, three quizzes, and a longer paper. This course is designed especially for students who have not had extensive work in philosophy, although background in philosophy and the arts would be helpful. Cost:3 WL:1 (Walton)

356. Issues in Bioethics. No prerequisites; one Philosophy Introduction is recommended. (4). (HU).

This course introduces major themes and theories of ethics by examining moral dilemmas that arise in the practice of medicine. The emphasis is on theoretical questions such as: 'What determines whether something is good for a person?', 'Can dying ever be good for someone?', 'What about being born?', 'Are we ever entitled to lie to a person for his own good?'. These theoretical questions are considered in the context of various medical cases that involve issues ranging from the treatment of pain to euthanasia and abortion. The course does NOT attempt to provide information about specific medical practices, new technologies, or court cases. Two five-page papers and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Velleman)

361. Ethics. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

This is a course in PHILOSOPHICAL ethics. We will be concerned to see whether there is anything one can say in a principled way about what is valuable, worth wanting for its own sake, and what is morally obligatory, what it would be wrong not to do. But we shall also be concerned with philosophical questions ABOUT ethics - metaethical questions, as they are called. Here we will ask, not only what is valuable, but what is VALUE? And what is it for an action to be wrong? What are rightness and wrongness themselves? And we shall examine the relation between these fundamental philosophical questions of metaethics and substantive ethical questions. Texts and requirements to be determined.

365/Rel. 365. Problems of Religion. (3). (HU).

This is an introductory course in the philosophy of religion. It is not a course in comparative religion, nor a survey of various religions, etc. The emphasis is on philosophical problems and philosophical treatments of topics which are generated by religious belief particularly in connection with Christianity and religions that are somewhat similar to Christianity (i.e., theistic religions). The main topics to be considered are: the rationality of religious belief, attempts to prove (or to argue for) the existence of God, criticisms of such arguments, the significance of religious experience, revelation, and the problem of evil. One or two other topics may be added if there is time. Usually I will lecture for two of the three weekly class sessions, trying to reserve the third one for questions, objections, and general discussion. There will be weekly assigned readings from classical and contemporary writers on the philosophy of religion. Probably I will use an anthology of such selections, but the text has not yet been selected. There will be a final exam, and either one or two hourly exams during the course of the term. My present plan is to make all of these open-book, multiple choice exams, covering both the readings and the lectures. Sample exams from previous courses will be available for students to examine. Grades will be determined largely by the scores of these exams. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mavrodes)

366. Introduction to Political Philosophy. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

Political philosophy is concerned not merely with the question of what sort of government (if any) we should have, but also with the most general questions about how people can and should live in society. We will undertake a systematic examination of the moral, philosophical, and empirical foundations of three of the dominant political philosophies of our times: social contract theory, utilitarianism, and socialism. Our goal will be to understand the conceptions of human nature, of value, of freedom, and of society and the individual's relation to it that underlie these political philosophies. Readings will include significant figures in the history of political philosophy (such as Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Mill, Marx, and Rawls) Lectures and discussion sections. A midterm and a final examination. A term paper. (Railton)

371. Existentialism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

No other philosophic movement has raised issues and questions as evocative and mortal as has been done by Existentialism. Solitude, Anguish, Authenticity, The Death of God, Self-deception, Nausea, The Will to Power, The Absurd, Fascism, Nihilism, and in spite of that the new birth of a new Humanity and Culture! We will try to understand what authors like Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Kafka, Hesse, Rilke, Gide, Malraux, Heidegger, Sartre, Camus and Handke wrote and thought about these matters. The course will require hard work and hard thinking. If you feel very frail you probably should not take it. Two papers and a final examination. (Bergmann)

383. Knowledge and Reality. One course in philosophy. (3). (Excl).

This is a course in metaphysics (theory of reality) and epistemology (theory of knowledge). Among the metaphysical problems which we might investigate are: existence, necessity and possibility, identity, causation, mind/body relations, and freedom of the will. Possible topics from epistemology are: the analysis of knowledge, the nature of justification, perceptual knowledge, knowledge of the past and future, knowledge of other minds, and self-knowledge. Readings will be from various contemporary metaphysicians and epistemologists. Course requirements will depend on the instructor, who is yet to be determined.

388/Class. Civil. 388. History of Philosophy: Ancient. One Philosophy Introduction. A knowledge of Greek or Latin is not required. (4). (HU).

This course is a survey of ancient Greek philosophical thought from its pre-Socratic origins through Hellenistic times. The figures covered in detail are certain Presocratic thinkers, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, the Stoics and the Skeptics. Stress is laid not only on the doctrines of these philosophers, but also on their arguments for holding them. The first half of the course will be devoted to issues concerning ethics, happiness, the virtues and the possibility of moral weaknesses; the second half of the course will focus on questions about the nature of scientific knowledge and explanation. Required texts: Kirk, G.S. et al., THE PRESOCRATIC PHILOSOPHERS: A CRITICAL HISTORY WITH A SELECTION OF TEXTS, 2nd ed, Cambridge University Press. Hamilton and H. Cairns, eds., THE COLLECTED DIALOGUES OF PLATO, INCLUDING THE LETTERS, Princeton University Press. McKeon, ed., THE BASIC WORKS OF ARISTOTLE, Random House. Inwood and L.P. Gerson, trans., HELLENISTIC PHILOSOPHY: INTRODUCTORY READINGS, Hackett Publishing Company. Course requirements: two short papers, midterm exam, and final exam. Cost:4 WL:1 (Code)

401. Undergraduate Honors Seminar. Open to Honors concentrators in Philosophy and others by permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course will explore some central problems in moral theory, possibly including the following questions: What is distinctive about moral claims, and about morality as a system for regulating human behavior? Are we better off living morally? Can morality be expressed in a theory? Can rival moral systems be objectively compared and evaluated? Readings will be drawn from classical sources such as Kant and Nietzsche, and contemporary sources such as Williams, Hare, and Taylor. The seminar format means that students will share responsibility with the instructor for introducing topics and will present short papers to the class as the basis for discussion (and grading). Course content is open-ended; students who plan to enroll are encouraged to propose readings and topics to me which they find of special interest before or at the beginning of the Fall term. Enrollment is not limited to Honors students, but students who plan to write theses may use this course as an opportunity to explore issues connected with their theses. (Anderson)

409. Philosophy of Language. One Philosophy Introduction or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

An introduction to the new ideas about logic, grammar, and meaning which have changed the face of philosophy in this century, and some major attempts to organize philosophy as a whole around the philosophy of language. The bulk of our time will be spent on the work of three seminal thinkers: Frege, Wittgenstein, and Quine. But we will also study the broader tradition to which these thinkers belong, including recent attempts to construct general theories of meaning and truth. An attempt will be made at the end of the course to compare "analytic" and "continental" approaches to the phenomenon of language. (Taschek)

414. Mathematical Logic. (3). (Excl).

A study of the syntax, semantics, applications, and limitations of elementary logic. Among the topics included are: (A) truth-functions and sentential logic; symbolization of truth-functional arguments; completeness of sentential logic. (B) Syntax and semantics of quantification theory; symbolization of quantification arguments; completeness of quantification theory; limitations of quantification theory. (C) Elements of set theory and the foundations of mathematics; undecidability and Church's theorem. The text is FORMAL LOGIC by R.Jeffrey. [Cost:1] [WL:1] (Sklar)

419. Philosophy of the Arts. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 319. Will not satisfy 400-level course requirement for concentration in philosophy. Not open to philosophy graduate students. (3). (Excl).

See Philosophy 319. (Walton)

423. Problems of Space and Time. One Logic Introduction and either one other philosophy course or 12 credits of science; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Traditional philosophical questions about the nature of time and space have been strikingly influenced in the twentieth century by the results of contemporary physical science. At the same time, the important current physical theories of space and time rest explicitly or implicitly on deep-rooted philosophical assumptions. The purpose of this course is to study the mutual interaction between science and philosophy as illustrated in problems about space and time. Typical topics to be considered include the status of knowledge about the structure of space and time, substantial versus relational theories of space-time, spatio-temporal order and causal order, and the so-called problem of the direction of time. This course can best be appreciated by students who have either a background in philosophy especially logic and philosophy of science, metaphysics, epistemology or background in physical science or mathematics. An attempt is made in the course to introduce the fundamental ideas of both philosophy and science at a level which can be understood by those without extensive background so students need not be proficient in both science and philosophy to benefit from the course. The primary text is L. Sklar, SPACE, TIME AND SPACETIME. There are additional readings from such authors as Reichenbach, Poincare, Grunbaum, Smart, Wheeler, and others. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Sklar)

429. Ethical Analysis. Phil. 361, 363, 364, or 366. (3). (Excl).

This will be a course in contemporary metaethics. Metaethics is concerned with what ethical claims mean, and with the kinds of reasoning or evidence that justify ethical claims. Can moral statements be true or false? Or are they perhaps nothing more than the expressions of feelings? Can there be good and bad reasons for moral convictions? Might what is right vary from culture to culture? The course will attempt to deal with such questions in a systematic way. It will take up the ethical intuitionism of Moore and Ross, the emotivism of Ayer and Stevenson, Hare's universal prescriptivism, and recent proposals such as Rawls' reflective equilibrium theory, Brandt's linguistic reform, and new versions of "moral realism." Students should already have some background in moral philosophy in the twentieth century analytic tradition, preferably Philosophy 361 or the equivalent. Classes will consist of lectures with discussion. Three short (five page) papers will be required, and there will be a midterm and a final examination.

442. Topics in Political Philosophy. Phil. 363, 364, 366, or 441; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course will explore controversies surrounding three prominent ideals in modern political philosophy: equality, freedom, and community. What forms of social and political organization best embody these ideals? Is equality a matter of distributing external goods equally among persons, or does it more centrally concern eliminating relations of domination among persons? Can freedom be realized through role differentiation? Are community rights inimical to freedom, or necessary for its full realization? These and other questions will be considered by confronting liberal theories with feminist, socialist, and communitarian theories. Likely authors include Mill, Rawls, Sandel, Herzog, Walzer, Habermas, MacKinnon, Okin, and Hooks. Classes will combine lecture and discussion. There will be two papers and a final examination. (Anderson)

458. Philosophy of Kant. Phil. 389, 461, or 462, or permission of instructor, or concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

The course focuses exclusively on Kant's CRITIQUE OF PURE REASON. The entire text will be analyzed, with a view to understanding Kant's epistemological doctrines of the Aesthetic and Analytic, as well as the metaphysical critique of the Dialectic as a foundation for Kant's later moral philosophy. (Piper) chiefly from the contemporary sources (Russell, Moore, Quine, Carnap, Chisholm, Davidson, Kripke, Plantinga, et al.),although some historical material will also be included.

461. Continental Rationalism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

This course will investigate the philosophical systems of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, based upon a careful reading of selections from their major philosophical works. We will focus on the epistemology and metaphysics in these systems. The principal goal will be to understand the philosophical systems of each of the figures in its own right. To this end, there will be assigned reading in a number of secondary sources, selected to reflect major interpretive controversies. There will be some attention to the question of whether and in what sense "Rationalism" constituted a philosophical movement or genre. Time-permitting, some attention will be devoted to the "minor" Rationalist, Malebranche. The formal prerequisite for this course, one introductory course in philosophy, does not in fact constitute adequate preparation. A one term course in the history of modern philosophy (Descartes through Kant), or the equivalent, would provide a much more suitable background. Undergraduate concentrators are strongly discouraged from taking this course IN LIEU of Philosophy 389. Ideally, undergraduates who enroll will have taken at least one 300-or 400-level course in epistemology or metaphysics (e.g., Philosophy 383).

465. Contemporary Continental Philosophy. Phil. 412 and two other courses in philosophy; or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

The main writers we will study in this course are Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, Camus, the authors of the Frankfurt School (esp. Adorno and Habermas) as well as Foucault and Barthes. The emphasis will not be on sampling small bits of the output of these thinkers, but on forming as far as this is possible a coherent picture of how the works of these writers fit together, and of the intellectual enterprise in which they engaged. This means that some of the background in Hegel and Marx and Freud will be explored, and it also means that contemporary Feminist and Marxist writers will figure in this course. As preparation it is very useful to have had one more elementary course in European philosophy and in addition one general Introductory course to philosophy. If you do not have these prerequisites you must obtain permission of the instructor to register for this course. There will be one short and one longer paper as well as the usual examination. (Bergmann)

468/Chinese 468. Classical Chinese Thought (To A.D. 220) Upperclass standing; no knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

See Chinese 468.

482. Philosophy of Mind. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

Philosophy 482 will look at central problems in the theory of mental content. Sample questions include: Are content properties naturalistic properties? Are they, for example, reducible to casual/teleological properties? Do they supervene on purely internal properties? If not, must we, and can we, introduce a notion of content that does? What role, if any, do content properties play in the causation of behavior? Can content properties be eliminated from our most refined accounts of the etiology of behavior and cognitive activity.

498. Senior Honors in Philosophy. By departmental permission only. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

This course number is to be used for those students who are in the process of writing a philosophy Honors theses. Anyone wishing to write an Honors thesis in philosophy should consult the Philosophy Honors Advisor.

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