Courses in Biological Anthropology (DIVISION 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

The course explores the biological basis for variation in human morphology, physiology, and behavior across different modern populations around the world, and through human evolutionary history. Major topics discussed are evolutionary theory, genetics, human adaptation, primate and human behavior, and the human fossil record. No special knowledge is required or assumed. Cost:2 WL:2

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures, discussion section, laboratory and reading, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual sexual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early ecology shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology and the changes in physical form that are the consequence of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. The origin of races and their development and relationships are discussed in this context. Class participation and discussion are emphasized and there is a required discussion/laboratory section for elaboration of lecture topics and supervised hands-on experience with primate skeletal material and replicas of human fossils. Student evaluations are based on a midterm and final examination. [Cost:2] [WL:4]

368/Psych. 437. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order The major focus of the course will be the behavior or prosimians, monkeys and apes in the wild. Special attention will be given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, kinship systems, sexual behavior, vocal communication, competition, and other topics will be described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, and serves as an introduction to Anthropology 369 (Primate Social Relationships). Three lecture hours, and one discussion weekly. Two midterms and a final exam. (Mitani)

398. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors adviser for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program. (Livingstone)

462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The first part of this course will outline the forces or factors determining the growth rates of human population and especially the role of infectious disease. The second part will emphasize the genetic adaptations due to malaria and then explore the implications of these associations for other genetic variation. The course grade is based on a midterm and final examination. [Cost:1] [WL:2/3/4] (Livingstone)

468/Psych. 439/Women's Studies 468. Behavioral Biology of Women. One of the following: Anthro. 161, 361, 368, Psych. 430, Biol. 494 (4). (Excl).

See Psychology 439. (Smuts)

563. Mechanisms of Human Adaptation. Senior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The course is addressed at evaluating the physiological response and adaptations that enable humans to survive environmental extremes such as those found under stressful conditions of heat, cold, solar radiation, high altitude, undernutrition, overnutrition, and Westernization of dietary habits. Because this course is addressed to students of the several disciplines and to facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of human adaptation to the environmental stress, the discussion of the major topics is preceded by sections outlining initial responses observed in laboratory animals. Emphasis is given to the short adaptive mechanisms that enable an organism to acclimate itself to a given environmental stress. Subsequently, the long-term adaptive mechanisms that enable humans to acclimatize themselves to natural, stressful environmental conditions are discussed. Throughout the course, emphasis is given to the effects of environmental stresses and the adaptive responses that an organism makes during its growth and development and their implications for understanding the origins of population differences in biological traits. The method of instruction is lecture and some discussion. Requirements: Senior standing or permission of instructor. (Frisancho)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Kottak)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist primarily of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. [Cost:3] [WL:4] (Lockwood)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of anthropological archaeology as a social science with a general survey of world prehistory. The presentation of method and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in anthropological archaeology as a social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on four major problems in the development of human culture: (1) the emergence of Africa, between two and six million years ago, of the first proto-humans; (2) the appearance approximately 40,000 years ago of the first anatomically and behaviorally "modern" humans; (3) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the development of the first village farming communities; and (4) the rise of more complex, stratified societies from these simpler farming societies. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators. There will be three lectures (one hour each) plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include three in-class hourly exams and a final examination, plus two take-home exercises that give students firsthand experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. Required Readings: ARCHAEOLOGY (2nd edition, 1989), by David Hurst Thomas, plus a course pack with articles supplementing the text. Cost:3 WL:2 (Speth)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

315. Indians of North America. (4). (SS).

Native American communities, often deeply rooted in traditional places and voices despite relocations and losses of native languages all involve strong family ties and histories of local and regional power struggles. This course allows students to explore in some depth particular Native American cultural traditions emphasizing both the "old ways" and how such ways are interpreted by community members and outsiders. Secondly, we will look at cross cultural dynamics in the fields of political encounter between various Native American peoples and various others: developers, environmentalists, educators, other governmental authorities, poets, and social scientists, to name a few. Key issues include family relations, alcoholism, land rights, and freedom of religion. A recurrent question: what are the limits and possibilities of self-definition for Native American peoples, in what circumstances? Finally, we look at contemporary Native American fiction and non-fiction as cultural forces which challenge Western constructions of who Native American peoples are. Here we use traditional anthropological methods and "postmodern" deconstruction in a questioning manner. How can we understand images and image-makers from different cultural, historical and political positions? Grades will be based on four short papers. (Bierwert)

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (Excl).

This course deals with late traditional and contemporary China, with an emphasis on the peasantry. The focus is on continuities and changes over the past 200 years. The first part of the course deals with regional and cultural variations, including the cultures of some of China's minority peoples, and with the socio-economic organizations of traditional China. The next segment deals with popular interpretations and expressions of China's major religions, folk art and literature, and forms of rebellion. In the last segment we discuss the reorganization of Chinese society since 1949, dealing with contemporary family and community organization, social stratification, the successes and failures of different forms of "collectivization," and some of the current social problems in the Peoples Republic of China. This is a lecture course with in-class discussion, open to students with junior standing or above. The readings are drawn mainly from the ethnological/cultural anthropology literature, supplemented with materials from the fields of literature, sociology, history and economics. They are drawn from Western and Chinese scholarship with translations of Chinese primary sources provided in a course pack. There is a midterm (essay) and a final exam (essay). Undergraduates have the choice of writing two short critical papers or a longer research paper on a topic of their choosing. Graduate students are expected to write a research paper or a review of a significant segment of the scholarly literature on Chinese society and culture. [Cost:3] [WL:2] (Diamond)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, with the emphasis on Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is first looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant and urban. The conceptual and historical relations between these are examined with reference to the writings of Ibn Khaldun and to such events as the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. In the second half of the course some cultural themes are discussed that recur throughout the area: the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from classics such as Doughty and Snouck-Hurgonje, as well as from recent anthropology.

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films and videos on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: FOUR 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize READING and LECTURE materials; participation in CLASS discussions; regular class attendance. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Owusu)


330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an upper-division introduction to anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. It is recommended for concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels; graduate credit can be arranged. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construct "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics. There are no prerequisites. Lectures will focus on: 1) the analysis of ethnographic text; 2) the critical reading of ethnographic reports; 3) the criteria for constructing ethnographic reports. Several sessions will also be devoted to the techniques of writing short essays, and special guidance will be given to those who wish to improve these techniques. Readings will (mostly) be about other cultures. Ample opportunity will be devoted to discussion of the lecture material and the readings. Grades will be based on six short papers (six pages each). [WL:1] (Carroll)

447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of HOMO SAPIENS. It reviews the theories of Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss and others who have attempted to comprehend that origin and development. The course will trace the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? Is racism, like modernity and its other social problems, a characteristic of civilization? These are some of the questions with which students will wrestle. The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:2 WL:4 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

329. The Anthropology of Childhood: Growing Up in Culture. One course in anthropology or psychology. (3). (Excl).

Children don't speak, think, and behave like adults. Anthropology is largely the enterprise of documenting and interpreting what differences in speech, thought, and behavior mean. This lecture and discussion course will combine and explore these two pieces of conventional wisdom. To what extent do children in different cultures and different historical epochs resemble each other? How do children acquire knowledge of the cultures they live in? Is learning the same in all cultures? Do children learn about different things in the same way? To what extent do the attitudes parents hold about learning and teaching affect the way knowledge acquisition actually occurs. Much anthropological research, beginning with Mead's work in Samoa and New Guinea and continuing up to contemporary anthropological research in both complex and small-scale societies, permits us to formulate answers to these and similar questions. It also helps us assess prominent perspectives, particularly in psychology, on child development. Course requirements include two short-answer exams, a weekly journal of notes and queries and active classroom participation. (Hirschfeld)

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, function and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why is law obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs; women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal, or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers, or 3 6-8 page student papers. Lecture/discussion format. [Cost:1] [WL:3] (Owusu)

336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of warfare (armed conflict) in pre-modern tribal societies drawing on materials from Melanesia, Africa and South America. The social, economic and political factors that elucidate the causes and conduct of tribal warfare are investigated through a comparison of case studies. The general applicability of theories that emphasize resource competition, balance of power, structural predispositions and adequacy of dispute settlement are assessed. Consideration of the conduct of warfare include: diplomacy, alliance, organization, mobilization, strategy, tactics, codes of conduct, casualty rates, territorial consequences, and the motives of participants. Course format consists of lecture and discussion. Course requirements include a class report and a take-home exam (final). This course is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of particular interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kelly)

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001: Anthropology and Colonialism.
This course offers an overview of anthropological approaches to the colonial encounter, focusing on the cultural representation and political economy of European rule in Asia, Africa and South America. It will focus on the historical processes by which the categories of COLONIZER and COLONIZED have been created and contested by looking at the gender politics, racial thinking and class visions which those categories implied. We will explore the changing interface between anthropological knowledge and colonial power by tracing the participation of anthropologists in the colonial enterprise and their post-colonial treatments of that history. Attention will be given to how colonial relations of control and resistance have shaped the contemporary landscape of the THIRD WORLD today. Grades will be based on class participation and preparation, weekly commentaries and a set of critical essays or research paper. Cost:2 WL:2 (Stoler)

Section 002: Femininity and Masculinity in Japan. This course is an exploration of the relationship between sex, gender, and sexuality in Japanese culture and society, past and present. Following a brief introduction to both Japan and several key concepts, we will examine critically the values, norms, myths invented, evoked, and perpetuated to valorize and/or censure certain sex and gender roles and modes of sexuality in Japan. By the same token, we will also consider how sex, gender, and sexuality can be interpreted, performed, and manipulated to both enforce and subvert the status quo sometimes at the same time. Our exploration is organized along more or less chronological and historical lines and covers topics ranging from kinship and marriage systems, mythology and militarization, to the mass media and social satire. Apart from completing the readings for each class meeting, students are responsible for class discussions, three short (3-4 pages) writing assignments, and a final examination. (Robertson)

Section 003: The Poetics of Politics: Beyond 1492. For Fall Term, 1992, this course is jointly offered with History 393-001. (Coronil)

427(353)/CAAS 427/Women's Studies 427. African Women. One course in African Studies, anthropology, or women's studies; or permission of instructor. (3). (SS).

See Afroamerican and African Studies 427.

428. Ethnopersonality: Native Concepts of Self and Person. One course in cultural anthropology or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

What questions do people in other cultures ask about psychological matters and what theories of the mind and emotion do they draw on in formulating their answers? How do peoples of other cultures assess persons, situations, and states of mind? Do concepts as basic to OUR theory of the mind as person and self vary cross-culturally? These are some of the major questions addressed in this upper-level lecture/seminar. Ethnopersonality involves the cultural analysis of native categories of self, mind, person and identity, categories central to the way human social behavior is motivated and rendered meaningful. Increasingly, this topics has attracted the attention of scholars in both anthropology and psychology. We will look into this work as well as the anthropology of Mauss, Nadel, Hallowell and Geertz which inspired it. This is followed by an examination of several indigenous models of self and person in their expression in life cycle rituals, kinship systems, systems of power and rank, deviance, mental illness and healing, and other cultural domains. Prerequisite: one course in anthropology or psychology. Course requirements: Active participation in class room discussions, two essay-type exams, and an independent research paper. (Hirschfeld)

451/CAAS 459. African-American Religion. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the nature of religion in the lives of humans, within the framework of culture, and as a pervasive social institution. It will focus on the special case of the intensive and involved character of religion in the history and the lives of Afro-Americans. These special uses of religion create special problems. We will analyze those problems. The course is open to all students and it requires no special background or preparation. There will be two examinations and two short written assignments. Class participation and attendance are required. The required texts are: Afro-American Religious History, M.Sernett; Community in a Black Pentecostal Church: An Anthropological Study, M.D. Williams; The Human Dilemma, M.D. Williams. The course objectives are to: (1) Introduce the subject of religion as a social institution, as a pervasive component of culture, and as a contemporary adjustment and adaptation to peculiar social problems, (2) Demonstrate how an anthropological analysis can be used to understand religion in contemporary society, (3) Develop skills in critical thinking and analysis, (4) Present the relationship between culture, institutions, religion, subculture, and the nature of man (humans), and (5) Enable students to understand the religious institutions of humans generally and Afro-Americans specifically. Cost:2 WL:4 (Williams)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001: Television, Society, and Culture.
Television has been compared to a new religion, cultivating homogeneity, uniting adherents in a common set of images and symbols. Television executives have become "key gatekeepers" assuming roles played historically by political and religious leaders. TV has been labeled "narcoticizing" and faulted for diverting attention from serious social issues and replacing effective thought and action with passive absorption in portrayals. Television has been said to reinforce existing hierarchies and impede social reform. It also stimulates participation in a worldwide cash economy, and TV's worldwide spread has raised concerns about cultural imperialism. Ethnocentrism is common in the evaluation of television and its effects. Understanding of TV impact can be broadened through cross-cultural research about this medium, which, specific content and programming aside, must be recognized as one of the most powerful information disseminators, socializing agents and public-opinion molders in the contemporary world. This seminar will consider cross-cultural diversity in TV and will assess the medium's various social, cultural, and psychological effects. Students, who will include seniors, concentrators and graduate students in American Culture, Communication or Anthropology, will each investigate an aspect of television. Students will be responsible for attending class, organizing and participating in discussions of particular readings, and presenting, orally to the class and in writing, a term paper based on research concerning some aspect of TV impact. (Kottak)

541. Ecological Approaches in Cultural Anthropology. Senior, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). Credit is granted for a total of 6 credits earned through Anthro. 541 and 586.

This course is concerned with theory, method, and analysis of relationships among cultural, social, and ecological systems. Through a balanced series of lecture and discussion, the course is designed to (1) familiarize the student with past approaches to these relationships and (2) to explore new approaches which conceptualize these relationships with explicit attention to historical and political process. These two themes define the difference between an ecological anthropology focused on stable adaptation and one which more dynamically explores contemporary ecological problems. Lectures, readings, and discussion are designed to critically evaluate differing approaches to these issues and to make connections between new developments in social theory and their relevance to global ecological problems. Grades will be based on class participation and a research paper. This course should appeal to students pursuing research interests in natural resources, the articulation of human and natural systems, applied anthropology, demography, and social change. Prior exposure to anthropological courses is recommended but not required. (Fricke, Rappaport)


473/Ling. 473. Ethnopoetics: Cross-Cultural Approaches to Verbal Art. Two courses in anthropology, linguistics or literature, or permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). (Excl).

How do we understand the verbal art of non-western peoples without imposing our pre-conceived folk ideas about form, performance, authorship, and textuality? If poetic form, devices and traditions vary from culture to culture, how can we even hope to understand them? And if we do manage to understand how another culture patterns its verbal art in performance, how do we translate and represent it without parodying the other culture? This course will consider recent and classical efforts by anthropologists, linguists, poets, folklorists, and literary theorists to address these questions at several levels: First, we will want to develop a method that allows us to discover the "unsuspected devices and intentions" in oral traditions, "unsuspected" in that they draw upon aspects of language that our own traditions by-pass, and "unsuspected" in that they often have been collected and published without recognizing those devices and intentions. This forces us to develop a view of language that is adequate to interpret "oral literatures" as they shape and are shaped by the cultures of which they are part. What relevance does such a view of language have for theories of verbal art, text, and performance? Finally, in what ways can it contribute to reshaping anthropology itself? (Bierwert)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 417. (Dworkin)

478/Ling. 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 442. (Myhill)


385. The Archaeology of Early Man. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course will introduce students to the many exciting new discoveries in the archaeology of our earliest human ancestors, tracing what we know of human cultural and biological evolution from the first appearance of upright, small-brained, tool-making humans, 2.0 to 2.5 million years ago, to the appearance of fully modern humans in the last 30,000 to 40,000 years. The course will be divided into two segments. The first briefly surveys the techniques and methods used by archaeologists to find ancient archaeological sites, and how they go about studying the fossil human remains, animal bones, and stone tools from these sites to learn about ancient lifeways. This section also looks at how studies of living primates in the wild, such as chimpanzees, as well as modern hunter-gatherers, such as the Bushmen and Australian Aborigines, can help us to interpret the distant past. The second segment of the course turns to the actual archaeological record, looking at some of the most important finds from Africa, Asia, and Europe. In this segment, the course follows the accelerating developmental trajectory of our ancestors from the simplest tool-makers, who lacked any sign of art or religion, to humans much like ourselves, who began to bury their dead with clear displays of ritual and who adorned the walls of their caves and their own bodies with art. The course is oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators in anthropology. Requirements include three in-class hourly exams and an optional final examination. Required readings: a course pack with articles supplementing the lectures. Cost:2 WL:2 (Speth)

394. Undergraduate Seminar in Archaeology. Anthro. 282 and concentration in anthropology; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The Undergraduate Seminar in Archaeology is designed to familiarize students with the intellectual history of American archaeology. The students will read primary source material, learn about leading pioneers of modern archaeology, and discuss issues that have shaped the direction of contemporary archaeology. Student will prepare several short papers and a term paper. Grades will be determined by seminar discussion and the papers. Cost:2 WL:3 (Ford)

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week in seminar to read and discuss a selection of significant monographs and papers in ethnology, and a selection of writings on fieldwork methods and research strategies in ethnology. This seminar provides background for the students to define their own senior Honors thesis project. By the end of the term, the students will have decided on a project, and begun preliminary work on it. In consultation with the Honors advisor the student may request any member of the Anthropology Department to serve as a main thesis advisor or second reader. In the Winter term, the students will convene periodically in seminar with the Honors advisor to discuss their research projects and get feedback from the group, as well as staying in contact with the Honors advisor and second reader. By the end of the term, each student should have completed the research and write-up for their thesis so that they can make a formal summary presentation of it for the group. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects. (Diamond)

Section 002. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. This seminar provides background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)

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