Courses in BIOLOGY (DIVISION 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible, the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. Cost:3 WL:1; you MUST attend the first discussion section to claim your place in the course.

101. Biology and Human Affairs. (4). (NS).

This course is an introduction to those aspects of biology that have direct applicability to the lives of people in today's world. It covers current controversies within biology, especially as they relate to human life and human affairs. Topics discussed include IQ and genetics, sex roles, agriculture, world hunger, and the environment. Background information is given for each topic, but the emphasis is placed on the controversies and the role of science in human affairs. In addition to the two lectures per week, there is a two-hour discussion period in which the topics are further explored and films are frequently shown. Cost:3 WL:2 (Vandermeer)

152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130 or the equivalent recommended. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. (4). (NS).

First term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology, other science programs or preprof studies. Other suitably prepared students wishing detailed coverage of biology are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are 1) to provide factual and conceptual knowledge, 2) to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological hypotheses, 3) to give an integrated overview of modern biology and 4) to develop thinking and writing skills. Topics in Biology 152 are divided among four areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology, (b) genetics, (c) evolution, and (d) ecology. Students MUST: 1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; 2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and 3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. There will be two midterm exams and a final exam. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 002 of Biology 152 and ANY lab/disc, plus Biology 153 (see below). For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1563 CCL Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1563 CCL.

153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 152 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. (1). (Excl).

Biology 153 is a one-credit discussion course that is meant to be taken concurrently with Biology 152, a four-credit lecture course. The first part of the course will deal with the nature of science and the scientific method. Science will be viewed as an approach to viewing the universe. Subjects that will be covered are the scientific method, hypothesis testing, the roles of logic, creativity, and serendipity in scientific discoveries. From a more practical point of view, the structure of a scientific paper will be analyzed. The topics covered in the second part of the course will vary depending on the instructor. Topics which may be covered are the genetic code and information theory, the revolution of molecular biology, genetic engineering and its ethical and social implications, the evolution of biochemical pathways, the properties of life and the search for life on other planets, the issue of gender, race, and intelligence. Cost:1 WL:2

154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. (4). (NS).

This course is a continuation of Biology 152, and covers the following topics: (a) evolutionary biology; (b) ecology and animal behavior; and (c) animal physiology. The aims and format are the same as those for Biology 152. Students MUST: 1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; 2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and 3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. There will be 2 midterm exams and a final exam. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 031 of Biology 154 and ANY lab/disc. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1563 CCL Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1563 CCL.

209. Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (3). (Excl).

This course is offered for students intending to concentrate in botany and related sciences. It is a required course in the botany concentration program, satisfies the physiology requirement of the biology concentration program, and serves as an elective in other concentrations. The content of the course material falls into three sequential parts: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzyme action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, lipid metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism; (2) cellular and internal transport, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, cell water relations, plant water relations, and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development in which a variety of factors that influence plant growth and development, such as hormones, light, photoperiodism, and temperature are discussed. The lectures serve as the major source of information, and are intended to introduce the basic concepts and mechanisms that underlie plant functions.

Six exams; two exams per part; take-home format. Students must purchase the assigned textbook and a course pack. Because of the highly empirical nature of plant physiology, students are recommended to take the laboratory (Biol. 210) with this course. This course is offered ONLY in the Fall term. Cost:3 WL:3 (Ikuma)

210. Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 209. (2). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This laboratory course is offered to supplement and complement the plant physiology lectures (Biol. 209), and the laboratory exercises are organized to follow closely the three main sequential parts covered in lecture: i.e., (1) plant cell physiology, (2) cellular and internal transport, and (3) plant growth and development. Plant physiology is a highly empirical science. The lab exercises are designed to have students experience representative experiments in each of the three parts and learn a variety of experimental approaches used in modern plant physiology. This course serves as one of the three lab courses required in the biology concentration program. Offered only in the Fall. Cost:1 WL:3 (Ikuma)

304. The Gene Concept. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305, and admission to the College Honors Program. (1). (Excl).

Students will be exposed to the theoretical basis of genetics in a discussion format. "Classical" or "seminal" articles that contributed to our understanding of gene transmission, structure and function will be read and discussed. The instructor will provide background for each grouping of articles. Each student will be responsible for leading the discussion of assigned articles. Active participation of all students is expected. A term paper on "The Gene Concept" will be required a preliminary draft by the 10th week and the final paper by the last day of classes. A course pack will need to be purchased. Cost:1 WL:3 (Rizki)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for students who are concentrating in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and problem sets covered in the discussion sections. Cost:2 WL:1 (Pichersky and Schiefelbein).

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (2). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course provides students with laboratory experience on basic genetic principles. Students should have already taken or be concurrently taking the 305 Genetics lecture course. The first half of the course is devoted to genetic analysis in Drosophila by a series of crosses and in Sordaria (a fungus) by ordered tetrad analysis. Students will analyse the linkage relationship and mapping of unknown mutants of Drosophila. The experiments in microbial genetics during the second half of the course include mapping by conjugation in E. coli, transduction experiments using bacteria and phage, and complementation experiments for studying gene as a unit of function using different "his" mutants of yeast. One three hour lab is scheduled each week additional three hours of lab time per week is expected at irregular times. Students are expected to write four lab reports and to keep a complete and accurate record of all results and analyses in a bound lab notebook. There are 2 quizzes given during the term. Cost:1 WL:2 (Jeyabalan)

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; Chem. 215 or the equivalent. Not open to students who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 428. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course provides (1) understanding of basic functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, (2) detailed appreciation of the evidence that has established our current level of understanding, (3) through study of how evidence is used, inferences about how science works, and (4) awareness of how cellular and molecular biology contribute to human affairs. Interdependence of intracellular structure and function is stressed, along with efforts to phrase explanations in molecular and evolutionary terms. Course content includes: introduction to cell functions and diversity; membrane structure and function; organelle function and biogenesis; properties of cell surfaces; intracellular transport; secretion; cell cycle and division; cytoskeleton; and methods for study of cell function. The aim is to provide a selected background in cellular and molecular biology for biology concentrators and others. Most students enrolling have a strong foundation in biology, and have completed either genetics or biochemistry. For more detailed treatment, students should take Biology 427 or 428. There is a textbook; purchase is optional, but recommended. Recommended readings are on reserve in UGL. Each exam includes short answer questions, and others requiring short essays interpreting data, formulating hypotheses, or testing ideas experimentally. Cost:3 WL:2 (Shappirio, 764-1491)

351. Vertebrate Biology and Structure. Biol. 152-154 or 195; or the equivalent. (6). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The course has multiple aims. The dissection in the laboratory introduces the student to the structural pattern, mainly of shark and cat, but also of a series of other vertebrates. It is intended to lead to a comparative understanding of the roles and evolution of structures in the major functional systems of protochordates and vertebrates. Lectures are designed to put these structural observations into a broad perspective by focusing on the function, origin, and evolution of chordate structures, with particular emphasis on those of vertebrates. The laboratory also includes demonstrations, film presentations, and a visit to the Natural History Museum. Cost:3-4 WL:1; all students will be admitted. (Gans)

355/Nat. Res. 337. Woody Plants I: Biology and Identification. Biology 152 or 195 or equivalent. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Identification and ecological relations are taught during one afternoon field trip per week. The plants are studied in their natural habitats and communities dry oak-hickory forests, mesic-maple forests, river floodplains, swamps, and bogs. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in Nichols Arboretum, Main Campus, and Saginaw Forest. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology, life histories, forest ecology, physiological ecology, genetics and variation, systematics, conifers, and winter identification. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., China, and the Tropics. Field trips are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 once a week. Michigan Trees (Barnes and Wagner) is the required textbook. Lecture material is based in part on the book, Forest Ecology (Spurr and Barnes). Grading is based 60% on field quizzes and exams and indoor identification exams; 40% on lecture material (2 hour exams). Cost:1 WL:3; at Barnes' office (2532 Dana) or see Ms. Shadley (2544 Dana) for override. (Barnes and Wagner)

380. Oceanography: Marine Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or equivalent and at least one term of college chemistry or physics, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Marine ecology is a study of the organisms and processes of the ocean, including both pelagic and benthic communities. This course teaches biological aspects of oceanography at the organism level, and also applies ecological and evolutionary principles to the study of marine life. Lectures will introduce the major groups of marine organisms and will cover the interrelationships of marine organisms and their environments. Organisms and communities from the following habitats will be discussed: estuaries, the rocky intertidal, coral reefs, the coastal zone, the deep sea and the open ocean. The course will treat organisms as different as bacteria and whales. Fulfills the undergrad Biology concentration requirements for a course in Biological Evolution and Diversity, and is required for the Marine Biology option of the undergrad Oceanography concentration. Grading will be based on two one-hour exams plus a comprehensive final. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lehman and Kling)

381. General Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. (5). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the role of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, dynamics of single species populations, competitive, predator-prey, and mutualistic interactions, community organization, ecological succession, evolutionary aspects of ecology, and current applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 381 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There are three lectures a week and one discussion period. The laboratory meets one day a week for four hours at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, 1800 Dixboro Road. Field trips to outlying study areas are included. Free bus transportation between the Main Campus and the Botanical Gardens is provided. An independent project, several laboratory reports and two one-hour exams, plus a final examination, constitute the main basis of evaluation. Cost:3 WL:2 (Rathcke)

390. Evolution. Biology 152-154 or the equivalent. (4 in Ann Arbor; 5 at Biol. Station). (Excl).

This lecture course covers the fundamentals of evolutionary biology with a focus on living organisms. It includes a historical survey of the development of evolutionary theory from ancient philosophers to the present, and critical examination of the principles of phylogenetic systematics, natural selection, population genetics, microevolution, biogeography, and macroevolution. Weekly discussions will focus on primary literature and demonstrations. Two midterm tests and one cumulative final exam will test students' knowledge of lecture material. Writing assignment(s) based on readings from the primary scientific literature will be required. WL:NA (Hazlett and Tucker)

411. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl).

This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's. Upon attaining mastery, the student may take both a written and an oral quiz which is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed plus a factor derived from performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 60-75 hours/week. Weekly lectures dealing with biochemical topics are presented by Professor Beyer. Material covered in these lectures represents an extension of information in the course, i.e., not in the textbook, and is not the subject of examination. Students are encouraged to attend sessions in which biochemical discoveries are presented by TA's and the professor. Cost:3 WL:2 (Beyer)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 411 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

Biology 412 adheres to the old Chinese proverb: "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand." Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as TA's for Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 411). Each TA provides two mastery level, multi-choice questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for Biology 411. TA's also prepare a report on a biochemical discovery which they present to their peers, the 411 students, and the instructor. The major roles of the TA's are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and TA grade the quiz together. TA's learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. Cost:1 WL:3 (Beyer)

415. Plant Constituents and their Functions. Biol. 154 or 195 and one term of organic chemistry. (2). (Excl).

A different kind of study of plants for students interested in the special functional and economic aspects of plant chemical constituents or plant-plant and plant-animal interactions. This course will survey the major secondary compounds in plants, their functions in plants and their effects on animals. These compounds will be grouped primarily on a functional rather than a structural basis. Pigments, fragrances, hormones, allelopathic agents, toxins (including mycotoxins and carcinogens), medicinal compounds, hallucinogens, defenses against pathogens, defenses against herbivores, and others will be considered in terms of their value to plants, their mode of action, and their evolution or potential use as phyletic markers. This course will be offered only in alternate years. Cost:1 WL:2 (Nooden)

418. Endocrinology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. (3). (Excl).

This course is a comparative study of animal endocrine functions with emphasis on the evolution of hormones and hormonal control, the cellular origin and chemical nature of hormones, their physiological actions in organisms and the biochemical mechanisms of hormone action. The course will concentrate on the endocrine systems of vertebrates. One-fifth of the course is devoted to a detailed description of Reproductive Endocrinology. Individuals interested in the human or clinical aspects of hormones would be better served by any of several courses offered by various units of the Medical School. Instruction in Biology 418 assumes a basic familiarity with General and Comparative Physiology. Training in chemistry through organic is essential and a course in biochemistry would be helpful. Evaluation is based on two midterms and a final exam. Cost:4 WL:1 (Doneen and Foster)

419. Endocrinology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 418. (2). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This laboratory course should be taken concurrently with the companion lecture course, Biology 418. Enrollment is limited to 10 students. Lab work will emphasize modern techniques in the identification, isolation and mechanisms of action of hormones. One-third of the course is devoted to the "Independent Project," an original experiment designed, conducted and written by each student. The Independent Project forms the one major writing assignment. The course grade is also determined by weekly problem sets based on interpretation of lab data, and a final exam. Two three-hour lab periods are scheduled; the nature of biological systems, however, makes it advisable to anticipate an additional two or three hours of lab time at various (and occasionally odd) times in the week. Students should be aware that this lab uses live animals (predominantly mice and chicks), and three radioactive isotopes, 14-C, 3-H and 125-I. Cost:1 WL:1 (Doneen)

422/Anatomy 422. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent), one year of physics, prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry. (3). (Excl).

This course deals primarily with the properties of individual nerve cells, and small groups of nerve cells. This provides the basis for understanding the processing of information by the nervous system, the mechanisms underlying learning and memory, and the biological basis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Topics to be covered include the cell biology of neurons and glia, the generation of electrical potentials, the transmission of information between cells, and the cellular basis of simple forms of learning. Considerable emphasis will be placed on understanding the molecules that endow the nervous system with these properties. In combination with Biology 425 this course represents a comprehensive introduction to neuroscience. Cost:2 WL:2 (Hume and Bodmer)

427. Molecular Biology. Biology 305 and Biology 411 or Biol. Chem. 415, or equivalents. (4). (Excl).

Comprehensive coverage of the general principles governing the structures, synthesis, and functions of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the context of the cell. Emphasizes understanding methods and interpretation of data. Topics include DNA replication and transposition, chromosome incompatibility and segregation, transcription and translation, the processing of macromolecules, signal transfer, and regulation at various levels. Three lectures per week are supplemented by a 1.5 hour discussion section. There will be two examinations during the term, quizzes and a final. Cost:4 WL:2 (Helling and Bender)

437. Biology of Invertebrates. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent), or introductory geology and two additional natural science courses. (5). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Animal diversity is reviewed with emphasis on all but vertebrate animals, which together account for only part of one of some 40 animal phyla. Current evidence for the evolutionary relationships within and between groups is presented, and this phylogenetic perspectives is emphasized as an important aspect of understanding animal architecture, patterns of development, and adaptations to the environment. The basic life functions that all animals share are also emphasized, with examples of alternative solutions to the same requirements chosen from even closely-related animal groups. The course consists of lectures, laboratories, and some local field trips. Laboratory study emphasizes mostly living material as supported by preserved animal special preparations. Evaluation is by written and practical laboratory examination. Cost:3 WL:4 (Cather)

440/Nat. Res. 422. Biology of Fishes. 12 credits in biological courses. (3). (Excl).

Lectures cover many aspects of the biology of lower vertebrates known as fishes, including evolution, physiology, functional morphology, phylogeny, biogeography, ecology, and reproduction. The systematic position of fish among vertebrates is discussed and exemplary assemblages examined. Special attention is given to the effect of the physical properties of water on form, function, and modes of life of fishes. Evaluation of students is based on two take-home exams, a cumulative closed-book final exam, and class participation. All exams emphasize essay questions that will require a synthesis of class material, and logic examination of novel problems. Take-home exams may include numerical problems. (Taught by Webb in 1992; Fink in 1993). An optional lab (one credit) examines field methods, classification and identification of Michigan fishes. Cost:3 WL:1 (Webb)

458. Biology of the Algae. Biol. 152 or 195, or the equivalent, or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course studies the very diverse group of plants and photosynthetic protistans collectively known as "the algae," which includes the prokaryotic blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and the eukaryotic green, golden, yellow-green, brown, and red algae as well as well as the euglenoids, dinoflagellates, and cryptomonads. The framework of the course is a systematic orientation, examining representative examples from the various algal groups, mostly from living material but also from prepared slides and preserved specimens. It treats both freshwater and marine types and includes identification, structure, reproduction, ecology, and stresses the interrelationships among the algae. A comparative approach is followed. The use of algae as research tools is stressed, where appropriate. Two lectures and two laboratory sessions per week are scheduled, and two field trips are planned. Text: Introduction to the Algae, Bold and Wynne, Prentice-Hall, 1985, 2nd edition. Cost:3 WL:3 (Wynne)

459. Systematic Botany. Biol. 152-154 or 195, (or the equivalent), or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Plant biodiversity taught with lectures, color projection slides, trips, specimens, living plants, and laboratories. Emphasis at level of orders, families, and genera, temperate and tropical, to familiarize students with all parts of the world. Focuses mainly on flowering plants but also gymnosperms and pteridophytes. Phylogeny provides the framework: Hypothetical ancestors and different lines are analyzed, e.g., pinks (Caryophyllidae), roses (Rosidae), trees (Hamamelidae), lilies (Liliidae) etc. Subjects like habitats, endangered species, geography, biosystematics, cladistics, floral biology are given special lectures. Plant biosystematics is essential to botanists but the course is needed also by conservationists, ecologists, zoologists, foresters, and ethnobotanists. Some students take the course simply because they enjoy plants. Two midterms, a final, and lab quizzes. Text: Identification of Flowering Plant Families (P.H. Davis and J.Cullen, Cambridge U. Press). Cost:1 WL:NA (Wagner)

480. Mathematical Analogies in Evolutionary Biology. Two courses in biology; and Math. 116 or the equivalent. (4). (Excl).

This course is intended for seniors and graduate students with a serious interest in practicing research in natural history in the broadest sense, who would like to understand more about how to apply quantitative methods to describe nature, to formulate theory, and to test theory with experimental data. Knowledge of mathematics is not essential, but a strong desire (and some talent) to grapple with mathematical concepts will contribute to success. In lectures, ideas are presented and elaborated with examples and intuitive arguments. In lab/discussion section, applications of mathematical concepts are practiced using student participation, discussions of published articles, and computer programs. A term project provides each student with the opportunity to apply, in accordance with interest and strength of background, a quantitative method to an area in his/her research interest. All students are expected to do well. Please contact the professor during Spring, 1992, (using campus mail, c/o Biology, 1120 Nat Sci, zip 1048; or via e-mail @UB) to make an appointment to discuss your potential interest. Cost:1 WL:See professor; unlikely to close. (Estabrook)

489/Nat. Res. 430. Soil Properties and Processes. Introductory biology and chemistry. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Soil as a central component of terrestrial ecosystems, with a particular emphasis on physical, chemical, microbiological processes as they are related to plant growth. Quantitative analysis and interpretation of field and laboratory data are stressed throughout the course. Temperate forest ecosystems are the primary focus of the course; however, numerous examples are drawn from boreal, temperate, and tropical ecosystems. Knowledge of plant ecology is beneficial and prerequisites include introductory biology and chemistry. WL:NA (Zak)

491. Principles of Systematics. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Biology 491 focuses on cladistics, the most widely accepted approach used to discover species history. All aspects of phylogenetic inference, the philosophical, theoretical and methodological, are reviewed in lecture. Major topics include parsimony, species concepts and speciation, monophyletic taxonomy, vicariance biogeography and conservation, adaptation, and coevolution. In the laboratory-discussion section of the course, relevant microcomputer algorithms are used to test hypotheses from the original literature. There are three essay (take-home) examinations, five laboratory exercises, a term paper, and an oral presentation of the term paper topic. There is no required text; however, all of the many handouts and the original literature that is reviewed constitute the required course pack. WL:NA (Kluge)

499. Dynamic Systems in Population and Community Ecology. A course in calculus and a course in ecology. (3). (Excl).

This course will first cover classical notions of dynamic systems theory (e.g., Rayleigh's model of musical instruments, Duffing's non-linear oscillator, the Van der Pol oscillator, Poincare's three-bodied problem) and elementary notions of dynamic systems in ecology (Lotka-Volterra-style equations of predation, competition, and mutualism, 1-D models of logistic and higher order maps). Second, the course will explore the more recent developments in dynamics, as applied to population and community ecology. Some of the topics include chaotic behavior of 1-D maps, strange attractors and chaotic behavior in classical systems, new analytical techniques for analyzing experimental data (e.g., Poincare sections, Lyapunov exponents), pattern in chaotic systems. Each student is expected to develop a model of an ecological system and explore whatever complicated dynamics are contained therein. Cost:1 WL:2 (Vandermeer)

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