For all English classes, registered students must be present at each of the first two meetings to claim their places. Any student who does not meet this requirement may be dropped from the course. NOTE: If you must miss a class due to religious observances, contact the instructor or leave a message for the instructor with the department (764-6330).

Writing Courses:

After taking or placing out of Introductory Composition, students may elect English 224 or 225 for further practice in the fundamentals of expository and argumentative prose. English 325 offers the opportunity for work in argumentative and expository prose at a more advanced level.

Several sections of English 223, the beginning course in creative writing, are available each term; the work is multi-generic, and two of the following will be covered in each section: fiction, poetry, and drama. Playwriting (227) is also available. More experienced writers may apply for admission to specialized sections of English 323 (Fiction or Poetry), English 423 (Fiction), English 427 (Playwriting), and English 429 (Poetry). Admission to these advanced courses is by permission of the instructor, who will require writing samples.

Independent Study:

Independent study in English must be elected under one of the following numbers: 226 (Directed Writing, 1-3 hours), 299 (Directed Reading, 1-3 hours), 426 (Directed Writing, 1-4 hours), 499 (Directed Reading, 1-4 hours). There is a limit to the total hours that may be taken under any one number (3 in 226 and 299, 6 in 426 and 499). No more than 6 upper level credits of independent study can count towards the English concentration. All elections require permission of the professor, on an election authorization (override) form to be turned in at CRISP and also on a departmental approval form. GSTA's are not normally authorized to supervise independent study.

Introductory Composition (English 124 and 125):

The purpose of these courses is to develop student writing skills so that they are optimally flexible, powerful, and precise, answerable to the challenges of analysis, persuasion and (self-) expression characteristic of college writing.

Sections of English 124 and 125 are limited to approximately 22 students each. Students may elect either course to fulfill the College's Introductory Composition requirement. In order to qualify for these courses, students must show readiness by appropriate achievement on the ECB writing assessment.

124. College Writing: Writing and Literature. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

By connecting the two terms of its title, Writing and Literature aims to help prepare the student to produce the range and quality of expository prose expected in college courses. Works of literature will be considered for their effective use of language and argument. They will serve as reference points for thinking and writing strategies. Characteristically, sections of English 124 will involve the writing of a minimum of six essays, with considerable attention given to the preparation of drafts and to revision. The literary works which will serve as points of reference will vary from section to section and from term to term.

Course descriptions for individual sections will be available after March 27 in 224 Angell Hall.

125. College Writing. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

Like English 124 (Writing and Literature), English 125 (College Writing) prepares students for the various kinds of academic writing required of them as undergraduates at the University of Michigan. In addition to informal exercises or impromptu essays, students can expect to write six or more formal papers exemplifying the various modes of discourse which comprise our academic community.

Individual course descriptions will be available for reference in 224 Angell Hall after March 27. For all English classes, registered students must be present at each of the first two class meetings to claim their places. Any student who does not meet this requirement may be dropped from the course.

217. Literature Seminar. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (HU).

This exciting range of courses will give the student the opportunity to focus early in the College career on a sharply defined topic or body of literary works, and to do so in a seminar format, with much emphasis on discussion and writing. Whatever the topic of the seminar, students will be introduced to large questions of how one interprets and values the works one investigates, of the relation between those works and the cultural order of which they are a part, and of the function(s) of criticism at the present time. Sophomore Seminars will be limited to approximately 20 students, and will serve to fulfill the College's Humanities Distribution requirement.

Descriptions for unlisted sections will be available in 224 Angell Hall after March 27.

Section 001. The English Language in America. Everybody knows that the "melting pot" didn't melt, and that regional differences persist despite a national culture fostered by the franchise and the media. Nowhere are these two facts more apparent than in the English language, and our usage identifies us by a whole variety of demographics: age, gender, region, education, social class, and race. In English 217 we will explore these differences both historically and in our own times. Course readings supplemented by frequent writing about American English will form the basis of this seminar. Regular attendance and a willingness to present one's findings to others are essential elements in our class. WL:1 Cost:2 (Bailey)

Section 003. Literature and the Law. Literature's fascination with the law as an institution and justice as an ethical concept dates back to antiquity. Modern fiction and drama seem irresistably drawn to the law, particularly criminal law, as a theme. We will read works that treat the legal process as an object of analytical interest in and of itself, as an example of a procedurally and ethically complex social phenomenon, as a metaphor for truth-finding and truth-telling, and even as a testing ground for propositions of morality. A common body of intensive and representative reading will form the basis for class discussion in this seminar of limited size. We learn together and from each other. If class size permits, each student will have a chance to lead discussion and present a brief report. Each student will write a short paper and a long critical (i.e. analytical) essay (which may well require reading beyond the common list). Reading to be chosen from works by most (not all) of the following: Aeschylus, Sophocles, Plato, the Bible, the Apocrypha, Montaigne, Shakespeare, Melville, Schnitzler, Kafka, Koestler, Camus, Durrenmatt, R. Shaw, Bolt, P. Roth. We might include a film or two. The seminar's objective is to study the forms literature can take to come to terms with a theme of ethical content within a social context, and to do so in its own time and place as well as outside those confines. WL:1 Cost:2 (Bauland)

Section 005. Novels of Initiation. In novels of initiation characters encounter fundamental experiences in the process of moving toward adulthood. The tentative selections subject to change include Thomas Berger, LITTLE BIG MAN; H.D., HERMIONE; Theodore Dreiser, SISTER CARRIE; Ralph Ellison, INVISIBLE MAN; William Faulkner, THE REIVERS, Jayne Anne Phillips, MACHINE DREAMS; J.D. Salinger, THE CATCHER IN THE RYE; and Alice Walker, THE COLOR PURPLE. Work will include two papers, a mid-term, and a final. Most of the class work will be done through discussion. The grading will take into account the norm (mechanics and style) as well as the contents of the papers. Participation in discussion, like regular attendance, will also figure in the grading. Short quizzes will be added if necessary to insure keeping up with the reading. WL:1 Cost:2 (Blotner)

Section 007. Style and Pattern in Fiction and Film. This course will compare prose fiction styles with film styles and discuss how each medium shapes and determines what can be done in telling a story. No technical knowledge of film is required, but attendance at the showing of the films and discussions of texts and films is crucial. In order to allow time for viewing the films, the class will meet four hours a week and may occasionally require another hour on one of those days. There will be frequent writing of short pieces and a final exam. Films and written texts will be chosen from the following: Hawthorne, Rappaccini's Daughter; Orson Wells, Citizen Kane; Carson McCullers, Memmber of the Wedding; Ryunosuke Akutagawa, Rashomon and In a Grove; Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now; E. M. Forster, A Passage to India; Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist; Charles Chaplin, Monsieur Verdoux; Anthony Burgess, A Clockwork Orange; John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath; Alice Walker, The Color Purple; Woody Allen, The Purple Rose of Cairo; Jean Cocteau, Orpheus; Manuel Puig, Kiss of the Spiderwoman. WL:1 (Howes)

223. Creative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (Excl). May not be repeated for credit.

All sections of 223 teach the writing of two of the following three genres: fiction (including personal narrative), drama, and poetry. Different sections will emphasize the individual genres to varying degrees. Classwork involves the discussion of the process of writing and the work of a few published authors. Students will do exercises meant to develop a sensitivity to language and a facility with evocative detail, voice, form, and so forth. Most classroom time, however, is devoted to reading and discussion of student writing. A final portfolio of revised finished work of 35-50 manuscript pages may be required.

All sections of English 223 will have course descriptions available for reference in 224 Angell Hall after March 27.

224. The Uses of Language. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4). (Excl).

The aim of the second-year writing courses, English 224 and 225, is to help students improve the critical thinking and writing skills introduced in English 124 or 125. The emphasis in both 224 and 225 is upon well-rounded and rhetorically balanced explorations of various sides of a given issue what we call argumentative writing. This balance is achieved by analyzing the various claims at issue, probing different modes of reasoning, testing assumptions, questioning beliefs, and working to discover new ideas through written discourse. As with 124 and 125, revision will form an integral part of the analytic process. Sections of English 224 will focus upon a single theme, as outlined in the individual descriptions.

Course descriptions available in 224 Angell Hall after March 27th.

225. Argumentative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4). (Excl).

Like English 224, English 225 is centered upon practice in argumentative writing, but with topics drawn from a wide range of issues and problems. As in 224, students in 225 will work at structuring their written language to probe various aspects of the problem at hand. They will also explore the way language can be used as a vehicle for urging particular value systems, in order to learn to uncover the rhetorical strategies at the heart of such modes of discourse. Classes will be conducted in workshop format, and revision will form an integral part of the analytic process.

Course descriptions available in 224 Angell Hall after March 27th.

227. Introductory Playwriting. (3). (Excl).

Students will learn the fundamentals of constructing a play through numerous writing exercises, reading and discussing dramatic literature, and writing a one act play of 40-60 pages. Students will be expected to participate in class discussions and see logically produced plays that are assigned. WL:1 Cost:2 (OyamO)

230. Introduction to Short Story and Novel. (3). (HU).

Rather than a comprehensive survey of the short story and novel, this course offers an introduction to the basic techniques of analyzing prose fiction. Beginning with short stories, students learn to define questions of narrative construction, voice, characterization, theme, and style. As critical facility increases, the course will consider more challenging and in some cases experimental fiction. At least three novels will be read in addition to numerous short stories. Students should expect to read substantial amounts of fiction, to participate in class discussions, and to write several short literary analyses. Descriptions of all sections will be available after March 27 in 224 Angell Hall.

Section 002. This course will survey a wide variety of styles and strategies in fiction, in the short story, the novella and the novel. We will read a score or so of short stories, three or four novellas, and three or four novels. If the class size allows, the format will be mostly discussion. Grades will be based on a number of short papers and a few "pop" writing assignments and, perhaps, depending on how things go, a final exam. Regular attendance is expected, active participation will be rewarded. WL:1 Cost:2 (Beauchamp)

Section 004. Honors. PURPOSE AND DESIGN OF COURSE: To read a substantial number of short stories (and two novels) by well-established writers of the past and of the present in order to develop strategies of interpretation beyond mere "plot" and "characterization." Our method will be comparative; in other words, during class periods we will read stories that in some way have apparent similarities and our task will be to expose their differences. At about midway in the term we will carefully read and analyze two novels, probably Ernest Hemingway's THE SUN ALSO RISES and Nathanael West's DAY OF THE LOCUST. Among the writers covered: Tolstoy, Chekhov, Dostoevski, Hawthorne, Melville, Jewett, Cather, Lawrence, Hemingway, Faulkner, Fitzgerald, O'Conner, Ellison, Atwood, Oates, Lessing, Gordimer, Mason, and others. PREREQUISITES: None. What is wanted here is an interest in reading with a willingness to explore one's own capacity for critical and creative thinking. PROCEDURES: There will be no mid-term. In its place there will be frequent in-class writing exercises based upon materials read for that week. Toward the end of the term there will be a longer out-of-class paper based upon materials read during this course. In addition, students will keep a special notebook in which they log their reactions to each story assigned. There will also be a final exam. WL:1 (Eby)

239. What is Literature? Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program. (3). (HU).
Section 001. Literary Relationships.
To address the question of "What is Literature," this section will focus on the dynamics of literary relationships. We will talk about relationships between reader and writer, considering how the narrative voice of a text speaks to us, shaping our responses; how we, as readers, also push against that narrative voice, composing our own sense of what a text means; and how matters of gender, of race, of belief cause us to read the same texts differently. Concurrently, we will explore the relationship between a particular text and its context its historical period, its literary tradition, its author's biography asking what that relationship contributes to the text's meaning. To keep us centered as we weave all these perspectives together, the chosen readings will be ones that treat a common theme: the theme of "becoming." This shared concern will allow us to see the wonderfully diverse ways that writers create versions of stories about young people becoming adult, being initiated into the complexities and ambiguities of a larger world, attempting to sort out good from evil, the imaginary from the real. As we ask the questions prompted by different critical perspectives, as we read the fiction of authors such as Hemingway, Toni Morrison, Hawthorne, John Fowles, Doctorow, Mary Shelley, and David Lodge, we will have as our goal your "becoming" more savvy readers of literary texts. Class requirements include two papers (5-7 pp), brief weekly written responses to the readings, a final exam, regular attendance, and active participation in class discussions. WL:1 Cost:2 (Wolk)

Section 002. This course is meant to introduce students to English study and to aid in the development of interpretive strategies. The course will be divided roughly into three sections. The first will be structured around a series of questions such as: What is literature, and how is it defined in relation to the "non-literary"? What is an author, a character, a reader, and their possible relations? In the second section, we will do an abbreviated "case study" of 19th-century American literature, asking questions about the constitution of literary periods, canons, and traditions, as well as questions about the social contexts which give meaning to these categories. The third section of the course will be devoted to the study of more widely cultural texts, with the aim of empowering students to read the world with the tools made available by literary study. Reading for the course will include classic and not-so-classic literary texts, popular cultural texts, essays dealing with interpretation, and essays which model a variety of interpretive strategies. Requirements: attendence, participation, one group project, two 5-page papers, and a final take-home exam. WL:1 (Robinson)

Section 003. This course (a prerequisite for English majors) is designed to introduce students to critical issues concerning the nature of literary studies. By examining literary, critical and theoretical works, students in the class will discuss, among other issues, how we define literature and the study of it; what constitutes a genre; how readers relate to texts; and what characteristically limits the selection of works in literary studies. In the beginning of the course we will scrutinize these issues in relation to the idea of revising the canon, starting with Shakespeare's THE TEMPEST and then examining its reworking in A TEMPEST, a version of the play written by the Caribbean writer, Aime Cesaire. We will also study critical responses to these works as a form of revision. Other works will include Roland Barthes' MYTHOLOGIES, Oliver Sack's THE MAN WHO MISTOOK HIS WIFE FOR A HAT and Harriet Jacob's INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL. Students will be required to complete several response papers, two essays and an exam and must participate actively in class discussion. WL:1 Cost:2 (Flint)

Section 004. In the course, we will read mainly short stories, poems, one or two plays, a few novels. In class meetings and assigned essays, our discussion of assigned works will raise questions and topics like these: How the features of a poem or story figure in a reader's making of its meaning? What it can mean "just to read" a poem or a story (or a telephone directory or a basketball program or a textbook)? Whether interpretation and evaluation of stories and poems can be distinguished from "just reading" them? Whether one's intuitive responses to poems and stories are to be "trusted"? Whether the "serious study" of literature should be taken seriously? How the pleasure derived from good poems and stories may be distinguished from pleasure in drugs, aerobics, philately, yoga, gossip, horticulture, baseball? How the world of poems or stories may relate to the times and places of their makers, as to those of readers? How the worlds created in fictions relate to those created in biography and other genres of history? Written Work: SHORT weekly (journal-like) responses to assigned readings, short bi-weekly essays, short critical responses to the responses and essays of others. All written work will be entered in *Confer for all members of the class to read. Regular participation in the (computer-) course conference is an unwaivable requirement for credit in the course. In meetings of the class, there will a handful of interruptible lectures, much discussion, and in the final weeks of the term, small-group presentations. WL:1 (Van't Hul)

Section 006. This section of English 239 could well be called "What is Reading?" Students will examine texts from several different media: print, film, illustrations. They will be challenged to see these compositions as containing or exhibiting various systems of meaning. As a class, students will discuss the process of interpreting these systems in particular and what methods of interpretations can be transferred successfully from one text to another. There will be four short papers, a mid-term and a final. WL: 1 (Artis)

Section 007. The Art of Interpretation: An Act of the Mind. This course is primarily designed to help you join a community of people who carry on a continuing, informed conversation about literature. The literature studied will reflect both the social issues of the times and each author's unique shaping of that material. We want to read closely not only to see what an author says but how she or he says it. Thus, our readings will often focus on the dynamics of the imaginative process. Moreover, if we begin this term finding ourselves reading, rhythmically, somewhat slow, understated works, we will progressively find ourselves in the midst of the potentially explosive energy of Beckett's ROCKABY, Fowles' FRENCH LIEUTENANT'S WOMAN, and Irvings' A PRAYER FOR OWEN MEANY. The format of the course will be discussion and more discussion; the focus will be on the exchange of ideas. The requirements of the class will include: two thoughtful and analytical essays (8 pp./ea.); a short weekly response to a text; and a comprehensive final exam. Although still tentative, the readings will be selected from the works of the following authors: Browning, Dickens, Hardy, Hawthorne, James, Joyce, Yeats, Eliot, H.D. Wang, Toni Morrison. Naylor, Atwood, A. Tyler, Dorris, Allende, Erdrich, Hong Kingston, Julia Alvarez, and Marmon Silko. WL:1 (Back)

Section 008. This course explores some fundamental questions about the meaning and significance of the study of written and oral "literature." In addition to examining the historical development of literary studies itself, we'll explore some of the varying conceptions of and attitudes toward literature in different periods and cultures. We'll explore some basic theories and methods that are used to think about and write about literature both by reading accessible theoretical texts and by writing about a variety of literary-critical forms from different periods and cultures. By examining how literary and critical forms and practices shape and are shaped by changes in technology (such as the invention of print and t.v.), in socio-political institutions (such as the university), in economic structures, and in cultural customs and beliefs, we'll analyze what our own current literary-critical practices reveal about American cultural habits. Discussion format. Brief weekly writing assignments, occasional oral presentations, a journal, and a term essay-project. WL:1 Cost:3 (Ross)

Section 009. As we work at the question what is literature?, we're going to move around a lot. We're going to ask what it means to be an author, to create a story, what that does for/to her/him, and we're going to figure that out and figure out some answers to the main question by being authors ourselves a little. We're going to ask about our own responses as readers, both as we confront the text alone, and as we attempt to discuss it in ways our backgrounds and educational settings have taught us to discuss it, and we may seek new ways of getting at it. We'll read texts closely and attempt to understand their components and structures, the effect of the social and economic context in which they are written and read, their less accessible meanings, and what's at stake for us, if anything, in the content. we'll be interested in the social purposes of literature and in questions of authors' responsibilities. We'll want to understand what offical stories are through seeing the Argentine film THE OFFICIAL STORY, and we'll be looking at reporters trying to get the story as they interview My Lai veterans or other Vietnam veterans holed up in Washington State mountains. We'll watch a range of humanists and philosophers argue over what Simon Wiesenthal should have done or not done for the dying Nazi in his Holocaust story THE SUNFLOWER. Other texts will include Coetzee's WAITING FOR THE BARBARIANS, Thomas' THE WHITE HOTEL, Wiesel's LEGENDS OF OUR TIME, Marshall's PRAISESONG FOR THE WIDOW, plays by El Teatro Campesino, and Gutierrez Alea's film MEMORIES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT, some stories and poems by the homeless and prisoners, and some theoretical essays that will help us grapple with all this. Class participation will be important, and you'll write 20-25 pages worth of essays, the nature of which we'll determine together. Creative and group projects will be encouraged. No exams. WL:1 Cost:3 (Alexander)

Section 010. This course will introduce students to a broad range of approaches to the study of literature. The course will focus on three texts that represent the three principal genres as well as three important moments in literary history: Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, Pope's poem The Rape of the Lock, and Shelley's novel Frankenstein. In each case we will begin with a close structural analysis of the text followed by an examination of the way the text itself represents the act of artistic production. We will then look at the forms in which the work has been transmitted and the effects of editorial practices on it. Finally, we will bring to bear on the text a variety of critical approaches, discussing the piece's relation to its historical context, the allusive relation it establishes with other pieces of literature, and its representation of economic, political, familial, and gender relations. As we follow these various lines of inquiry we will read a selection of relevant literary, philosophical, historical, and critical pieces, including Jonson's The Alchemist, Sidney's Apology for Poetry, Pope's Essay on Man and Essay on Criticism, Wordsworth's "Tintern Abbey," and selections from the writings of Godwin and Wollstonecraft. Students will write several short papers, including a paper on the effect of editorial decisions on some limited aspect of A Midsummer Night's Dream and a paper on a modern reworking of one of the course texts (anything from Balanchine's ballet of A Midsummer Night's Dream to a recent version of Frankenstein ). WL:1 (Henderson)

Section 012. This course will introduce students to literature's formal aspects how it is put together, to what end, with what effect with attention to different literary works' relationship to the culture from which they arose and which they in turn helped produce. We will be focusing on American literature in particular, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century, and we will examine both canonical and non-canonical works (i.e. "classics" and "popular fiction"), works by both women and men, and will discuss the present state of literary studies, a field itself now attempting to answer the question of what is "literature." There will be three papers, a midterm and a final. Attendence is mandatory. WL:1 (Barnes)

240. Introduction to Poetry. Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
The aim here will be to enhance our enjoyment of poetry through an understanding of its nature and of how it achieves its particular effects. What poetic language is, how rhythm, rhyme, and meter give pleasure and highlight meaning in poetry these are some of the subjects we will study, along with metaphor and other kinds of figurative language. We will also study how a poem means one thing by saying something different (irony). The emphasis will be on informed, close reading. In the course of studying poetry, it is hoped that we will learn to pay closer attention to the world around us. NOTE: This is a course that is subject to change and modification as the semester proceeds. You cannot do well just by following the syllabus and assuming you know what it is happening. You are expected to participate and to keep in touch day by day with what is going on. Most Wednesdays a short quiz will be given on details of what we have been studying. These quizzes and other brief assignments will count for 25% of your total grade. You will also be assigned several two-page papers, two five-page papers and a take-home final exam. Textbooks: Elizabeth Bishop, The Complete Poems: 1927-1979. Seamus Heaney, Selected Poems. Seamus Heaney and Ted Hughes, The Rattlebag. Strunk and White, The Elements of Style. WL:1 Cost:2 (Tillinghast)

Section 002. Through reading and discussion we shall explore the questions we may ask of poems in a variety of forms from different periods. Poetry is a source of pleasure, and to understand and appreciate a poem fully as to understand any complex game we need to acquire knowledge and skill: fluency. We will read aloud, memorize, analyze, discuss. There will be frequent short writings, a few longer papers, a computer conference, and, probably, a mid-term and a final. Regular attendance and active participation in class meetings are required. Students who cannot meet this requirement should not take this course. WL:1 (Cloyd)

Section 003. Work in class will be devoted to discussion of particular poems selected from The Norton Anthology of Poetry. The aim of the discussion will be to increase your understanding and appreciation of poetry. The first objective will be to develop some common questions on analytic approaches. Then we will spend a few weeks discussing poems mainly for reading practice. In the final weeks we will read a number of poems by one poet. There will be a midterm, a short paper or two, in-class exercises, and a final examination. WL:1 Cost:1 (Lenaghan)

Section 004. This course begins to answer the question of how to read poetry with pleasure and skill. We will look carefully at poem after poem with an emphasis on the poet's craft, or how the poem is put together. Requirements will include some memorizing, several short "exercises," one or two formal papers of analysis, a midterm, and a final. Class proceeds by discussion. Text is the complete Norton Anthology of Poetry. WL:1 Cost:1 (Zwiep)

Section 005. The work includes (1) the study of poems assigned in Nims, ed., Western Wind (2) the writing of (a) weekly "Reader's responses" to assigned poems (b) bi-weekly short essays (c) midterm and final exams (3) recitation to the class of at least fifty lines of memorized poetry (4) an end-of-term Group Presentation to the class. All writing is to be entered (for all members of the class to read) in a [computer] Course Conference. Regular participation in this conference is an unwaivable requirement for credit in the course. There will be a weekly interruptible lecture and much discussion in meetings of the class. WL:1 (Van't Hul)

Section 006. This course is for anyone interested in reading poetry with increased pleasure and understanding. We will read a wide range of poems of different kinds and periods, and try to develop skills useful in the analysis and discussion of poetry. Close reading of specific poems will be used to illustrate questions of form, rhyme and rhythm, imagery, tone and content. There will be numerous short, ungraded (but required) writing assignments, group presentations, one or two longer papers, a midterm and a final exam. Other requirements for the course are regular attendance and active participation in class; final grades will reflect all the requirements. Required text: The Norton Anthology of Poetry. WL:1 (McSparran)

Section 008. Honors. This course is intended for any Honors student wishing to increase his or her enjoyment and understanding of poetry. Through a wide range of poems we will explore both the ways in which poems work and the ways in which we can understand and improve our responses to them. After an introduction to poetic analysis we will progress chronologically from Shakespeare to the present, emphasizing particularly the diversity of the last two centuries and ending with in-depth study of one or two major modern poets (probably Marianne Moore and Wallace Stevens). Class discussion and occasional informal lectures will focus primarily on close reading of individual texts, but students should also emerge from the course with some grasp of the historical development of poetry in English. Frequent short papers, the last of which will serve as a final exam; no prerequisites. The text will be The Norton Anthology of Poetry, Third Edition. Cost:2 WL:1 (Bornstein)

Section 009. A course in how to or ways to understand, feel, feel out, feel about, appreciate, evaluate, and interpret poems. Poetry typically differs from ordinary language and from prose in certain qualities, and we shall try to understand how and why it does so. As we look at and hear poems, we shall consider such things as sound, diction, rhythm, figures of speech, the line, form, and genre, authorship, audience, and context. Our readings will come from various cultures, old and now; most readings will be British and American, most of these recent or contemporary. We'll pay some attention to the histories of poetry. By the end of the term, everyone should be able to read any linguistically available poem with confidence, to know what kind of poem it is, how it works, when it might have been composed, what it might mean, and whether it's any good. Main texts: a course pack (at Kolossos Printing), and a computer-generated Intro to Poetry (free). In addition, students will choose among several topics for independent reading, to include the study of one contemporary poet. Some of our work will be collaborative, some private. Everyone will write three essays on increasingly challenging topics. There will be a test on "technical terms," another test on the course readings, and a final exam asking for the interpretation and evaluation of some new poetry. WL:1 (Smith)

Section 012. This course will provide an introduction to poetry, emphasizing the association of form and content and their link to the historical context in which poems were originally written. We will examine the ways various poetic forms reflect assumptions about the function of poetry for its audience, the role and status of the poet, and the relation of poetry to the marketplace and to people of different social classes. Our poets will range from Shakespeare to Christina Rossetti to Seamus Heaney. The course will, for the most part, be organized chronologically, but we will on occasion trace certain themes, techniques, and forms as they appear in a cluster of poems of different periods. We will also use other cultural artifacts to illuminate the workings of the poems of particular eras. The class will discuss, for instance, the common features of Renaissance poems and paintings that praise Queen Elizabeth, and the relationship between twentieth-century impressionism and the poetry of Wallace Stevens. Course Requirements include active class participation and several short papers. WL:1 (Henderson)

245/Res. College Hums. 280/Theatre 211. Introduction to Drama and Theatre. (4). (HU).

See Theatre 211. (Walsh, Brown)

270. Introduction to American Literature. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
One of the major themes in American literature is the "Americanization" of members of the various racial, religious, and ethnic groups. In fact, the very first American novel, Nathanial Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, can be viewed not only as a literary masterpiece but as a piece of ethnic literature which demonstrates the English Puritans' change and assimilation over a period of time. This section of English 270 will follow the theme of Americanization beginning with The Scarlet Letter, one of the writings from the traditional American canon, and continuing with writings from other American voices and talents including women, Chicano, Asian-, African-, Native-American and European-American writers, sections which more fully represent "American" or United States literature. We will read six novels (including The Scarlet Letter, House Made of Dawn, My Antonia, Mama Day and two others to be determined) and a number of short stories, all of which will be examined from a literary, cultural and historical perspective. The class will be primarily discussion and all students are expected to read and be fully prepared to discuss the works in class and on Confer, a computer conferencing system. Requirements also include a mid-term, final and 6-8 pp. paper. WL:1 Cost:3 (Kowalski)

274/CAAS 274. Introduction to Afro-American Literature. (3). (Excl).

This course will survey poetry, narratives fictive and autobiographical prose essays, and drama produced by Afro-American writers in the 19th and 20th centuries. We will be attempting to develop answers to several questions suggested by this body of work, including, if an Afro-American literary tradition exists, how might we define it; how successful has this body of texts been in resolving the tension between its aspirations to be both art and weapon in the struggle against slavery and other forms of racial oppression; to what extent have categories of difference within Afro-America including class, gender, historical situation, and region impacted the perceptions of black life that these writers offer; and what variety of views of America a democratic site whose promises have historically been denied to blacks is expressed by these writers. Course requirements: three 4-6 page essays; a mid-term examination; and frequent quizzes. WL:1 (Awkward)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

302. Writing About Good Books. (4). (Excl).

The goals of this course are a) to engage students in books that are enjoyable and instructive and b) to help them write more effectively and with increased pleasure. The writing portion of the course lays great emphasis on revision. Each paper is written in two drafts, and the main criterion for grading is the thoroughness of revision of the first draft. Participation in a course computer conference is mandatory. There are four books and four papers, each written in two drafts. There are no exams. WL:1 (Meisler)

308. History of the English Language. (3). (HU).

Our language has changed dramatically in the twelve hundred years of its recorded history. We would not recognize speech (Old English) of the first Germanic peoples who migrated to post-Roman Britian in the fifth century; Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (Middle English) might seem to be written in a foreign language; even Shakespeare's (early Modern) English requires special efforts. Our main task will be to understand something of sounds, words and structure of English at each of these earlier periods, but especially we will work to understand why and how a language changes (or doesn't). For example, a large core of modern words (hand, cold, over, good, love as well as other Four Letter Words) have changed little since Old English times. Some very common words have undergone regular changes in pronunciation only (earlier ban, stan, and ham have become bone, stone, and you guessed it, home ). Some words have been lost entirely ( fathe father's sister, slaeting hunting rights, feohfang bribe taking) even though the things they signify are still very much around us. What are we to make of the facts that very basic terms like husband and sister and the pronouns they, them, their were actually borrowed from Vikings? Why do we have two sets of words relating to barnyard animals calf, cow, pig (English) vs. veal, beef, pork (from French). Are you interested to learn that the words shrew, harlot, witch, frump once referred both to males and females, and in the first two cases to males alone? Or that tart and hussy are shortenings of sweetheart and housewife ? Course work will consist of frequent short assignments, group tasks, in class workshops, a midterm and final. The major prerequisite is that you come prepared to have fun. This course satisfies the requirement for a course in language for English concentrators in the Teaching Certification Program. WL:1 (Toon)

310. Discourse and Society. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
The Dewey Center Theater and Video Project.
The small number of students admitted to this course, work an average of two to two and one-half hours a week at a Detroit school, where they assist primary and middle school children in creating their own video tapes and plays. An additional two hours is spent in class meeting, where we discuss some background reading and analyze and develop our work with the children. We also plan and participate in one or two excursions by the children to Ann Arbor or other sites in Detroit. Methods of student evaluation will be decided by members of the class. Admission to the class is by permission of instructor. Check 1631 Haven for specially posted hours for interviews for this course. Cost:3 (Alexander)

315/Women's Studies 315. Women and Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 002. Modernism/Post-Modernism: Autobiographical and Historical Fictions.
This course will examine writings by women in the 20th century from the literary periods now recognized as modernism and postmodernism. It seeks to introduce students to categories of feminist literary criticism and theory as well as to gendered strategies of writing. Specifically the course will focus on gender in relation to historical narratives of class and race, on questions of "americanness" in autobiographical writings, on postmodern novels that rewrite narratives about the 19th century and on novels that structure their stories around a sex change. Readings will range from Woolf's A Room of One's Own to Stein's Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, from Cisneros' House on Mango Street to Morrison's Beloved, from a novel by a former East German writer to a lesbian mystery. Class will consist of two lectures and one day of self-facilitated small group discussions every week. Requirements include three short papers, a midterm and a final. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:4 (Herrmann)

Section 003. Definitions of Autonomy. In this course, which possibly could be subtitled "a sense of humor certainly doesn't hurt," participants will engage in a dialectic regarding what constitutes the woman's life in a society determined to be ideologically democratic and egalitarian. Beginning with early-19th Century theorists and observers and continuing up into our time, the readings will examine the literary style and attitudes of women writers from multi-ethnic backgrounds and explore through prose, poetry, film, and fiction their unsentimental treatment of tough moral issues. Both "art" and the represented "life" will be our concern. Discussion based, close reading and consistent attendance are imperative to facilitate the exchange of ideas and will be expected. Texts include several novels, a play, and a course pack of shorter works (Churchill, Didion, Freeman, Gilligan, Gordimer, Kingston, Marshall, Munro, Porter, Slessinger, Walker and others). Brief in-class writings; two papers; final exam to be determined. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:4 (DePree)

Section 004. Contemporary American Women Poets. We will be reading eight volumes of poetry published since 1980 by the following women writers: Jorie Graham, Alice Fulton, Sharon Olds, Rita Dove, Pamela Alexander, Louise Gluck, Carolyn Forche, Mary Oliver. Our recurrent questions will be about the intersections of public and private history, lyric form and semantic labor, "identity" (gender, class, nationality, race, learning) and poetic voice. In class and out, students should be prepared for intensive close reading of the poems. Two papers. One brief (collaborative) oral presentation. This course satisfies the New Traditions and American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:4 (Gregerson)

317. Literature and Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001. Caribbean and Post-Colonial Literature.
The purpose of this course is to examine some assumptions about Caribbean culture. The course will draw on literary texts, films, posters, travel writing, 'eyewitness accounts'. It will cover a significant amount of historical and theoretical ground. The work will include an extensive course pack, in-class writing assignments, one short paper and a final paper. Some of the writers will include Jamaica Kincaid, Michelle Cliff, Jean Rhys and V. S. Naipaul. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Gregg)

Section 002. Literature and Culture of Ireland. This course proposes an introductory study of the literature of Ireland from earliest times to the present. This means that we select for reading from among ancient saga, medieval and modern poetry, modern prose fiction and modern drama. We shall draw from both Gaelic literature (in translation) and Anglo-Irish literature. The course has no prerequisite and does not presume prior acquaintance with the subject, nor with Irish history, though students with some knowledge of Ireland and its history should find the course particularly rewarding. The course will be conducted by lecture, with discussion when possible. There will be brief quizzes and one hour exam. Two papers will be written, and a final examination. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (McNamara)

Section 004. The Hollywood Cinema and the Construction of "America." In this course, we will study the ways the Hollywood film industry created, contested, and re-created models of American Identity. Itself a product of immigrants, the Hollywood film industry both shaped and questioned models of ethnicity and race during a period of tremendous social, political, economic, and ideological transition, both establishing and contesting notions of a distinctive American national identity and delineating deviations from that normative model. We will focus largely on classic Hollywood films of the '30s and '40s, and then on the efforts of filmmakers of the '70s and '80s to revise their import and agenda; but we will also measure these films against fictional and non-fictional treatments of the same issues and themes. The films we will study include: Meet Me In St. Louis; Stagecoach; The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance and/or The Searchers; Little Caesar; The Godfather (I and/or II); Hester Street; Annie Hall; Chan is Missing; Do the Right Thing. Readings will include: Rober Sklar, Movie Made America; Owen Wister, The Virginian; Abraham Cahan, Yekl; Mario Puzo, The Godfather; Maxine Kingston, The Woman Warrior; Jonathan Rieder, Canarsie; essays and stories by (among others) Henry James, William Dean Howells, Ernest Hemingway, Zane Grey, Werner Sollors, Ronald Takaki. Students will be asked to take a midterm and a final exam and to write one 10 page paper. WL:1 (Freedman)

Section 005. Literature of the American Wilderness. Puritan settlers in New England saw the forest around them as a "hideous and desolate wilderness," a place of "wild beasts and wilde men" that they were destined to civilize. Today environmentalists characterize the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge as the "last great wilderness" in America and fight to save it from the oil companies. What is wilderness, and how have American attitudes toward wilderness evolved? The course will explore these questions and others about how Americans (including native Americans) have perceived the natural world and their relationship to it, as these arise from texts ranging from the earliest writing about America to twentieth century responses to Alaska. Readings will include texts illustrating the place of wilderness in the American imagination such as Henry David Thoreau's THE MAINE WOODS, John Muir's MY FIRST SUMMER IN THE SIERRA, Mary Austin's LAND OF LITTLE RAIN, Aldo Leopold's SAND COUNTY ALMANAC, William Faulkner's THE BEAR, and N. Scott Momaday's HOUSE MADE OF DAWN. We will also read some short fiction, a selection of poetry (including poems of Robinson Jeffers, Gary Snyder, Wendell Berry, A.R. Ammons, and Mary Oliver), and excerpts from the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition and from Parkman's The Oregon Trail, from accounts of their travels by early naturalists (Bartram, Audubon), from the writings of frontier women, and from twentieth-century nature writers (including Edward Abbey, Annie Dillard, John McPhee, and Barry Lopez). Students will be expected to keep a weekly journal, to write a paper of ten pages, and to take a final examination. Anyone with an interest in the literature and the issues it raises is welcome. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:2 (Knott)

318. Literary Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001. Old English Epic/Middle English Romance: Men Move Toward Women.
This course traces the evolution of Medieval English literature from a masculine oriented product (the epic) to a literature reading toward a more balanced, realistic portrayal of women and a loving relationship between the sexes (the romance). The course consists of intensive reading, lectures, and discussions of a representative sample of the major Medieval English narrative poems, the Old English epic Beowulf and some or all of the following Middle English romances: King Horn, Havelok the Dane, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, culminating in Chaucer's masterpiece Troilus and Criseyde, and ending with the last book of Malory's Morte D'Arthur. Much of the reading will be in Middle English, and an acquaintance with Middle English (Chaucer in the original for instance) is helpful but not absolutely necessary. Written work will consist of two in-class blue books, possible short quizzes and one or two take-home essays. Texts: Kennedy, trans. Beowulf; course pack King Horn/Havelok the Dane; Borroff, trans. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight; Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde; Brewer, ed. Morte D'Arthur. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:3 (Garbaty)

Section 002. Theatre, Ritual, Myth: A Study of Contemporary Performance Theory. The course explores the nature of theater and its relationship to ritual and myth in contemporary performance. By attending plays and ceremonies as well as studying written and filmed accounts, we will explore a range of performance activities that combine theater, ritual, and myth. Although some background in theater will be helpful, the course will include an exploration of the fundamentals of theater aesthetics. Reading will be drawn from contemporary dramatic literature, theater theory such as Peter Brooks The Empty Space and Artaud's The Theater and Its Double, and works from sociology and anthropology, such as Victor Turner's From Ritual to Theatre. We will use productions at the University and in the surrounding area as a laboratory, attending plays by the San Francisco Mime Troupe's, "El Teatro de la Esperanza," among others, the Performance Network, and the U of M's Department of Drama. The course method will be lecture, discussion, and demonstration. Students will write two papers, take an exam, and make a group presentation. WL:1 (Cohen)

319. Literature and Social Change. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001. The English Novel from the Margins.
Not believing that anyone genuinely knows what the English novel (considered monolithically) is, when it came to be, or by what devices it wrings responses from its readers, I have decided to offer a course on writers who challenge our (mostly) inherited ideas of who wrote, who read, and who criticized. If we can come to some understanding about these matters, maybe we can attack the problem of the novel itself. In this class we will construct ideas of the novel outside of presumed paradigms of white male discourse. Our reading will consist primarily of prose fiction and critical works written by English women and non-white people of both genders. We will begin in the early eighteenth century and end somewhere in the nineteenth. Along the way we will ask pertinent novel questions: How does this author construct character? What is the narrative method? How does the novel make real to us the world of its events? The aim of this course is not to dismiss, replace, or segregate the works of white male novelists. I hope it will highlight the novel's abilities to explore the psychic and physical worlds of characters who often seem invisible in other kinds of discourse. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Artis)

Section 002. The Quest for Utopia. This course will survey the development of utopian thought and literature from Plato to the present, and some of the anti-utopian or dystopian reaction against it. Admittedly, such a sweep is overly ambitious even ridiculous so I will limit our hubris by concentrating on a few of the major nineteenth and twentieth-century utopias Looking Backward, News from Nowhere, Herland, for example and a few of the dystopias We, Brave New World, The Handmaid's Tale. The class format will be primarily lecture, but with questions and challenges always welcome. There will be mid-term and final exams and about ten pages of writing in optional formats. WL:1 Cost:2 (Beauchamp)

323. Creative Writing. Junior standing and written permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001. Fiction.
Students are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work and on short stories selected from the text, and, finally, to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. Students who want to enroll in the course should turn in a manuscript to the main departmental office (7609 Haven Hall) by 4:00 PM on the first day of classes (Thursday, September 5th). A list of those admitted will be posted on the instructor's door by noon of the first day this section meets. WL:1 Cost:2 (Ezekiel)

Section 002. Media and Other Arts. A course in mixed media composition, especially combinations of poetry, drama, and fiction with graphic arts, painting, music, dance, and photography. Prerequisite: experience with one or more of these art forms and interest in exploring their relations with other forms of art. Permission of instructor to be obtained before CRISP registration by conference during office hours (posted on door of 2617 Haven Hall). Requirements are explained in detail during the pre-election interview. They include maintaining a journal of varied writing and other forms of composition and completing a series of weekly composition projects, individual and collaborative. Cost:1 WL:3 (Wright)

Sections 003-Fiction; 004-Poetry, 005-Poetry. Students who want to enroll in one of these courses should turn in a manuscript to the main departmental office (7609 Haven Hall) by 4:00 PM on the first day of classes (Thursday, September 5th). A list of those admitted will be posted on the instructor's door by noon of the first day this section meets.

325. Essay Writing: The Art of Exposition. (4). (Excl).

This is an upper level composition course for students interested in improving their writing, with particular attention paid to the development of individual style expressed in the details of voice, tone, nuance, and rhythm. All classes will proceed on the assumption that these basic principles inform good writing: that wriitng is thinking; that writing well requires attention to issues of audience; that revision is a necessary part of the writing process; and that all writing reflects the writer's view of the world. Class discussion will include a consideration of student writing. To focus discussion and to provide subject matter for writing assignments, readings by professional writers will be assigned in most sections. Writing assignments will vary according to instructor, but the general requirement is forty pages of prose (300 words to a page). Course descriptions for individual sections will be available in 224 Angell Hall after March 27.

329. Practical English. (4). (Excl).
Sections 001 and 002.
Don't take this course if you want an authoritarian instructor to provide you models for writing your resume. Practical English is a student run workshop that allows its members a great measure of freedom in determining how they will structure their time and what they will write. But it also demands intense participation, commitment to peer groups for editing and grading (yes, grading), and willingness to use progressive revision for writing improvement. The workshop simulates a business or professional environment in which work is done both individually and collaboratively and in which writing and speaking are linked. Students typically produce such practical forms as letters, reports, memos, summaries, proposals, speeches, working papers, essays, minutes, and evaluations. Late work is never accepted. Requirements: attendence at all class sessions and at small group meetings outside the class; timely completion of a set of standard assignments and of a corporate project chosen by the workshop; oral presentations to the workshop. The pages of finished prose usually number 25-30, not including required drafts. No exams. This course fulfills the upper-level writing requirement. If you are not present at both of the first two sessions, your CRISPed place will be given to someone else. Text: A Writer's Reference by Diana Hacker (1989) plus a small course pack. WL:1 Cost:2 (Crawford)

350. Literature in English to 1660. (4). (Excl).

This course is the first of a two-term sequence designed to study the historical development of literature in English. Most of our attention will be devoted to close analysis of a dazzling variety of texts from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. We will work to foreground the historical, social, cultural, and intellectual issues to which these texts respond, and to interrogate our criteria for designating a text as "major." Writers to be studied include Chaucer, Marlowe, Spenser, Shakespeare, Donne, Herbert, and Milton. The course features three hours a week of lecture; groups of twenty-five students will meet a fourth hour under the leadership of doctoral students to discuss the material further, and to work on their writing for the course. There will be three essays of approximately five pages each, a mid-term and a final examination. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English majors. WL:1 Cost:2 (Schoenfeldt)

367. Shakespeare's Principal Plays. (4). (HU).
Section 001.
In English 367 we shall read a representative sample of Shakespeare's best plays. "Representative" means attention to comedy, tragedy, history, and romance the kinds Shakespeare worked in. Here is a tentative syllabus: ROMEO AND JULIET, A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM, 1 HENRY IV, 2 HENRY IV, TWELFTH NIGHT, HAMLET, MEASURE FOR MEASURE, KING LEAR, and THE TEMPEST. I don't have a particular method of approach, and I don't concentrate on special themes or topics. The idea is to go through the plays as intensively as possible, with an eye to getting pleasure from them. You don't need to be an English concentrator. I would not want to discourage anyone who cares about literature from taking the course. But a friendly word of caution: the material is demanding, and maybe you will find the approach demanding, too. I don't talk down to students, and wouldn't wish to betray the plays by simplifying them unduly. They demand a fair amount of background, in literature, including classical literature, in history, and in religion (The Bible). For better or worse, Shakespeare is the most highbrow of writers, profoundly to use the dread "e" word "elitist." Coming to terms with him, you have to rack your brains. If you don't mind extending yourself, this may be a good course for you, but you should estimate the difficulty before taking the plunge. Instruction will be by lecture / discussion. Assuming that the class turns out fairly large, it will be difficult to elicit informal discussion. I intend to try however, and will count on student collaboration. You can expect spot quotation quizzes on the plays, two short papers, a midterm and a final. You must take all the quizzes to be eligible for a passing grade in the course. The course will depend on an averaging (not strictly quantified) of your written work, plus an estimate of your performance in class. The texts will be the Signet paperback series, one volume to a play. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:2 (Fraser)

Section 008. This is the first semester of a full-year course on the Plays of Shakespeare. In the Fall we will concern ourselves with the movement and development of Shakespearean tragedy by concentrating on "the grand style" of Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, and King Lear. But in doing so we will study the origins of this tragic mode in the earlier tragedies and its later manifestations in Antony and Cleopatra, Tinon of Athens, and Coriolonus. This course is also for admission on a term by term basis. There will be a mid-term, final, and a series of short written assignments. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:2 (Brater)

English 370, 371, & 372

Each of these courses will range over the materials of the periods indicated below in one or more of a variety of ways. Some may be multi-generic surveys; some may focus on the development during the period(s) of specific genres; some may be topical, others formal in their principle of organization. All sections will emphasize the development of student skill in writing essays analyzing the materials and evaluating the approaches in question.

370. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001. The Elizabethan World.
The literature of the Elizabethan period didn't flourish in a vacuum any more than our own literature does. Shakespeare, Marlowe, Spenser, Sidney and their contemporaries all had daily lives as active as any of our own. Most of them had families, aging parents, friends who weren't literary, children whom they loved and often lost; they worried about politics and the cost of living, and generally inhabited a world about which we know far too little. In this course we will attempt to recover some of the social, political, and economic "surrounds" of their lives and try to discover how such understanding enriches our reading of the texts they produced. We'll read some standard texts and some unfamiliar ones; our approach will be broadly cultural and historical as well as literary. As this is an ECB certification course, attention will be paid to writing. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:2 (Ingram)

Section 002. Love and Heroism. We will read some of the best and most representative works of medieval and Renaissance English Literature, beginning with the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf and ending with Milton's Paradise Lost. Along the way, we will read some Chaucer, Gawain and the Green Knight, some of Malory's retellings of Arthurain legend in the Morte Darthur, Elizabethan love poetry, and several Shakespeare plays (including Othello and Antony and Cleopatra ). Our focus will be on the evolution of ideas about love and heroism and on some of the ways love and expectations about heroism become entangled. Other, related concerns will include the testing of chivalric ideals, changing ways of representing women and their roles, and visions of social and political order. There will be two or three papers, a mid-term, and a final examination. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Knott)

Section 003. Pills to Purge Nostalgia: A Specific for Hope. This course will present for study a number of medieval texts of various sorts (poetry, romance, narrative, fabliau, drama) with an emphasis on comedy (farce, parody, grotesquerie) in relation to sacred themes, as well as a continuing attempt to define the nature and purpose of comedy more generally in relation to ideas specifically medieval and putatively universal. Writings will be assigned to fulfill the description of the course as completing the Junior/Senior writing requirement. No hour exams, mid-term, or quizzes, but constancy in attendence is required, and there will be a final examination. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (McNamara)

371. Studies in Literature, 1600-1830. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 002. Wordsworth, Goethe, Byron, Melville.
This is a course in international Romanticism, a widespread literary movement that took on power and energy in many countries in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Some topics studied are: Romantic populism the effort to recover an English or German or American folk culture and create a poetry that draws on the language of ordinary people; Romantic naturalism the search for spiritual fulfillment and emotional release through the experience of landscape; Romantic anarchism the revolutionary potential in Romanticism, the danger Romantic individualism poses to the social order and to a traditional understanding of religion, the misgivings of most Romantic writers about political revolution; and Romantic art, the drive to experiment, the yearning for immortality. Probable readings: Austen, Pride and Prejudice (as a counterstatement to Romanticism), Wordsworth and Coleridge, Lyrical Ballads, Goethe, Faust, Part One and Elective Affinities, Byron, Cain and parts of Don Juan, Melville, Moby-Dick. If time allows, we will spend a week on Emily Dickinson as a woman Romantic poet. Four papers. A reading knowledge of German is helpful but not required. WL:1 (McIntosh)

Section 003. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Literature. The period from 1660 to 1750 saw profound changes in British politics, philosophy, religion, science, social customs, and the arts, including literature. The lectures in this course, frequently illustrated with slides and music, will attempt to dramatize and explain some of those developments, and thus to equip students to read eighteenth-century literature with pleasure and understanding. Most of the ideas we associate with the modern world, including democracy and individual liberty, had their origins in these years. Far from being an "Age of Reason," the period was an age of passionate extremes, and its literature includes slashing satire, sparkling stage comedy, wicked obscenity, and profound meditations on human nature. Since the Department of English regularly offers a course on the eighteenth-century novel, our emphasis will fall on poetry and drama, though we shall of course include some prose fiction as well. Authors include John Dryden, John Wilmot (Earl of Rochester), William Wycherley, Aphra Behn, Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Anne Finch (Countess of Winchilsea), John Gay, Daniel Defoe, Eliza Haywood, and Henry Fielding. Four class meetings weekly. The formality of the lectures will depend on the size of the enrollment, but at least one of the four classes will be in a discussion format, and questions will always be welcome. Students using this course to satisfy the ECB upper-level writing requirement must write three papers; others may take a midterm hour-test in lieu of one of those papers. All students will take a final examination. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:3 (Winn)

Section 004. Other Worlds. This course will examine a number of diverse works during the period 1600-1830 which take place in imagined or geographically remote worlds and which sometimes contain mythological or fantastic characters. We will explore both the characteristics which make each world unique and the correspondences between it and the real world. There will be frequent writing of short pieces and a final exam. Works will be chosen from this list: Shakespeare, The Tempest; Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress; Milton, Paradise Lost; Behn, Oroonoko; Defoe, Robinson Crusoe; Swift, Gulliver's Travels; Pope, The Rape of the Lock; Mary Shelley, Frankenstein; poems by Blake, Coleridge, and Keats; Hawthorne, Rappaccini's Daughter; Poe, selected prose and poetry. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Howes)

372. Studies in Literature, 1830-Present. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001. Literary and Social Issues.
Despite its astonishing technological achievements certainly without parallel in former epochs the 20th century has been characterized as the "Age of Anxiety," and its most notable literature abundantly reflects this sense of mankind's alienation from the inner self and from the outer world. This course will examine representative English and American texts which powerfully treat themes of anomie, entropy, and isolation. The approach will be contrastive, achieved through clusters of novels exploring similar cultural, social, and intellectual "problems." For example: colonialism / imperialism in Conrad's HEART OF DARKNESS (Africa) matched with Graham Greene's THE QUIET AMERICAN (Vietnam); the woman in rebellion against strangling societal norms in Kate Chopin's THE AWAKENING, Wharton's CUSTOM OF THE COUNTRY,and Lawrence's LADY CHATTERLY'S LOVER; the deracinated / isolated protagonist in his failed pursuit of community in Hemingway's FAREWELL TO ARMS and Faulkner's LIGHT IN AUGUST; the quarrel with God reflected in Joyce's DUBLINERS and Flannery O'Conner's COLLECTED STORIES; and finally the demoralization resulting from media saturation and mass culture in Orwell's KEEP THE ASPIDISTRA FLYING, Nathanael West's DAY OF THE LOCUST, and Updike's RABBIT IS RICH. On any good day, about 90% class discussion and 10% positioning lecture. Required commitment (reasonable attendance and oral participation), along with the usual round of short and longer papers, a notebook of responses to readings, and a final exam. Non-majors welcome. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English majors. WL:1 Cost:3 (Eby)

Section 002. Literary Reconstructions: 19th and 20th Century British Fiction. This course will deal with some post-1950 British fiction that uses, reconstructs, and models itself on earlier (mostly nineteenth century) fiction. The earlier fiction will also be read, as the course focuses on how more recent writers depend on, alter, and create a continuing and changing tradition through literature. Tentative book list: Angus Wilson's Anglo-Saxon Attitudes and Dicken's Our Mutual Friend; Margaret Drabble's The Millstone and George Eliot's Middlemarch; John Fowles' The French Lieutenant's Woman and Hardy's Jude the Obscure; A. S. Byatt's Possession and Meredith's The Egoist, as well as some specified Victorian poems; Doris Lessing's The Golden Notebook and D. H. Lawrence's Women in Love. The class will proceed through discussion and the entirely interruptible lecture. Three papers, a mid-term, and a final examination. WL:1 (Gindin)

Section 003. Madness, Deviance, and Sexuality. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, "madness" has been explained from a variety of different perspectives: psychological, sociological, medical, and legal, to name a few. Yet one idea seems to remain constant in discourses on madness: whether literally or metaphorically, disfunctions of the mind are linked inextricably with disfunctions of the sexual body and of the body politic. In this course, we will explore how literary representations of the interrelationships between madness, deviance and sexuality respond to widespread cultural anxieties about difference and, in turn, how literary texts shape how we think about madness and sanity; deviance and normality; the body and the mind; social disorder and order. In order to contextualize our readings of novels, we will also read a selection of primary and secondary texts that raise questions about: the ways in which definitions of "madness" have been harnessed to definitions of "deviance" in order to police the sexual and social body; the criminalization of madness; the gendering of madness and the sexual politics of mental illness; the institutionalization of "normal" and "deviant" sexualities. Texts may include: Bram Stoker, DRACULA; Sigmund Freud, FRAGMENT OF AN ANALYSIS OF A CASE OF HYSTERIA; M. E. Braddon, LADY AUDLEY'S SECRET; Charlotte Perkins Gilman, THE YELLOW WALLPAPER; Henry James, THE TURN OF THE SCREW; Djuna Barnes, NIGHTWOOD; E. M. Forster, MAURICE; F. Scott Fitzgerald, TENDER IS THE NIGHT; Toni Morrison, THE BLUEST EYE; D. M. Thomas, THE WHITE HOTEL (all at Shaman Drum). Coursepack at Accu-Copy. Class will be conducted mainly as discussion. Requirements: Mandatory attendance, active class participation, four 1-2 page papers, one longer paper (in draft and revision sequence), and a final exam. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (S. Robinson)

Section 004. The Monologue in Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. We will explore a variety of "monologues" from Victorian and Modern works, thinking as we go why a writer would choose to work with such a technique, discussing its advantages and limitations. Readings will concentrate on fiction, but will also include poetry, drama, and diaries or autobiography. A tentative reading list will cover the dramatic monologues of Tennyson and Browning, the "interior" monologues of James Joyce (with selections from Ulysses ) and of William Faulkner (The Sound and the Fury), the first person narratives of Joseph Conrad (Heart of Darkness ) and Ford Madox Ford (The Good Soldier), the "dramatic soliloquies" of Virginia Woolf (The Waves), some plays of Samual Beckett (Krapp's Last Tape), the story-telling of Isak Dineson (Seven Gothic Tales), and the autobiography of Robert Graves (Good-bye to All That). We might also make a case for a single speaker in T. S. Eliot's "The Waste Land." Requirements: two papers, mid-term, final. WL: 1 (Zwiep)

391. Honors Survey: Medieval English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This course, the first in the English Honors sequence, surveys a wide range of literature from the Middle Ages. We will analyze both representative and eccentric literary productions, studying minor works and works by women as well as the more commonly studied works by men. Throughout the term, we will focus on the relationships between literary texts and their original cultural contexts, and we will attempt to decide how we might best interpret the texts from our own very different cultural perspectives. We will consider such cultural trademarks as gender roles and the relation of the self to the community. Requirements: active participation in discussion, oral reports, midterm and final examinations, two essays, frequent informal writing activities. WL:1 Cost:2 (Tinkle)

392. Honors Survey: Renaissance English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This course, the second in the English Honors sequence, is designed to be taken concurrently with English 391. Its principal purpose is to introduce students to literature and culture during the later sixteenth and earlier seventeenth century in England. The reading list will include plays by Shakespeare and Jonson; lyric poetry by Sidney, Donne, and Herbert; and selections from large scale poetic works by Spenser and Milton. The course also aims to introduce students to the methods and approaches historical, interpretive, and theoretical characteristic of current scholarship in this field. Among our readings will be some work by members of the Michigan English department, who will discuss their ideas with us in person. There will be some short papers and a long paper; class participation very important. WL: permission of the Honors chair. Cost:2 (Barkan)

406/Ling. 406. Modern English Grammar. (3). (Excl).

This is an advanced survey of descriptive English grammar. The approach will be functional and theoretically eclectic. We will look closely at the formal and semantic motivations for basic grammatical categories and processes in English (word formation, "parts of speech," phrases, clauses and sentences) and we will discuss how these structures contribute to the expressive potential of the system. There will be daily practice in grammatical parsing, weekly quizzes, and a final exam on the factual material. The course should be attractive to those professionally interested in English education, practical criticism, or further work in linguistic theory as well as those generally interested in becoming more articulate about the structure of our language. Texts: Randolph Quirk, and Sidney Greenbaum, A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English and John Algeo, Exercises in Contemporary English. This course satisfies the requirement for a course in language for English concentrators in the Teaching Certification Program. WL:1 Cost:2 (Cureton)

411. Art of the Film. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001. Film Theory and Criticism.
For Fall Term, 1992, this course is jointly offered with Film/Video 414, Section 001. (Konigsberg)

412/Film-Video 412. Major Directors. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001. American Comic Masters Since the 60's: Woody Allen, Mel Brooks, Blake Edwards
(and maybe a few others). We will make a careful analytical study of the representative films spanning the careers of these contrasting (though occasionally complementary) American masters. For comparison purposes, we may even throw in a few films by other comic craftsmen (choices that come to mind are from Kubrick, Altman, Ashby, Pollack or the Coens). The course will emphasize the cinematic "languages" and the dramatic themes of these directors, the relationship between what they say and how they say it, their styles, their content, and their contexts, and the nature of their comedy within its era. I will post the exact schedule of films outside my office (2627 Haven Hall) before the beginning of the Fall term. There will be one film per week, three hours of lecture, and mandatory small discussion groups scheduled at your convenience. English / Film-Video 412 may be repeated if content is different from a previous election; there are no prerequisites. Nevertheless, the course is not "An Introduction to the Movies." Previous work in film history, theory, and mechanics, critical analysis, and aesthetics couldn't hurt. Should film study be new to you, do not feel insecure. You will not be alone, and the course's reading will give you a solid foundation. I will also be happy to recommend preparatory reading before you leave at the end of the current term; come see me before early May. An obligatory lab fee, cheaper even than admission to campus film societies let alone commercial houses, covers the cost of seeing films, most of them probably at the Michigan Theater. Some reading (Giannetti's Understanding Movies or an alternate text if that is old news to you) and rigorous writing. Two 2-page papers; two 5-page papers; final exam; no "Incompletes" except under catastrophic circumstances. Those who do not care about the quality of their critical prose will find no place to hide. Anyone who uses "media" with a singular verb flunks. WL:1 Cost:2 (Bauland)

413/Film-Video 413. Film Genres and Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001: Gunsels, Private Dicks, and the Hardboiled Blonde: Gender in Film Noir.
See Film-Video 413. (White)

415. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Literature. (3). (Excl).
Creative Approaches.
"Never, want to say anything so strongly," poet Richard Hugo advised, "that you give up the option of finding something better." Albert Einstein said: "To know is nothing; to imagine is everything." Jazz genius Lester Young put it this way: "Necessity is a mother!" With imagination as its key, this useful, cross-genre workshop will put writers back in touch with an aspect of themselves that often gets cryogenized during preprofessional years. Through take-home writing exercises, in-class experimentation and improvisational techniques designed to strengthen intuition (get on friendly terms with the unexpected), adventurous students will gradually be able to unjam or unlock many doors and windows to their open-minded, playful-hearted selves, which is where creativity slumbers and roars. WL:1 (Young)

416/Hist. 487/Women's Studies 416. Women in Victorian England. (3). (Excl).

This is an interdisciplinary course using historical documents and literature to explore the changing position of women in Victorian England. The Victorian age (1837-1901) in England saw some of the most culturally repressive attitudes toward women, but also some of the strongest efforts to emancipate women. These extremes coincided with the first industrial revolution, and a time of great disparities in wealth and poverty. We will examine the stereotypes of the ideal woman, and the many responses to them; the struggle to improve women's education and to open the professions; the living conditions and lives of working women; and such general issues as sexuality, crime and prostitution. Readings will include a volume of primary sources, three novels, an autobiography, poetry, critical essays and a course pack. Requirements: one critical paper, one annotated bibliography of primary sources; and one final exam. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:3 (Vicinus)

417. Senior Seminar. Senior concentrator in English. May not be repeated for credit. (4). (Excl).
NOTE: English 417 should be elected by Senior English concentrators only.
All sections of English 417 fulfill the Junior-Senior Writing Requirement. Please Add the ECB Modification at CRISP.

Section 001. Major Novels of William Faulkner. This course will focus on a study of the background, genesis, and composition of probably four novels, culminating in a close reading of the texts and discussion and the writing of papers developing from this whole process. The novels will probably include LIGHT IN AUGUST, THE SOUND AND THE FURY, HAMLET, GO DOWN, MOSES. This course will treat the backgrounds and genesis of Faulkner's work and then go on to a close reading of the novels mentioned above. Classes will involve both lecture and discussion, and the written work will include two papers and a final examination. Each student will present one of the papers in class. This course satisfies the American Literature Requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:1 (Blotner)

Section 002. Robert Browning's Dramatic Monologues. We'll start with Browning in the 1840's as he developed the art of the dramatic monologue and secretly courted and eloped with Elizabeth Barrett. The middle part of the course will take us through the great monologues of Men and Women and Dramatis Personae, and the death of Mrs. Browning in 1861. Finally, we'll spend about three weeks on Browning's masterpiece, The Ring and the Book (1868-69). There will be several short papers, an oral presentation followed by a seminar paper, and a final exam. WL:1 Cost:2 (English)

Section 003. Native American Narrative. In this seminar our main focus will be on a selection of five or six novels written by three leading contemporary Native American writers: James Welch, Leslie Marmon Silko, and Louise Erdrich. The novels to be taken up (not necessarily in this order) will probably include Welch's Winter in the Blood and Fool's Crow, Silko's Ceremony and Almanac of the Dead, and Erdrich's Love Medicine and Tracks. But we'll also be reading some short stories by lesser known writers, as well as several collaborative autobiographical works, e.g. Black Elk Speaks, both to "warm up" our critical skills and to gain some sense of the background against which our three novelists have written. In their efforts to present accurate, appropriate and forceful accounts of Native American life, Welch, Silko, and Erdrich have had to contend with stereotypes promoted by "Indian-lovers" as well as "Indian-haters." Our study of their writing should complicate if not explode these stereotypes; in some ways students electing this course will emerge from it "knowing" a lot less about Native Americans than they did before, the first step, of course, to acquiring some real knowledge about the highly various cultures, histories and current experience of the first inhabitants of this land. Students choosing to enroll should be ready to participate vigorously in class discussion, to make oral reports, and to write one or more short papers plus a long research paper. As all texts will have been written in English, no knowledge of Pikuni, Keres, Ojibwa, or Lakota will be required. Nor will any dancing with wolves. This course satisfies the New Traditions and American literature requirements for English concentrators. (Faller)

Section 004. The Politics of Desire. The aim of this course is to introduce students to English and American literature from the seventeenth to twentieth centuries that confronts the relation between political aspirations and expressions of desire in a variety of literary forms. Whether describing love of a spiritual nature (agape) or of an erotic nature (eros), literary works frequently use models of courtship and seduction to convey political designs. Studying a range of texts from diaries and autobiographies to poems, plays and novels by writers such as Samuel Pepys, Aphra Behn, Daniel Defoe, Alexander Pope, Mary Wollstonecraft, Jane Austen, Emily Brontë, Emily Dickinson, Joseph Conrad, T. S. Eliot and Toni Morrison, we will examine why the human body and the body politic so often become interrelated symbols of power. Grades for this course will be based on two essays (including a long research essay), two exams. a series of response papers, class presentations and regular participation. WL:1 (Flint)

Section 005. Henry James in Context. We will read some of the major novels of Henry James, alongside and against the works of major influences, contemporaries, and rivals for cultural as well as literary authority. Novels will be paired one week for the progenitor/antagonist, one (and a half?) for a fiction or critical writing of James. We will raise such questions as James' relation to George Eliot and the "great tradition" of nineteenth-century fiction via a comparison of Middlemarch and Portrait of a Lady, his response to Oscar Wilde and aestheticism via a comparison of The Picture of Dorian Gray and The Ambassadors, his encounter with domestic or sentimental fiction via a juxtaposition of Uncle Tom's Cabin and The Wings of the Dove, and his deployment of the conventions of sensation fiction via a study of a fiction of Wilkie Collins and The Turn of the Screw. Our intent will be not only to read some remarkably complicated and fun works, but also to get some sense of the changing social and cultural dynamics of authorship itself in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Requirements: three short papers, a final longer paper. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:2 (Freedman)

Section 006. Women Writers of the African Diaspora. This course is organized around four interrelated concerns: Black women as discursive objects: European writings on Africa and the Caribbean; the Black woman as "speaking subject": slave narratives; selected Black women writers' theories of reading and writing, their engagement with "history" and prior discourse; and selected literary texts by Black women. Requirements: oral presentations, two short papers, and a longer research paper of 10-15 pps. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Gregg)

Section 007. Shakespeare in Production. The simple premise of the course is that a production is among other things a critical reading of the play. The common course work will be the discussion of some of Shakespeare's plays and such productions as we can get access to (BBC videotapes, films, and presumably some amateur readings of our own as the equivalent of seminar reports). There will be short written exercises and each student will write a seminar paper on a topic arising from the course work. The grade will be determined by seminar paper. It may be necessary to change times to special evening sessions to accommodate the readings-reports in the second half of the term. Therefore all students will have to be able to attend these special sessions at the time we will determine at the first meeting. Students will be expected to pay for two or three theater tickets and perhaps a film fee. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English majors. WL:1 Cost:1 (Lenaghan).

Section 008. The Short Poem in English Literature. In this course, we will undertake a textually rigorous, conceptually ambitious, and when possible historically informed reading of a collection of short poems culled from the Renaissance through the modern period. In class, we aim for intensity, depth, and self-reflexiveness. Self-reflexiveness means the bearing of the poem's argument and themes on its own situation, methods, and values; and, the bearing of our own critical approaches on our situation, activities, and values. When connections are found between poems by different writers and from different periods, we'll try to identify the frameworks that generate or endorse those relations. Among the topics to be explored: the figure of the author, technologies and economies of writing and distribution, rhetorics of speaking vs. writing, the relation between writing and difference (philosophical, sociological, psychological, gender), writing considered as a mode of production, the relation between appropriation and representation, artifactual vs. processual poetry, fictions of composition and of aesthetic form. Individual students or groups of students will present poems of their choice to the class. Three papers, the first a narrow textual explication, the second an exposition of a particular critical method, the third an application of a method to a poem. WL:1 (Levinson)

Section 009. Sappho and the Lyric Tradition. Sappho of Lesbos, the Greek archaic poet who wrote lyrics sometime around the seventh century B.C., has inspired writers throughout following centuries despite (or because of) the fact that her work survives only in fragments. This course surveys a number of poets who have translated, imitated, or aligned themselves with Sappho in various languages and historical contexts. We will begin with a close study of Sappho's poetry, referring to the original Greek whenever possible, reading recent critical essays, and comparing 20th-century English translations (e.g., Barnard, Barnstone, Carson, Davenport, Lattimore). After briefly considering the reception of Sappho in antiquity, the Renaissance, and Romanticism, we will analyze in more detail the "decadent" Sappho in poems by Swinburne and Renee Vivien, and the "imagist" Sappho in poems by H.D. Finally, we will trace the emergence of "Sapphic" poetics in contemporary American poetry and The Lesbian Body by Monique Wittig. Throughout the semester, we will also develop some theoretical questions about the function of "tradition," about Sappho as lyric "subject," and about representing the female body and feminine desire. Requirements for completing the course will include a class presentation, two critical essays, a Sapphic translation, and a creative response to Sappho. No knowledge of Greek is required. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Prins)

423. The Writing of Fiction. Open to seniors and graduate students; written permission of the instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Students are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work and on short stories selected from the text, and, finally, to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. Students interested in applying to the course should turn in a manuscript to the main departmental office (7609 Haven Hall) by 4:00 PM on the first day of classes (Thursday, September 5). A list of students admitted will be posted on the instructor's door by noon of the first day this section meets. WL:1 (Ezekiel)

Section 002. In this class we'll be writing, reading, and talking about fiction. Students who sign up for the class should expect to complete fifty pages of fiction; they should be willing to revise what they already have written. Participation in class discussions will be essential to the success of the course. Students interested in applying to the course should turn in a manuscript to the main departmental office (7609 Haven Hall) by 4:00 PM on the first day of classes (Thursday, September 5). A list of students admitted will be posted on the instructor's door by noon of the first day this section meets. WL:1 (Baxter)

429. The Writing of Poetry. Written permission of instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

English 429 is an advanced writing course for serious poets, and assumes a good working knowledge of 20th century American poetry. The course aims both to tighten workshop members' control of craft, an to be a conversation about the problems and contradictions with which we work as poets: to explore the poetic assumptions, tastes, practices and goals of the group. What, for example, are the political and philosophic implications of poetic choices, and what aesthetics might our ideas and desires require or imply? Requirements: each workshop member will attend regularly, produce 250 lines over the semester, write weekly responses to others' work and to assigned readings, and lead class discussions. Students interested in applying to the course should turn in 5 sample poems and a brief statement of purpose (1 p. typed) to the main departmental office (7609 Haven Hall) by 4:00 PM on the first day of classes (Thursday, September 5). A list of students admitted will be posted on the instructor's door by noon of the first day this section meets. Texts: A Poulin, ed., Contemporary American Poetry; John Ashbery, A Wave; Sharon Olds, The Gold Cell; Robert Pinsky, The History of My Heart. WL:1 (Terada)

430. The Rise of the Novel. (4). (Excl).

The novel is at once innovative and traditional, and has been so from its beginning. We shall start by looking at some of the predecessors of the novel; it would be helpful for students to have some familiarity with the epic (Iliad or Odyssey ) and the romance (Dante's Divine Comedy or Spenser's Fairie Queene ). Such works form the idealistic foundation from which the novel often makes satiric departures, and there will not be time in the course to study them properly. In the course itself we will read both parts of Cervante's Don Quixote and works drawn from such early English authors of fiction as Defoe, Swift, Richardson, Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, Walpole, Goldsmith, Burney, and Austen. The class has been scheduled to allow for occasional showings of films based on the novels but especially to give an opportunity for one meeting to be devoted to eighteenth-century dance. Writings will consist chiefly of brief shared notes on the reading, participation in a computer conference and a final exam. Class meetings will consist chiefly of discussion; all students are expected to be regular and active participants in class meetings. Students who cannot meet this expectation should not take this course. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. WL: (Cloyd)

432. The American Novel. (4). (Excl).

Why do American Writers express the subtlest philosophical issues through violent and melodramatic actions? Why do they create characters who aren't quite people, plots which interrupt themselves so often that they aren't quite stories, environments that are not the streets and houses we know, and endings that are not resolutions or answers so much as disturbing open questions? We will wrestle with these problems in an attempt to define what is unique about American fiction. At the same time, our primary focus will be on each work in terms of itself. The course will proceed ahistorically, by concerns rather than dates. This is a tentative listing of those concerns and the writers and works we will consider. Frontier as Metaphor: Hawthorne (Stories), Twain (Huckleberry Finn), James (Daisy Miller), Ellison, (Invisible Man), Barth (End of the Road ). Thinking the Self into Being: Chopin (The Awakening), Fitzgerald (The Great Gatsby ). Ontological Insecurity, or Anxiety and Power: Melville (Benito Cereno and Moby-Dick), James ( Turn of the Screw), Morrison, (The Bluest Eye ), Faulkner (The Sound and the Fury ). We will move forward and back in time to identify literary and experimental issues that have seemingly permanent status in American lives. The course will combine lectures and discussions. Two essays, midterm, and final examination are required. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:3 (Weisbuch)

433. The Modern Novel. (4). (Excl).

This course will examine developments in English fiction from the turn of the century to 1962. We will explore the ways in which the twentieth-century novel, rather than being driven by plot, attempts to trace, in Joyce's words, "the curve of an emotion." Virginia Woolf tells us that "human nature changed" in the first decade of the 1900s. Certainly the way novelists constructed human nature changed dramatically. We will also discuss issues that might be broadly grouped under the heading "gender": how do men and women in our century respond to or initiate the radical redefinitions of sex roles that occur during our century? Or are those "radical redefinitions" more rhetorical than substantive? Readings will include works by Bennett, The Old Wive's Tale; Ford, The Good Soldier; Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man; Lawrence, Women in Love; Woolf, To the Lighthouse; Stein, Three Lives; Lowry, Under the Volcano; Lessing, The Golden Notebook. Course requirements will include three essays (two five-page papers and a final, more substantial essay that's about ten pages long). There will be a mid-term and a final exam. WL: 1 (Whittier-Ferguson).

434. The Contemporary Novel. (4). (Excl).
Living Writers.
Although offered under the general rubric of "Contemporary Fiction," this course will differ from the standard such offering in several ways. First, it will attempt no survey; we will focus on nine or ten books. As such, and though there will be considerable reading, the emphasis will be on close analysis. Second, the curriculum has been designed around those authors who have agreed to participate in the class itself. The aim of the course is to provide the student as reader with a "living" sense of the writer to have the latter literally in the room with the former. The syllabus has been organized accordingly, and under the assumption that practitioners are crucial as spokespersons for the craft. Andrea Barrett, Larry Brown, Bret Lott, Jay McInerney, Jane Smiley and Robert Stone are among those authors scheduled to visit the campus next fall, to appear in class and then to offer public readings of new work. Resident faculty members such as Charles Baxter, Alyson Hagy and Al Young have also agreed to appear. Routinely, we will hold one class period devoted to the author prior to his or her arrival focussing both on the range of the career and on the novel or story collection at hand. In the second session, the professor will serve as a kind of moderator while the students and "living writer" take the center stage. We will talk about the distance between intention and execution, the difference in the perceived and actual achievement, the process of revision; we might discuss the history of composition, the habits of the particular writer, the vicissitudes of reception, etc. The flesh-and-bone presence of an author can render the experience of scrutiny vivid; intonation and intention come to life. Written questions submitted to each author will be part of the coursework, as will be a journal and essay. Attendance is required at each class meeting and also at the fiction readings scheduled on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons at 4:00 and 5:00 respectively. WL:1 (Delbanco)

440. Modern Poetry. (3). (Excl).

This course will discuss not so much Modernism, but Modernisms; Modernist poetry was not a single movement, but a series of clashes and alliances between movements, as contradictory as it was exciting. We'll discuss the developing poetics and politics of Modernism's various competing avant-gardes Imagism, Impressionism, and Vorticism, for example in relation to the philosophic and literary traditions from which they sprang and to which they reacted. We will try to trace Modernist poetry's rise and fall, and will discuss what's involved in being an avant-garde. The course will be particularly concerned to draw connections between Modernist poetry and related movements in the visual arts: Cubism, Futurism, primitivism. Since the poets involved frequently changed their positions and styles, we'll read the period very chronologically beginning with early Yeats, Pound, and Eliot, for example and then returning to their later work later in the semester. This should also give the course more variety from week to week, as we'll always be reading a mixture of poets. Depending on class size and makeup, our experience of class time will vary. But since we meet only once a week in the evenings, we'll want to make each meeting count. Each meeting will contain some lecture, slide presentation of visual arts, question and answer, students' talks, discussion, and writing. Course requirements include attendance, 2 shorter and 1 longer paper, 2 midterms, a final, and possibly an oral presentation. We'll read the works of Yeats, Pound, Eliot, Stein, H.D., Lewis, Williams, Moore, Crane, Riding, and Auden, and discuss that of several visual artists and theorists (Picasso, Marinetti) as well. WL:1 (Terada)

443/Theatre 321. History of Theatre I. (3). (HU).

See Theatre and Drama 321. (Cardullo)

447. Modern Drama. (3). (Excl).
Ibsen to Brecht.
This course will examine the rise of modern drama in the Western world by concentrating on the work of Ibsen, Chekhov, Strindberg, Shaw, Pirandello, and Brecht. Emphasis will be placed on learning how to read a dramatic text for its performative qualities as well as for its potential for enactment. Although no previous experience in the study of drama or theater is required, the course will begin by concentrating on the differences between the modern repertory and the forms we associate with Classical and Shakespearean dramatic conventions. Other topics of consideration include: the transformation from melodrama to modern drama, the social consciousness of the twentieth century stage, and the rise of the female figure as subject of dramatic inquiry. Requirements: There will be a mid-term and a final exam. WL:1 Cost:3 (Brater)

449/Theatre 423. American Theatre and Drama. (3). (HU).

See Theatre and Drama 423. (Ferran)

455/MARC 455. Medieval English Literature. (3). (HU).

What did it mean to write, and read, imaginative literature in English in the Middle Ages? For whom was it written, and for what purposes? How do these texts themselves reflect on the interpretive and social acts of writing and reading? Are they acts of vision? of social or cultural affirmation? or of remaking? This course will focus mainly (but not exclusively) on the two great outpourings of literature in the English vernacular: the tenth and the fourteenth centuries. We'll start with Beowul f and a few shorter poems in Old English; continue with one of the first pieces in Middle English, the debate poem The Owl and the Nightingale; and then sample some major varieties of English writing primarily from the fourteenth century, including lyric, romance, drama, alliterative poetry, comic tales, and religious prose. Readings will be selected from among such works as Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, Piers Plowman, Sir Orfeo, The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell. and Dame Julian of Norwich's mystical Revelations of Divine Love. Readings will be in the original or translation, depending on length or linguistic difficulty. Classes will be partly lecture, partly discussion; work will include in-class exercises, a midterm examination, one or two short papers, and a final examination. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:2 (Taylor)

461. English Romantic Literature. (3). (Excl).

This course examines forms of writing in Britain during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. While focusing on forms of writing that were popular during the time (such as the political novel, the gothic novel, the ballad, the metrical romance, the lyric poem, and the familiar essay), we'll consider how the writers of this period dealt with some of the most controversial historical events of their time. These phenomena include the American and French Revolutions, the parliamentary reform movement and the gaining of political power by the middle classes, the expansion of literacy and popular literary magazines, the rise of the professional female poet, the movement to abolish the slave trade, the development of utopian communities, the spread of industrial manufacturing and trade unions, and the establishment of science as the authoritative field of inquiry. Two short papers, one longer term paper, one group presentation. Discussion format. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:4 (Ross)

462. Victorian Literature. (3). (Excl).

This course is an Introduction to four Victorian poets, with special attention to various constructions of both masculinity and femininity throughout the reign of Queen Victoria. We will begin with selected poems by Tennyson (including The Princess ), alongside Ruskin's lecture "Of Queen's Gardens" and the parody of women's education in Gilbert and Sullivan's musical Princess Ida. To explore the question of female authorship, we will read Elizabeth Barrett Browning's novel-in-verse Aurora Leigh, as well as her anti-slavery poems and Sonnets from the Portuguese. Next we will turn to Robert Browning's Men and Wome n to consider his poetics of marriage, and further analyze Christina Rossetti's critique of marriage in selected sonnets and Goblin Marke t. Throughout the semester we will emphasize how literature both produces and reproduces ideologies of gender, and evaluate ways of re-reading Victorian poetry proposed by contemporary critics. A. S. Byatt's recent novel Possession, a "Victorian" romance, will serve as epilogue to the class. Requirements for completing the course will include a reading notebook, a series of informal writing assignments as basis for class discussion, and two critical essays. WL:1 (Prins)

465/MARC 465. Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales. (3). (Excl).

Extensive reading of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales is combined with lectures on Chaucer's life, sources and analogues of the tales, courtly love, past Chaucerians and their work, problems of interpretation, and aspects of the manuscript tradition. Everything is read in Middle English and discussed in class. Several short papers and a long paper for graduate students will be required. The course is an introduction to Chaucer is an introduction to life, medieval and modern, so that this course is only the beginning of a process of learning. Benson's The Works of Chaucer, 3rd edition, is the necessary text. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Garbaty)

470. Early American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).

This course will trace writings from Columbus' first landing in North America through the American Revolution, as depicted by whites, blacks, native americans, hispanics, women and men. In focusing on Puritan ideas of faith and reason, love of God, the individual and in the community, freedom of conscience, etc, we will be looking not only at what these specific works offered to their own era, but the ways in which these ideas are carried on and converted in the decades ahead. What, for instance, is the relationship of religion and revolution? How does the patriarchal form of divine right (in terms of both an earthly and heavenly king) survive a transfer of authority from fathers to sons, from monarchy to democracy? What role do women, as individuals and as a marginalized group, play in the move from a colonial to a revolutionary (and ultimately to a romantic) age? There will be two substantial papers, a midterm and a final. This course satisfies both the American Literature and Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Barnes)

472. Twentieth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).
Section 001. Resistance to Racism in 20th Century U.S. Literature.
This is a version of a course taught in the past as "Up Against the Dominant Culture" that has been modified to fit into the "Beyond 1492" Theme Semester and also to qualify for the university's "Race or Ethnicity" and the English Department's "New Traditions" requirements. We will be reading a variety of texts fiction, poetry, autobiography, screenplays, drama and essays that respond primarily to the consequences of the varieties of the doctrine of White Supremacy unleashed on the North American continent in the aftermath of the European invasion and conquest. However, in accordance with the traditional agenda of this course, we will also consider literature critical of sexism, class oppression, anti-Semitism, and other manifestations of bias, chauvinism, and exploitation in the United States. The writers to be studied challenge racism through diverse literary forms and from various political perspectives. The texts will range from famous works such as Richard Wright's Native Son to lesser-known ones such as Arna Bontemps' Black Thunder. Many of the authors will be women and writers of color. A special concern will be the plays of Lorraine Hansberry, not only the well-known A Raisin in the Sun but also the posthumous Les Blancs. The film Salt of the Earth, about race and gender issues in the struggle of Mexican-American miners, will also be shown and discussed, and possibly Elia Kazan's film about anti-Semitism, Gentleman's Agreement. Requirements will include two papers and a final exam. This course satisfies both the New Traditions and American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:4 (Wald)

473. Topics in American Literature. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.

Section 001. North and South American Literature. A study of themes common to both United States and Spanish-American literature. The course will identify common cultural dilemmas and opportunities in the Americas and examine how Spanish-American writers have honored the literature if not the political power of the United States. Topics include: (1) Faulkner and Garcia-Marquez, as creators of imaginary fictional countries with real family histories; (2) Toni Morrison's Beloved as counter-history to Faulkner and as a home-grown example of magical realism; (3) Borges and Poe as elaborate provincial artificers, would-be Europeans in an American setting; (4) Neruda and Whitman as poets of the vast American landscape and of American sensuality and fraternity; (5) popular arts films, music, soap operas as a basis for the new Latin novel and a means to a common idiom, with differences, in North and South America. Historical background will be provided when it seems called for. A reading knowledge of Spanish is desirable but not necessary. Students will be asked to contribute to discussions, keep a journal, and write a major paper. Parts of this description will be shaped to suit the designs of the theme semester: After 1492. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (McIntosh)

Section 002. Asian American Literature. A survey and examination of major works of Asian American fiction, poetry, and drama from 1900 to the present. This study is built upon frameworks of literary histories and their historical, social, political, and cultural contexts. The student is not presumed to have prior knowledge of this literature; both lectures and discussion are to be expected. Required, graded coursework consists of two papers of five pages each and a final paper of ten to fifteen pages, plus quizzes. Authors studied range in Asian American literary history from Sui Sin Far, Carlos Bulosan, Hisaye Yamamoto, John Okada, and Louis Chu to Frank Chin, Milton Murayama, Maxine Hong Kingston, Joy Kogawa, and Bharati Mukherjee. This course satisfies both the New Traditions and American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:4 (Sumida)

Section 003. Southern Women Writers. Katherine Anne Porter, Zora Neale Hurston, Eudora Welty, Carson McCullers, Flannery O'Conner, Ellen Gilchrist, Alice Walker: the modern South has produced an abundance of superb woman writers. How do we explain the recurring themes of violence and the grotesque in their fiction especially in stories by writers like Welty and O'Conner, Southern ladies who are well known for their gentility? Why are there so many "old" children in Southern fiction that is, children who do not fit our stereotypes of youth and innocence? Why is there such a preoccupation with dirt and soiling in Southern fiction and why is this emphasis on the earth and its spoils linked to themes of revolution, protest, and emancipation? Finally, how did the excruciating systems of racial dominance, gender hierarchy and class prejudice lend themselves to such gorgeous and strange Southern fiction? This course satisfies both the New Traditions and American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Yaeger)

Section 005. Native American Literature. This course has two major orientations that crosscut and complement each other. Along the first path, lectures and readings pertain to Native Americans collectively. This provides a shared background for class discussions and assignments as well as a general overview of a body of literature labeled Native American. The second path entails in-depth analyses of the literatures of five culture groups. Five research teams will collect, evaluate and compile examples of tribal literatures, from creation stories to contemporary novels. These teams also establish the geographical, historical, cultural and social contexts within which the texts were produced. Method of instruction is predominantly team-inquiry. Students work on tasks within their team before proceeding to similar tasks independently. Tasks involve oral and written responses to specific questions. Grading will be based on several short papers, the team bibliography, team presentations (oral and written) of their novel's context, and a final paper. This course satisfies both the New Traditions and American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Howe)

479. Topics in Afro-American Literature. English 274 and/or 320 strongly recommended. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Modern Afro-American Poetry, 1900-1980.
This course will explore the traditions, movements and trends in modern black poetry, including the post-reconstruction era, the New Negro movement, and the 1960s Black Arts movement. Attention will be paid to the use of materials generated through the black oral tradition and its forms, as well as metropole influences such as modernism and social realism. These esthetic influences, in conjunction with the special economic, cultural and political experience of Black Americans, have combined to create a unique body of poetry bold, expressive, innovative that has influenced literary trends within the United States and throughout the Third World. Poets studied will include Paul Laurence Dunbar, James Weldon Johnson, Langston Hughes, Gwendolyn Brooks, Robert Hayden, Melvin B. Tolson, Sterling Brown, Margaret Walker and more recent poets such as Amiri Baraka, Sonia Sanchez, Haki Madhubutti, Jayne Cortez, Ntozake Shange, June Jordan, Rita Dove and others. Grades will be based upon six short papers, attendance and class participation. Texts will include The Black Poets, anthology, ed. Dudley Randall, Selected Poems, Langston Hughes, Collected Poems, Robert Hayden, Selected Poems, Gwendolyn Brooks, I've Been a Woman, Sonia Sanchez, course pack selections. There will be two papers, a midterm, and a final. This course satisfies both the New Traditions and American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:3 (Chrisman)

482. Studies in Individual Authors. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001. William Blake's Illuminated Works.
This course studies the (scriptorial) arts of William Blake's illuminated works and other literary and artistic inventions in relation to his times and the traditions leading to and from them. Written work will include journal writing with detailed commentary on individual illuminated designs and a longer paper. WL:1 (Wright)

Section 002. W.B. Yeats. This course will focus on the poetry of a great modern poet, taking the individual volumes reprinted in W.B. Yeats: The Poems, ed. Richard Finneran (1989) as our units and using a variety of approaches (formal, historical, cultural, biographical, and textual). We will also look at Yeats' autobiography, literary criticism, and dramas both for the questions they raise and for the help they give in understanding the poems. Twin threads of our explorations will be the dialectic between Yeats' international modernism and his Irish contingency, and his deliberate construction of a personal self and poetic canon of his own works. Time permitting, we will also glance at other members of Yeats' circle, including Lady Gregory (one-act plays) and John Synge (Playboy of the Western World ). Written work will include brief weekly responses, one or two more formal critical papers, and a final examination. WL:1 Cost:2 (Bornstein)

486. History of Criticism. (3). (Excl).

This will be an introductory survey of major developments in literary theory during the past two centuries, with particular emphasis on the sweeping changes that have taken place in the past twenty-five years. Major areas of study will include romanticism, modernism, New Criticism, post-structuralism, materialism, feminism, and multiculturalism. Throughout the course we will be using various branches of literary theory to help us answer the basic questions about what and why we read, questions like: What is a literary text? Who or what is an author? What is literary pleasure? In what ways are texts embedded in society and politics? Is there a difference between literature and propaganda? Are male readers/writers different from female readers/writers? On what principles was our literary canon established, and should it be revised? Mix of lecture/discussion, but with a strong emphasis on student participation. Three short papers, and a final project. WL:1 (Kucich)

489/Educ. D 440 (School of Education). Teaching of English. See School of Education Bulletin. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
This course, designed for students in the teacher certification program, provides a mixture of theoretical and practical perspectives on teaching English in secondary schools. Among the issues considered will be ways of reading kids and classrooms, ways that assumptions about the nature of language shape teaching and learning, and ways of evaluating students' performances. Students will observe teachers in local schools and tutor high school students. Texts will include: LANGUAGE AND REFLECTION: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO TEACHING ENGLISH and WOMAN WARRIOR. Written work will include a reading and observation journal, a report of a research project, to be conducted in school, and several short papers. WL:1 (Gere)

493. Honors Survey: Nineteenth Century English Poetry. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine a century of British poetry from the Age of Sensibility through the Victorians, foregrounding the problem of romanticism. We will read the canonical "romantic" poets (Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, Keats) in relation to poets, especially women poets, of the period who have not been described as "romantic" (Williams, Barbauld, Seward, More, Robinson, Hemans) or who have been viewed as more marginally so (Scott, Burns, Clare). Twentieth-century poems by writers such as Mary Oliver, Jorie Graham, A.A. Ammons, and Alan Ginsberg will occasionally assist us in framing questions about "romantic traditions," questions that will also arise in our readings of some Victorian and Pre-Raphaelite poets (Tennyson, Browning, Barrett Browning, Arnold, Emily Brontë, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Christina Rossetti, Hardy). The course will not aim at complete coverage of the period, which would be impossible in one semester. Rather, the emphasis will be on stimulating questions about key issues in literary history. Requirements include assiduous class attendance and participation, frequent (weekly or biweekly) short response papers or "improvs," an oral presentation, a midterm essay exam, and a substantial final paper (10-12 pp.) WL:1 (Ellison)

494. Honors Survey: Nineteenth Century English Fiction. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).

This course is part of the English Honors Concentration and may be elected only by students already enrolled in the program. It covers the development of the novel (primarily British) in the second half of the nineteenth century, with special emphasis on the relationship between literature and culture. We will attempt to establish a critical and theoretical framework for talking about issues such as the politics of gender and genre; imperialism and the construction of national identity; class relations and transgressions; literature and evolution, and the history of sexuality. Readings will include canonical and popular texts ranging from works by George Eliot and Henry James to the sensation novelist Mary Braddon and the adventure writer H. Rider Haggard. In addition, we will read excerpts from both historical sources and contemporary criticism. Requirements include two 5-10 pp. papers, an annotated bibliography, and a final exam. WL:1 (Vrettos)

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