Courses in HISTORY (DIVISION 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).
Section 001: Conflict and Change in European History: From the Romans to c. 1700.
History 110 is a survey designed to introduce students to the major themes of European history, beginning with the transformation of the Roman empire into the barbarian kingdoms of the early medieval West. Subsequent topics include the origin of universities, and the evolution of thinking about individuality, nationhood and the nature of political authority. Attention is also given to events in Spain, where for centuries, Christian, Jewish and Islamic cultures evolved along side each other. By way of examining the impact of Europe overseas, the Spanish penetration of Central and South America will be studied in light of both indigenous and European documentation. The course concludes with reflections on the origins of modern political theory and of the scientific method. Readings are from original sources. Lectures are thematic and analytical, and class discussion, as well as written work by students should be anchored in an active engagement with the material, not in passive memorisation. The course, while covering a long time span and very diverse materials, encourages understanding and critical thinking, rather than learning by rote. (MacCormack)

111. Modern Europe. Hist. 110 is recommended as prerequisite. (4). (SS).

This course, which has no prerequisite, will introduce Europe since 1700. We shall look at the major revolutions of the period, the world wars of the eighteenth and twentieth centuries, such long-term processes as industrialization and urbanization, and particular aesthetic forms novel, photography, film that helped contemporaries understand those realities. We shall also, however, look at how Europe invaded much of the rest of the world in this era, and was in turn invaded by America. Finally, from first to last we will be concerned with memory, with how Europeans in 1914 or 1815 or 1700 used history as both a mirror to see themselves in and a map to their futures. The course is conducted in lectures and discussion. Required work will consist of a midterm and final exam, and two short papers. (Marwil)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

This is an introduction to the civilizations of China, Korea and Japan. It aims to provide an overview of changing traditions from ancient to early modern times (ca. 1650 AD) by outlining broad trends which not only transformed the society, politics, economy and culture of each country but also laid the ground for future shaping of this region into three distinctly different modern nations. Development of Confucian style governments, the spread of Buddhism, growing gender disparities, functions of scholars and samurai, the meanings of peasant rebellions are some of the topics we will cover. Besides the textbook, we will read contemporary accounts and view films and slides in order to acquire intimate appreciation of these cultures. There are no prerequisites for enrollment. Course requirements include attendance at lectures, participation in discussion sections, and completion of two examinations. Cost:2 WL:3 (Tonomura)

130/ABS 160. Introduction to the History of the Ancient Near East. (3). (Excl).

See ABS 160. (Beckman)

143(445). Europe Discovers the World: Travel and Exploration from the Middle Ages to the Present. (3). (Excl).

"The bear went over the mountain, to see what he could see." You may have sung this as a child; we will use this course to ask why it has been European bears who, historically, have explored the world and how explorations have changed Europe and us. Using contemporary accounts of explorers, which we discuss in class, we will see how other worlds came slowly into focus and after too long a time received respect. In one term we can discuss only some of the extraordinary literature of travel. Beginning with barefoot Franciscan attempts to convert mounted Mongals, we move to the technology of discovery, then sail to the New World, consider the impact of the Americans on European history, witness a world war in the Indian Ocean, and distangle scientific exploration from piracy through an examination of Captain Cook's legacy at UM. As the days grow shorter, we will turn to polar exploration and consider ambition, heedlessness, and fraud. Then we will turn to the heights, beginning with the Himalayas, and rising into space. For a final comparison, you will read our "descriptions" of extraterrestrials and one of their sermons to us. You will write two short exercises and a take-home final examination. Cost:2 WL:1 (Lindner)

151/Asian Studies 111. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

This is an introduction to the civilization of the Indian sub-continent, from its origins about 3000 B.C. to the present, where it comprises over a fifth of the world's people and its oldest living civilized tradition, its largest political democracy, and a major component of the Third World. The course progresses from origins and the Indus culture through the Aryans, Hinduism, caste, and classical India to the succession of empires from the Mauryas to the Mughals and the British, colonialism, independence, and partition. We then consider current problems and changes topically: regionalism and language, agriculture and rural development, population, urbanization, industrialization, and "modernization," and the rise of separate nation-states (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka). Lectures and varied readings (via a course pack) are designed to stimulate class discussion, and there will be some use of slides and films. Art, literature, and religion will also be discussed. There will be a midterm, and a final exam. There are no prerequisites and no previous knowledge is assumed. Cost:2 WL:3,4 (Murphey)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This course deals with the history of the part of North America that became the United States, from before European contact to the end of the American Civil War. Focal points are the interaction of native, European, and African people; the emergence of political structures and cultural patterns under British colonial rule; the nature and impact of the American Revolution; and the origins and nature of the Civil War. Two lectures and two discussion sections each week, at least one essay, one hour examination, and a two-hour final examination will emphasize the problems of explaining and understanding this formative period of American society. A comprehensive textbook plus extensive reading in primary evidence (eyewitness accounts), from Cotton Mather to Abraham Lincoln, provide the basis for study of the period. (Shy)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 is designed to trace via talks, discussion sections and books America's history from 1865 to the present. The course will attempt to offer, with consistency, an analytical framework of usefulness to those trying to comprehend American society. Its principal themes will be those of small-town America and its ideological persistence; the rise of an opposing set of values embodied in bureaucratic institutions; and the continuing tension between local and national values in such issues as race, religion, women's rights, foreign policy, government regulation, etc. The talks and a significant number of the books will also attempt to convey the varieties of personal experience so important to this period. The course will meet four hours each week: two in lecture and two in a discussion section. Tentative marking requirements include a short paper, a one-hour midterm examination and a two-hour final examination. There are no history course prerequisites for History 161. (Linderman)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. There are two hour examinations (an optional paper may be written for extra credit) plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Humphreys)

211/MARC 211. Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500. (3). (SS).

This course will study the institutional, economic, and intellectual development of Europe from the time of the Crusades, when contact with the East were reestablished, to the discovery of the New World, when European expansion moved west over the Atlantic. Some important themes will be the nature of kingship and representative institutions; patterns of urban, economic, and demographic growth; and movements in religious and intellectual life. Some specific topics to be covered include the demands of the secular world for greater religious experience; definitions of orthodoxy and the development of the Inquisition; scholastic thought and Western creativity; feudalism, chivalry, and the Hundred Years War; the Black Death and a fascination with the macabre. Modern interpretations of the period will be supplemented with readings from contemporary documents (chronicles, romances, poetry, sermons, etc.). In addition to a midterm and a final examination, students will write a paper. This is a lecture course, but some periods will be reserved for discussion. (Hughes)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (SS).

This course examines the wars that were fought in and around Vietnam from 1945 to 1975, with primary emphasis on the period of heavy American involvement from the mid-1950's. The course seeks to explain the origins, strategy, and impact of U.S. intervention. At the same time the course will explain the motivation of the Vietnam Communists and of their domestic opponents. Thus the Vietnam war will be analyzed both as the longest and most controversial foreign war in American history, and as the climax to an Asian social revolution. Meets three times a week for 50 minutes, plus one 50-minute discussion section. Midterm and final exam. [Cost:4] [WL:4] (Lieberman)

220. Survey of British History to 1688. (3). (SS).

This course is an introduction to English history from the Anglo-Saxon conquest until the Revolution of 1668. Its focus is necessarily on the main developments and most momentous events in the millennium of history it covers. The first half of the course deals with the formation and consolidation of the English nation and the shocks it endured in the Middle Ages. The development of the monarchy and the Church, the nature of English feudalism and the massive demographic calamities of the fourteenth century are among the themes that will be discussed. The second half of the course covers the dissolution of medieval institutions and society and the creation of a new kind of state and culture. The Chief developments that will be discussed are the Tudor reforms in government, the Protestant reformation, the growth and redistribution of the population and the expansion of the economy. Attention will also be given to early modern social life and popular beliefs. The course will end with a discussion of the political revolutions of the seventeenth century and their significance. (MacDonald)

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (3). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of early Chinese history, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, and lectures on literature and society in premodern China and Classical Opera (historical significance, intellectual and social themes and roles, and demonstrations). [Cost:4] [WL:1] (Chang)

274/CAAS 230. Survey of Afro-American History I. (3). (SS).

See CAAS 230. (Kelley)

286/Religion 286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (3). (HU).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all majors, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantines' conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic & Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the llth century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Considerable attention is given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam and a final are required. (J. Fine)

287/REES 287/Armenian Studies 287. Armenian History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the social, political, and intellectual history of the Armenian people from their origins as a nation to the present day. Emphasis is placed on the period of Armenian statehood and the connections of the Armenians with the imperial powers which ruled them. The history of revolutionary movements and the establishment of an independent and later Soviet republic are discussed. The course is taught through lectures and discussions. Readings will include works by Der Nercessian, Garsoian, Hovannisian, and Matossian. Students will be required to write a paper on a topic to be approved by the instructor. (Suny)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

306/GNE 362/Rel. 358. History of Ancient Israel I: From Abraham to the Babylonian Exile. (3). (HU).

See General Near East 362. (Tadmor)

316. History of Eighteenth-Century Europe. (3). (SS).

This course is designed both to cover the period and area, and to introduce problems of comparison of states' developments. The varying interactions with society of five or six states (at least France, England, Prussia, Russia, Poland) will be studied through lectures and reading. In particular, the aim is to understand why, in what has been called the age of the democratic revolution, that revolution took root in France rather than elsewhere. Students will read first in general works treating the eighteenth century, and then in more detail in the histories of France and two other countries that they will choose for purposes of making comparisons. There will be an hour exam, an essay of eight to ten pages, and a final examination. (Bien)

318. Imperialism and After: Europe 1890-1945. (4). (SS).
Politics and Society in Modern Europe, 1890-1945.
This course examines social, cultural and political responses to the disruptive forces of industrial development, war, revolution and depression experienced from 1890 to 1945 in both western and eastern European societies. At the heart of the course lie such questions as: Who holds the political power and on what basis have they acquired this power? How are the political systems structured to exclude various social groups (women, ethnic minorities, the working class) and in what ways do the excluded organize to press on these systems? To what extent are 19th century elites able to resist the pressure for change? These questions will shape our approach to the distinctive issues of twentieth century European politics, including: the impact of two world wars on state and society, imperialism and the rise of European nationalist movements, the political mobilization of economically and disadvantaged groups (industrialized workers, women, peasants, disgruntled strata of the middle classes), and the emergence of fascism from the crises of liberalism and capitalism. (Downs)

332/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/REES 395/Soc. 392. Survey of the Soviet Union. (4). (SS).

See REES 395.

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

We will study the changing personal perceptions of wars and the larger social responses to them through novels, autobiographies, films, lectures, and discussions. Among the required readings in paperbacks and course pack are March, Company K; Gray, The Warriors; O'Brien, The Things They Carried; and Hanley, Writing War. There are two hourly exams and a final. Students are asked to register for only one lecture section, plus one discussion section. Permission of the Comprehensive Studies Program is needed for enrollment in the CSP discussion section (Section 003, WF12-1). Cost:4 WL:4 (Collier)

370/Women's Studies 370. Women in American History to 1870. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the history of American women as a group, as individuals, and as members of different classes, races, and regional and ethnic communities. Using work, politics, and sexuality as organizing concepts, it focuses particularly on the significance of gender in determining women's experiences from the early seventeenth century to 1870. Special attention is paid to initial and continuing encounters of Native Americans, Euro-Americans, and African-Americans; to evolving constructions of "womanhood" and their significance for different groups of women; to the meaning of religious movements, wars, economic transformations, and demographic shifts for women's individual and collective efforts to determine the course of their own histories. (Karlsen)

383. Modern Jewish History to 1880. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course offers a survey of Jewish history in western and eastern Europe, America, and the Middle East from the mid-seventeenth century to the 1870's. It deals first with the emergence of western European Jews from cultural and social isolation, with their acquisition of the full rights of citizenship, and with their efforts to modernize Jewish ritual and belief. The focus then shifts to eastern Europe, where traditional values and patterns of behavior persisted until the end of the nineteenth century. The lectures on eastern Europe will focus on the religious and social character of Jewish life in Poland and Russia, the development of Hasidism, and the first glimmerings of enlightenment (haskalah) in the mid-nineteenth century. The course will conclude with a look at the growth of the Jewish community in America before the mass migration from eastern Europe and, turning elsewhere in the diaspora, with a brief survey of the Jewish communities of North Africa and the Middle East. There will be a midterm, two four-page assignments, and a comprehensive final. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Bodian)

393. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001. The Poetics of Power: Beyond 1492.
In this course we will explore how discourses of domination and resistance constitute images of "Self" and "Other," "West" and Orient," "civilized" and "barbarous," through a study of the conquest of the Americas as an on-going process. We will analyse the inscription of hierarchical categories of person and of history in colonial and post-colonial political projects resulting in the clash in America of indigenous, European , and African peoples and cultures. These conceptions of personhood and of history will be compared to contemporary constructions of social identity. Throughout this examination, we will attempt to deepen our understanding of the relationship among the representation of meaning, the exercise of power, and the constitution of identity in specific historical situations. Classes will be based on the discussion method. Students will be expected to read the materials carefully before each class, to attend all classes, to write brief weekly assignments (approximately one page each), and a final paper (about ten pages). Grades will seek to reflect progress through the term and will be based on written work and class participation. (Coronil)

394. Reading Course. Open only to history concentrators by written permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

This is an independent 1-4 hour course open only to history concentrators by written permission of the instructor. It may be repeated for credit only with permission of the Associate Chairman.

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to senior history concentrators needing ECB requirement and by override only. Apply for overrides at 3613 Haven Hall on Monday, March 30, 8-10 a.m., Wednesday April 1, 2-4 p.m., or Friday, April 3, 8-10 a.m. Only.

Section 001: Old Age in U.S. History. Being old in America in the 1990's is both remarkably similar to and incredibly different from conditions in past times. Americans have long perceived old age as a distinct stage of life, and they have always faced their own aging with ambivalence. But people in colonial times would be shocked to see Yuppies denounce their elders as "greedy geezers;" they would find it hard to unravel the legal, medical, economic, and ethical issues that currently shape long-term care for the elderly in this country. Through weekly discussions of books and articles, we will try to understand such continuities and changes in the meanings and experiences of old age over time. Because this course bears ECB credit, students will be expected to write at least 30 pages, including a term paper of their choosing. There will be no exams. Cost:3 WL:See Janet Rose in 3607 HH. (Achenbaum)

Section 003: American Working-Class Culture, 1830 to the Present. This seminar will explore the cultures of American working people from the era of early industrialization to the present. Using a wide variety of materials (novels, journalism, film, memoirs, visual imagery, as well as conventional historical scholarship), it will look at the ideals, attitudes, symbolic practices, and everyday lives of working-class Americans on the job, at home, in neighborhood and community life, in politics, and elsewhere. Two themes will be especially important: first, the (gender, racial, ethnic, generational, regional) diversity of American working-class experience; and secondly, the interplay between the cultural values of working people and the larger power and social relations which ordered their lives. No special background is required, although a grounding in 19th-20th century U.S. history would be helpful. The seminar is designed to be participatory and somewhat intensive, to emphasize doing historical analysis, not simply acquiring historical information. There will be no exam, but several papers, including the draft and revision of a term project, grounded in primary research, will be required. Grading will be based on both written work and classroom participation. (Scobey)

Section 004: Family And Community in Early Modern Europe. In recent decades, historians have begun to appreciate the importance of families and local communities as the fundamental units of social organization and social identity. This small discussion course will examine the nature and significance of community and family structures and functions in early modern Europe. The broad definition of the chronological and geographic focus of the course will allow us to read the best and most recent studies on family and community throughout Europe. The readings will include important monographs and case studies as well as some more theoretical, anthropological works. Among the readings will be primary source materials and at least one novel. The last few weeks of the course will be devoted to individual research and writing up papers on topics of the students' choice. Assignments will include five short papers spaced throughout the term and a longer research paper. There will be no exams, and there are no prerequisites. Cost:4 WL:2 (Kivelson)

Section 005. Presidential Campaign Primer: Lessons About Organization, Issues, Image, and Media in 1976. The 1992 presidential race will provoke much lament about inattention to issues, campaign costs, candidate advertising, and the role of the press. These are ageless concerns in presidential election years. Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford grappled with them, too. Students will immerse themselves in the 1976 campaign by researching the extensive campaign records and White House files at the Ford Library. You will see memoranda prepared by advisers, polls conducted by (you guessed it) pollsters, campaign commercials and outtakes, and recollections of those who worked on the campaign. You will learn how Ford organized his campaign to win. He lost, but there are lessons in the failure. You will learn how to find information in primary sources, note that which is important and pass over the rest, organize your research for writing a major paper, and write that paper. Grades will depend on group discussion, class-time activities, and research and writing. Cost:1 WL:2 (Mackaman)

Section 006: The Peasantry, the State, and Modernization in Europe, 1450-1750. Intensive reading course in the social evolution of western Europe 1400-1750, focusing on the submergence of local, peasant cultures under emerging elites and centralizing states. Background in European history is useful, but most useful of all is the ability to digest, summarize, and critique some fairly sophisticated readings quickly and independently, and to discuss the knowledge gained in the class. Each student will be responsible for leading at lest two discussions. One of these will become a short paper. A take-home exam will conclude the assignments. (Lockridge)

Section 007: The Urban Political Machine in America. (McDonald)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to senior history concentrators and by override only. Apply for overrides at 3613 Haven Hall on Monday, March 30, 8-10 a.m., Wednesday April 1, 2-4 p.m., or Friday, April 3, 8-10 a.m. Only.

Section 001: Asia Through Fiction. See Asian Studies 441. (Murphey)

Section 002. Missionaries in China: Conversion, Cultural Conflict and Politics. We shall study the history of Christian missions in China from the end of the 16th century. The tale has been marked by contention, both within the missionary body and between the evangelists and important elements in Chinese society. We shall devote special attention to the last hundred years of the experience, when the Christian movement in China became intertwined with the intrusive presence of Western political and military power within China. The work for the course will include extensive readings, participation in the discussions, and the writing of papers. Cost:2 (Young)

Section 004: Japan in World War II. This course will examine the causes, course, and consequences of Japan's involvement in World War II, from the Manchurian incident in 1931 to the surrender aboard the Missouri in 1945. We will examine different aspects of the war through a text, Ronald H. Spector's Eagle against the Sun: The American War with Japan (Free Press, 1984), and readings in a course pack. Classes will be devoted to specific themes based on assigned readings and the presentation of oral reports on designated topics. Students will be evaluated on their contributions to discussions and their oral reports, but special weight will be given to two written reports (eight to ten typewritten pages). (Hackett)

Section 005: Environmental History of North America. Christopher Columbus' s fabled trip across the Atlantic marked the beginning of a new chapter in North America's environmental history. In the wake of his journey there followed one of the most profound ecological changes the world has ever known. This course will examine the environmental history of North America from Columbus' time until the present. Topics will include: the biological consequences of European settlement; the contrast between European and native American environmental beliefs and practices; agriculture and ecology; the settlement of forest ecosystems; urban/industrial change and its ecological impact; environmental politics; the control of nature in 20th-century America; and the globalization of environmental destruction. Class discussions and brief oral presentations will be the primary method of instruction. Students will also be required to write several short papers. Cost:4 (Steinberg)

399. Honors Colloquium, Senior. Honors student, History 398, and senior standing. (1-6). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 6 credits.

This course is required of all senior Honors concentrators in the History Department and open only to them. [Cost: 1] [WL: 5 Must be admitted]

412/MARC 414. Social and Intellectual History of the Florentine Renaissance. (3). (Excl).

The course begins with a general view of Renaissance culture in Italy, then turns to a discussion of Florentine civilization in the age of Dante. Next it treats political and economic change in the 14th and 15th centuries. The texture of social life will be considered featuring demography, the family, work, and leisure. Florentine humanism, as well as Neoplatonism will be dealt with, and Tuscan literature from Petrarch and Boccaccio to Machiavelli and Benvenuto Cellini will be reviewed. Finally, the genesis of the fine arts from Giotto to Michelangelo will be presented. A midterm will be given and the student will select a research topic or do a final examination. The method of instruction will be lecture and discussion. (Becker)

416. Nineteenth-Century European Intellectual History. (3). (Excl).

This is a lecture course which discusses and attempts to account for changes in the configuration of European thought from the advent of Romanticism (1750) to the "anti-positivist revolt" in the 1870s. The course considers the content of the determinative ideas in culture and society, and an attempt is made to provide an expanlation for the process of ideological change. There is heavy emphasis on the transition from the enlightenment to romanticism and the emergence of realism and naturalism. Roland N. Stromberg's EUROPEAN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY SINCE 1789 (third ed.) will serve as the text. The student will be expected to read Ernst Cassirer's THE PHIOSOPHY OF HISTORY, J.S. Mill's ON LIBERTY, Marx-Engels' THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO and Harry Levin's THE GATES OF HORN. There will be regular class discussions of these texts and participation will constitute 1/4 of the grade. There will be a midterm examination and a final examination. There will be no term paper. (Tonsor)

423. Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (3). (Excl).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French revolution to the 1920's, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure of the role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write three essays on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and and readings is provided); there will be a take-home final examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew).

430. Byzantine Empire, 284-867. (3). (Excl).

A lecture course which provides a survey of the History of the later Roman Empire from the reforms of Diocletian that paved the way out of the crisis of the third century, through Constantine's move east and the conversion to Christianity (entering the Byzantine period), Justinian, Heraclius on through the Amorion Dynasty which came to a close with the murder of Michael the Sot in 867. The course will stress political history, giving considerable attention as well to religious history (conversion to Christianity, the great theological disputes over the relationship between God the Father and Jesus Christ as well as the relationship between the human and divine natures in Christ culminating in the Church councils of Nicea and Chalcedon, the rise of monasticism and Iconomoclasm), administrative reforms (Diocletian's and Constantine's reforms, the reforms of the seventh century culminating in the Theme system), demographic changes and foreign relations (Goths, the Slavic and Bulgar invasions, relations with the Bulgars, relations with the Persians and Arabs in the East and later with the Franks and Charlemagne). No background is assumed. Requirements: A midterm written hour-exam. One ten page paper and a final examination. Paper topics are tailored to individual interests. (J.Fine)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (Excl).

A history of Russia from Peter the Great to World War I, with emphasis on the problems of modernization, political institutions, economic development, and the revolutionary movement. Lectures, supplemented by discussion section. (Rosenberg)

442/GNE 442. The First Millenium of the Islamic Near East. Junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Team taught by Professors Bonner (NES) and Lindner (History), this is the first course in a two-course introductory sequence (442 and 443) that covers Near Eastern history from the era of Muhammad to the present. Our purpose is to introduce you to (and give you some practice in) the methods of studying the Near East as well as to some of the content of Near Eastern history; we expect no previous background in the field. This course begins with the background and rise of Islam and ends in the heyday of the Ottoman Turkish and Safavid Persian empires, circa 1700. Although the basic organization of the course is chronological, we will discuss topics in such areas as politics and governance, religion (formal and "folk," including theology and mysticism), law, foreign relations and war, art and architecture, literature, economics, and social life. The classes will include lectures by (and probably discussions between) the instructors, and there will also be weekly class discussion of the assigned readings. In addition to the final examination, students will be expected to prepare two three-page exercises based on the readings, which will consist of modern scholarly works and translated medieval sources. (Bonner and Lindner)

451. Japan Since 1800. (3). (Excl).

The purpose of this course is to convey an understanding of the history of modern Japan. That aim will be pursued through lectures, readings, discussions, and written exercises. The lectures (supplemented with slides) will attempt (1) to analyze the major developments in her modern evolution; (2) to explain the rise and fall of Japan's empire; and (3) to identify the reasons for her emergence as a major world power today. There is a midterm and a final examination plus two short writing assignments. Text for the course is W.G. Beasly, The Rise of Modern Japan (St. Martin's Press, 1990). Other reading assignments will be organized in a course pack. Cost:3 WL:1 (Hackett)

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (3). (Excl).

The major theme of this course is "emancipation" of Southeast Asia, a historical confrontation between the societies of the region and the imagined global community of "developed" nations. Geographic coverage will include the principal countries of the mainland (Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) and the island world (Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and the Philippines). Lectures and reading assume no prior knowledge of the region. There will be a midterm, a final, and a term paper. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mrázek)

454. The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A.D. (3). (Excl).

India is among the world's oldest and most long lived civilizations. In this course we will examine its evolution, from the ancient civilizations of the Indus Valley (c. 2300-1700 B.C.) to the beginnings of the classical period. Topics will include the the arrival of Indo-European languages, the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism, the formation of the Mauryan empire, relations of India with Greeks and Central Asian nomads, and the structure of family life and the caste system. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of the participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. (Trautman)

460. American Colonial History to 1776. (3). (SS).

A different course every term it is taught, in general "Colonial America" focuses on the people of the time, often encountered speaking in their own voices, and on their broad cultural characteristics and problems as the nation moved toward the Revolution. This instance, we will focus primarily on Puritans, in England and in New England, and on Puritanism's consequences for the American tradition. Few lectures; mostly discussion. An exam, two quizzes and a paper are the usual assignment. Standards are high, and it is not unusual to find that students are asked to re-write papers which are not clear (with a 1/3 grade penalty). So, lucid, precise, well-organized writing and skills in the use of evidence is, if not a prerequisite, something we hope to achieve. [Cost:2] [WL:1] (Lockridge)

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (3). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups and women in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Please note that discussion sections have been added. Undergraduates electing this course must register for section 001 and one discussion section. [Cost:3] [WL:3 and 4] (S. Fine)

487/Engl. 416/Women's Studies 416. Women in Victorian England. (3). (Excl).

See English 416. (Vicinus)

508. Magic, Religion and Science in Early Modern England. Hist. 220 and junior standing are recommended. (3). (Excl).

The mental world of men and women in the early modern age (1500-1800) was very different from ours. Magical beliefs suffused the thinking of ordinary people in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: religion was a matter of urgent importance and political struggle for people of all classes. By tracing the intertwined histories of magic and religion in this period one can follow the evolution of most important elements of popular culture. This course does just that, and shows that there were profound shifts in beliefs. It traces the fortunes of official religion, asking how deeply and how quickly the Reformation transformed the religion of ordinary people. It analyzes clerical hostility to magic and the principal magical beliefs and practices, focusing on magical healing, astrology, alchemy, and witchcraft. Finally, it emphasizes that the political and religious struggles of the mid-seventeenth century greatly accelerated the repudiation of supernaturalism and the rise of scientism among the governing elite. This course may therefore be seen as an exploration of the great cultural shift that Max Weber called the "disenchantment of the world." (MacDonald)

516. History of Ireland to 1603. (3). (Excl).

This is a survey of political, social, and cultural history of Ireland from the earliest times to the destruction and close of the Gaelic order at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The course is conducted mainly by lecture in which, complementing the treatment accorded in textbooks, we will endeavor to realize the historical reality of a millenium of Irish Gaelic history, in itself and in relation to the rest of the medieval world. Two relatively brief papers and one extended one, two hour exams, and a final examination. There is no prerequisite for this course, only a willing and competent zeal for learning of a culture much more diverse from contemporary experience than you will readily imagine. [Cost:3] [WL:1] (McNamara)

521. Germany Since 1870. (3). (Excl).

This course will focus on the development of the German nation(s) from approximately 1870 to the present. It will begin with a discussion of German unification and the difficulties experienced then and since in matching the German state and the German-speaking cultural region in Central Europe. Otherwise the guiding question will be how the German state and the German people coped with industrialization. This will lead us into economic, social, political, and cultural interpretations. The two world wars will obviously play an important part in the course, but this is not a course in military history or about the German army. The course will conclude with a discussion of the German Federal Republic and the German Democratic Republic. There are no formal prerequisites, although some knowledge of European history would be an advantage. Students should expect to do a heavy amount of reading and produce a substantial term paper. (Eley)

532. 18th Century Russia: Revolution from Above. Some background in history or Russian studies. (3). (Excl).

The history of eighteenth century in Russia has been dominated to the exclusion of almost all other subjects, by two striking figures: Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. These two powerful rulers attempted to transform Russia from above, and left indelible marks of their colorful personalities on the development of their country. Recent innovations in historical study have introduced new approaches to this understudied century, so that we now can add new studies of the society and culture to the conventional biographies of the two great leaders. In this course students will read monographs, scholarly articles, contemporary memoirs, and literary works of the time. The course will examine the complicated dynamics of an era of cultural flowering and enlightenment in a society still characterized by serfdom and a service nobility. There are no prerequisites. Requirements include two 5- 7 page papers, a choice of a mid-term exam or an additional paper, and a take-home final exam. COST: 4 WL:4 (Kivelson)

551. Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (3). (Excl).

In this course, we shall seek the origins and lineaments of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, so powerfully rooted in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely in the preceding century and more for antecedents and predisposing social change. We shall examine the testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, trends in Confucian thought and the role of popular culture, nationalism and women's liberation, cultural iconoclasm and neotraditionalism, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Maoism and its debunking. Previous familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful but is not required. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write two short papers and take a final exam. [Cost:2] [WL:4] (Young)

562. American Intellectual History to 1870. History 160 and junior standing strongly recommended. (3). (Excl).

A study of the intellectual history of English-speaking America from around 1600 to the middle of the nineteenth century. Emphasis falls on writings about religion, government, natural science, education, and human nature, with occasional reference to imaginative literature and the visual arts. The European backgrounds and contexts of American thought also receive attention. Readings are in primary sources: the works of individuals studied in the course. Undergraduates are required to write a midterm examination, a final examination, and a 10-15 page term paper on a topic selected with the advice of the instructor. Requirements differ somewhat for graduate students. Freshmen and sophomores are not admitted except with prior permission from Professor Turner. Students who wish more information about the course should contact him through the History Department. (Turner)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

A study of the origins, development, and growth of business. The course traces the beginnings of business enterprise in Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the anti-trust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920s, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, postwar business developments, and current business trends. (Lewis)

578/Latin American and Caribbean Studies 400/CAAS 478. Ethnicity and Culture in Latin America. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

See Latin American and Caribbean Studies 400.

580. The History of American Constitutional Law. (3). (Excl).

This course is a survey of the evolution of American constitutional law from 1789 to the present. It will rely primarily upon reading the selections from the opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court to be found in A.T. Mason and D.G. Stephenson, Jr., eds., American Constitutional Law, and Stanley Kutler, ed., The Supreme Court And The Constitution. The goal will be to discover how the different material circumstances and social and political assumptions of each age in American history have been reflected in the Supreme Court's shifting conceptions of the meaning of the Constitution. In this way, we will seek to define how beliefs about the essential character of American republicanism have been altered through time, and in addition, to appreciate the Supreme Court's changing understanding of its own role in the constitutional order. There are no prerequisites for the course, but History 160-161 or an equivalent understanding of the general structure of American history is assumed. There will be a midterm examination of ninety minutes, a ten-page term paper, and a two-hour final examination. Cost:2 WL:4 (Thornton)

587. History of History I. (3). (Excl).

"The History of History, I" is a survey of historical writing, historical method and philosophy of history from the mythic mode of archaic society to THE NEW SCIENCE of Vico. The course will be a combination of lecture and discussion. Students will be expected to read widely in historical literature and to write a term paper on a topic chosen by the student in consultation with the professor. Students will be graded on the basis of midterm and final examinations and term paper evaluation. The development of historical writing as an ordering system in Western to the beginning of the 18th century constitutes the subject matter of the course. The historical will be distinguished from the mythic and the legendary. History as the providential order of God as exemplified by the Old Testament and history as the story of civic virtue as exemplified by classical historiography will form the first third of the course. The Christian conception of history will carry the story up to the Renaissance and Reformation. The invention of critical history in the period from the 15th to the 18th century will form the final third of the course. An effort will be made to demonstrate the interrelation of methodology, philosophy of history and rhetorical utility in the writing of history. Cost:2 WL:5. There is no danger of its being closed. Enrollment is usually less than 25. (Tonsor)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001: Scholars and Soldiers in Imperial China, 618-1382 A.D.
The transformation of China into a geopolitical colossus from the seventh to fourteenth centuries will be examined in this survey course within the context of the increasing cultural and political importance of the steppe empires of North and Central Asia. Topics for discussion include the rise of Tang Chang'an as a political and cultural center, the technical and intellectual achievements of the Sung, and the culmination of Mongol imperialism during the Yuan. In addition to minor tests, students will be expected to prepare one report and a major term paper for this course. (Forage)

593. Topics in U.S. and Latin American History. Juniors, seniors and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.

Section 001: Beyond Occidentalism: Rethinking how the west was born. For Fall Term, 1992, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 496-003. (Mignolo, Coronil)

Section 002: The Incas. Much of the available information about the Incas comes to us from the Spaniards who in 1532 invaded the Andes and created a colonial state on the basis of Inca institutions. The representations of Inca culture and society in linguistic and visual norms that were alien to the Andes brought about a series of profound changes in Andean perceptions of history, religion and social identity. The purpose of the course is to study these changes. Special attention will be given to texts written during the colonial period by Andean authors in Quechua (can be read in translation). We will also study Andean forms of visual representation and of inscribing social identity in time and space. Reading knowledge of Spanish is preferred. Undergraduates are welcome. (MacCormack / Mannheim)

Section 003: Ethnicity and Culture in Latin America and the Caribbean. For Fall Term, 1992, this course is jointly offered with Latin American and Caribbean Studies 400. (Reis)

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