The Philosophy Department offers a series of 150-level courses that serve as introductions to specific areas of philosophical thought. Each probes a group of philosophical issues related to certain other fields or areas of human concern, and each is designed to show how questions in these fields or areas can lead naturally to larger philosophical matters. Philosophy 155, "The Nature of Science," will be offered Fall Term, 1992. It will be taught by a faculty member and will be limited to 50 students.

Philosophy 181, 202, 231, 232, and 297 are general introductions designed to acquaint the student with a representative sample of philosophical problems concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self, morality, religion, and society. They deal with such questions as: If a person's actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is he capable of free actions for which he can be held morally responsible? What is a person just a very complex machine, a combination of a mind or soul and a body, or what? How can such common sense beliefs as that other human beings are conscious, or that there exists an external physical world, be justified? What are scientific theories, and what kinds of considerations bear on whether they should be accepted? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Are value judgments (e.g., moral or aesthetic judgments) "objective" or "subjective"? What are the basic differences between the major kinds of social, political and economic organizations, and what reasons are there for preferring any one of them to the others? How should one live one's life? What is the "meaning" of life, and what does this question mean?

The 200-level philosophy introduction and 181 vary in their instructional format. Philosophy 202 (three hours) approaches issues through a mixture of twentieth century writers (e.g., Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer) and seminal figures in Western intellectual history (Plato,Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant). It is taught by graduate student teaching assistants in sections of approximately 25 students. Philosophy 231 (three hours) and 232 (four hours) can be expected to cover similar issues and texts, but in a different format; a faculty member delivers two lectures each week, and students are divided into groups of approximately 25 for discussion sections which meet one (231) or two (232) hours per week. Philosophy 181 has yet a different format. It is smaller, limited to 50 students, and is taught in a combination lecture/discussion format three times a week. Finally, Philosophy 297, Honors Introduction, is taught by a member of the faculty to small groups of 25-30 students.

The Department offers three elementary introductory courses in logic: 180, 201 and 203. 180 and 201 both cover some informal logic, while 203 introduces students to symbolic logic. 180 is taught by faculty in a section of 40-50, while 201 and 203 are taught in sections of 20-25 by advanced graduate student teaching assistants.

Some 300-level courses do not have prerequisites and can serve as introductions to particular branches of philosophy. Two such courses will be offered Fall Term, 1992: Philosophy 365, "Problems of Religions," and Philosophy 371, "Existentialism."

155. The Nature of Science. (3). (HU).

This course serves as a topical introduction to the philosophy of science. Its first half addresses some broader philosophical issues about the nature of the scientific enterprise. Particular attention will be paid to the explanatory function of scientific laws, the confirmation of theoretical hypotheses by empirical evidence, and the process whereby one theory is subsumed within another. The second half of the course will look at contemporary philosophy of science "in action" by considering some specialized questions, including: (1) The traditional problem of induction how can we justify the rules we use to make inferences about the future based on our knowledge about the past? (2) The creationism verses evolution controversy is creationism a "science" on a par with evolution and should it be taught as such in the public schools? (3) Certain philosophical questions arising out of recent developments in physics. Students will be required to read C. Hempel's Philosophy of Natural Science together with a course pack of supplementary readings. Midterm and final exams will be given, and students will be asked to submit two five to seven page papers. There are no prerequisites for this course. (J. Joyce)

180. Introductory Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This is a beginning, and rather slow-paced, course in formal logic. Following a brief introductory segment on logic in general, we will study the propositional (truth-funcitonal) logic, and then the predicate logic for one-place predicates. If there is sufficient time, we may have some brief discussions of additional topics, such as the idea of a proof, modal logic, inductive logic, etc. The text will probably be Irving Copi, INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC. In the 8th edition of that book, the material to be covered is treated in chapters 1, 8, 9, and l0. Grades will be based on one or more hourly exams and a final cumulative exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mavrodes)

181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 182, 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course provides a general introduction to philosophy through discussion of historical and contemporary readings in four central areas: philosophy and religion, knowledge and skepticism, free will and moral responsibility, and the foundations of ethics. Among the questions we will discuss are: What is the nature of knowledge? What sort of objectivity, if any, is possible in claims to religious, scientific, or moral knowledge? What is freedom of the will, and is it compatible with a scientific conception of the causes of our behavior? No philosophical background is presupposed. Three short papers and a final examination. WL:1 (Railton)

Section 002. This course will introduce the student to a selection of important issues in several major areas of philosophy, including ethics, epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind. Fundamental questions about morality, our knowledge of the world, the nature of persons, and relations between the mental and the physical will be examined: What things are valuable in themselves? How are we to decide what we ought to do? Is there any such thing as "objective" morality? Is there a real world independent of our ways of thinking and talking about it? What kinds of evidence do we have about the world? What is evidence? How are thoughts, desires, intentions, etc. related to a person's physical and verbal behavior? Can we be mistaken about our own mental states? How can we know about those of others? Can machines think? We will discuss what a number of philosophers have said about these issues, including important historical figures such as Descartes, David Hume, and J.S. Mill, and a variety of contemporary philosophers. There will be three quizzes, and two papers. (Walton)

Section 003. This is a general introduction to philosophy taught by a faculty member to a class that is kept small enough so that there can be a significant discussion. The specific content varies with the person offering the course which was, unfortunately, not known when the Course Guide went to press. For a general idea of the sort of thing the course is likely to include see the descriptions for Philosophy 202 and 231.

201. Introduction to Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This course aims to give the student a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument. Students will be expected to master some technical detail, but the emphasis in this course is on non-technical, informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. Sections usually have about twenty-five students each. Each section meets three hours per week and is generally conducted with some informality and considerable student participation. Discussion and questions are encouraged, particular problems are analyzed, and students are required to demonstrate mastery of assigned material. Course requirements for grading vary from instructor to instructor. Normally there are weekly assignments frequently in written form and short, periodic quizzes.

202. Introduction to Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with philosophical thinking on the great questions that have moved mankind throughout history, and to discuss possible solutions to them. The course is taught in independent sections of approximately twenty-five students. Each section is taught by a teaching assistant who selects the topics and readings. Some sections examine the systems of such major historical figures as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Hegel, and Nietzsche, while others employ primarily the writings of contemporary philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and others. The subject matter generally includes ethics, free will and responsibility, philosophy of mind, epistemology and skepticism, and perhaps arguments for the existence of God. The text is either a book of readings or a set of larger selections from separate editions of well known philosophical works. During the term each student is usually required to submit a total of at least fifteen pages of critical discussion through a series of short papers varying in length from three to five pages. Several short quizzes may also be given as well as a final examination.

203. Introduction to Symbolic Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 203 or 296. (3). (N.Excl).

Common sense classifies arguments as good or bad according to a variety of formal and informal criteria. Roughly speaking, we count an argument good if it makes plausible assumptions which exhibit its conclusion as likely to be true. Though the common sense classification is familiar and useful, sometimes we want something more precise and more amenable to systematic investigation. Thus we idealize from the intuitive notion of a "good" argument and call an argument VALID if it is impossible for its assumptions to be true without its conclusion being true as well. Logic can now be defined as the study of validity. As it turns out, this study is best pursued by constructing artificial languages designed to replicate in purer form the logically relevant features of natural languages like English. Symbolic logic, the subject of this course, is the study of validity by preference to these formal languages. Students meet in sections of about 25 students each. Each section meets three hours per week and has a lecture/discussion format, with considerable student participation. Course requirements and grading vary from instructor to instructor, but normally there are weekly homework assignments and periodic quizzes.

230(335)/Buddhist Studies 230/Asian Studies 230/Rel. 230. Introduction to Buddhism. May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy. (4). (HU).

See Buddhist Studies 230.

231. Introduction to Philosophy: Problems and Principles. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

This course is open to students from all areas of the University. No previous work in philosophy is required or assumed. Fist semester undergraduates are welcome. The course has two principal goals. The first is o provide an introduction to a number of fundamental philosophical problems drawn from a variety of branches of philosophy. The following issues will be discussed (1) determinism and free will; (2) arguments for and against the existence of God; and (3) the nature of moral obligation. Some attention will be paid to interconnections between these issues. The second goal is to develop the philosophical skills, and more generally the critical and argumentative skills, of those enrolled. Philosophy 231 and 232 share a common lecture for two meetings per week. Philosophy 231 carries three hours of credit, has one discussion meeting per week and requires two short papers. Philosophy 232 carries four hours of credit, has two discussion meetings per week, and requires three short papers. Students who feel they would benefit from the additional hour of discussion or from the additional required writing are advised to consider enrolling in 232 rather than 231. The course has a single text, an anthology: Joel Feinberg, editor, Reason and Responsibility (Dickenson Publishing Co.) Cost:2 WL:1 (Loeb)

232. Problems of Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 231. (Loeb)

297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy. Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 182, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course will introduce students to philosophy through an examination of some major philosophical issues and problems, with some attention given also to the history of philosophical work on those problems. Examples of the problems to be dealt with are: free will, determinism, and moral responsibility; the possibility of objectivity in ethical discourse; the nature of our knowledge of the physical world; the nature of the mind and its relation to the body. Readings will be derived primarily from modern works, but some historical texts will also be included. (White)

Section 002. This course is an introduction to three central areas in contemporary philosophy: epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. Epistemology is an attempt to establish general standards for rationality and knowledge, and to assess whether we miserable earth creatures measure up. Metaphysics is an attempt to find rational ways of answering questions about the world that science appears to leave open, for instance, questions about God, minds and bodies, and free will. And while science and metaphysics are both in the business of describing things in the world, ethics is an attempt to find rational ways of evaluating things in the world as good or bad, right or wrong. Although I will normally lecture, I will also make time each meeting for questions. Your grade will depend on three papers (roughly one per month), and class participation. (Lormand)

Section 003. This course will provide an introductory overview of some central problems in traditional epistemology and metaphysics. Topics we will discuss include: the rationality of belief in God, skepticism concerning the external world, the problem of induction, personal identity, the mind-body problem, and freedom of will. Readings will be drawn from both historical and contemporary sources, including works by B. Pascal, William James, R. Descartes, David Hume, Bertrand Russell, J. Locke, John Searle, John Perry, and Thomas Nagel. Requirements: 3 short (5-7 page) papers and a final exam.

319(369). Philosophy of the Arts. Philosophy 202 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Philosophy 419. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the arts from a philosophical perspective. It will investigate what art is, the nature of creation, criticism, interpretation, evaluation, and appreciation, and the ways in which the various arts are important, concentrating on several specific art forms such as the novel, photography and film, representational painting, and music. It will treat questions such as: What, if anything, is distinctive about art and aesthetic experience, and how are they related to other aspects of life and culture?, In what ways are works of art expressive of feelings?, Do they have cognitive content?, In what ways do we learn from them, and how do they work to change people's perspectives or attitudes?, What is fiction and why are people interested in it?, Why and in what ways is photography more (or less) powerful than painting and drawing?, What is it for a painting or a novel to be realistic?, What is meant by indeterminate art, conceptual art, found art, and performance art?, How are these forms of art interesting, and how do they compare with more traditional ones (e.g., do they deserve to be called "art"?). Written work for the course will consist of a short paper, three quizzes, and a longer paper. This course is designed especially for students who have not had extensive work in philosophy, although background in philosophy and the arts would be helpful. Cost:3 WL:1 (Walton)

356. Issues in Bioethics. No prerequisites; one Philosophy Introduction is recommended. (4). (HU).

This course introduces major themes and theories of ethics by examining moral dilemmas that arise in the practice of medicine. The emphasis is on theoretical questions such as:'What determines whether something is good for a person?', 'Can dying ever be good for someone?', 'What about being born?', 'Are we ever entitled to lie to a person for his own good?'. These theoretical questions are considered in the context of various medical cases that involve issues ranging from the treatment of pain to euthanasia and abortion. The course does NOT attempt to provide information about specific medical practices, new technologies, or court cases. Two five-page papers and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Velleman)

361. Ethics. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

This is a course in Philosophical ethics. We will be concerned to see whether there is anything one can say in a principled way about what is valuable, worth wanting for its own sake, and what is morally obligatory, what it would be wrong not to do. But we shall also be concerned with philosophical questions about ethics metaethical questions, as they are called. Here we will ask, not only what is valuable, but what is value? And what is it for an action to be wrong? What are rightness and wrongness themselves? And we shall examine the relation between these fundamental philosophical questions of metaethics and substantive ethical questions. The core of the course will be an examination of three central traditions in moral philosophy in the west, typified by Aristotle, Imannuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill. We will also do a section focussed on metaethics with readings from classical and contemporary sources, including the existentialists. And we shall end the course by considering a recent critique of traditional moral philosophy raised by writers inspired by the work of the psychologist Carol Gilligan on gender and moral development, who would stress the role of personal relationships in ethics. Lecture and discussion. Three papers of about five pages in length, a midterm, and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Darwall)

365/Rel. 365. Problems of Religion. (3). (HU).

This is an introductory course in the philosophy of religion. It is not a course in comparative religion, nor a survey of various religions, etc. The emphasis is on philosophical problems and philosophical treatments of topics which are generated by religious belief particularly in connection with Christianity and religions that are somewhat similar to Christianity (i.e., theistic religions). The main topics to be considered are: the rationality of religious belief, attempts to prove (or to argue for) the existence of God, criticisms of such arguments, the significance of religious experience, revelation, and the problem of evil. One or two other topics may be added if there is time. Class sessions will usually combine lectures and discussions. There will be weekly assigned readings from classical and contemporary writers on the philosophy of religion. Probably I will use an anthology of such selections, but the text has not yet been selected. There will be a final exam, and either one or two hourly exams during the course of the term. My present plan is to make all of these open-book, essay exams, covering both the readings and the lectures. Grades will be determined largely by the scores of these exams. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mavrodes)

366. Introduction to Political Philosophy. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

Political philosophy is concerned not merely with the question of what sort of government (if any) we should have, but also with the most general questions about how people can and shuld live in a society. This course will provide an introduction to the moral, philosophical, and empirical foundations of the political thought of a range of important figures in the history of polictical philosophy: Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Mill, Marx, and Rawls. Our goal will be to understand the conceptions of human nature, society, value, freedom, and legitimacy that underlie the work of these political philosophers. Lectures and discussion sections. A midterm and final exam, and a term paper. WL:1 (Railton)

371. Existentialism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

No other philosophic movement has raised issues and questions as evocative and mortal as has been done by Existentialism. Solitude, Anguish, Authenticity, The Death of God, Self-deception, Nausea, The Will to Power, The Absurd, Fascism, Nihilism, and in spite of that the new birth of a Humanity and Culture! We will try to understand what authors like Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Kafka, Hesse, Rilke, Gide, Malraux, Heidegger, Sartre, Camus and Handke wrote and thought about these matters. The course will require hard work and hard thinking. If you feel very frail you probably should not take it. Two papers and a final examination. (Bergmann)

383. Knowledge and Reality. One course in philosophy. (3). (Excl).

This is a course in metaphysics (theory of reality) and epistemology (theory of knowledge). Among the metaphysical problems which we might investigate are: existence, necessity and possibility, identity, causation, mind/body relations, and freedom of the will. Possible topics from epistemology are: the analysis of knowledge, the nature of justification, perceptual knowledge, knowledge of the past and future, knowledge of other minds, and self-knowledge. Readings will be from various contemporary metaphysicians and epistemologists. (Yablo)

388/Class. Civil. 388. History of Philosophy: Ancient. One Philosophy Introduction. A knowledge of Greek or Latin is not required. (4). (HU).

This course is a survey of Greek philosophical thought from its beginnings through Hellenistic times. The figures covered in detail are certain Presocratic thinkers, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, the Stoics, and the Sceptics. Stress is laid not only on the doctrines of these philosophers, but also on their arguments for holding them. Attention is also given to the non-philosophical background against which these thinkers worked, particularly in the case of their ethical views. There will be two papers of about seven pages in length, a midterm, and a final. One of the chief aims of the course is to teach students to write a clear, well-organized philosophy paper. (N.White)

401. Undergraduate Honors Seminar. Open to Honors concentrators in Philosophy and others by permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A small seminar normally restricted to Honors concentrators in philosophy. The topic this year will be 'Rationality and Objectivity.' Readings will be drawn from traditional and contemporary sources in epistemology, the philsophy of science, moral philosophy and the philosophy of language. (Students who are not Honors concentrators in philosophy must receive the permission of the instructor before enrolling.) (Rosen)

409. Philosophy of Language. One Philosophy Introduction or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This advanced undergraduate/graduate course will concentrate on a small number of central questions in contemporary philosophy of language. Familiarity with at least elementary formal logic is a prerequisite, and 300 level (or equivalent) experience of philosophy of mind, general metaphysics, or epistemology would be useful. Topics to be covered include skepticism about meaning, with special reference to writings of Quine, Kripke and Putnam; the nature of knowledge of a language, with special reference to the work of Davidson and Dummett; and the competing paradigms of singular reference deriving from Frege and from Kripke. Grades will be awarded on the basis of a mid-term paper and a take-home final exam. (Wright)

411. Philosophy of Social Science. One philosophy course or social science background. (3). (Excl).

This course will explore philosophical issues arising in the scientific study of human beings: do the methods for studying human beings differ fundamentally from the methods for studying the rest of nature? Can or must human action be explained in terms of laws of behavior, or are there other ways to explain human phenomena? Can social phenomena be reduced to psychological or biological phenomena? Are social scientific theories "value free"? These questions will be investigated through readings in philosophy and in the social sciences. We will take the theory of rational choice as our main example of a social scientific theory, examine competing interpretations of the theory, and applications of it in psychology, economics, and sociology. Rival models of explanation to rational choice theory will also be explored. There will be three papers and a final examination. Cost:3 WL:4 (E. Anderson)

414. Mathematical Logic. (3). (Excl).

A study of the syntax, semantics, applications, and limitations of elementary logic. Among the topics included are: (A) truth-functions and sentential logic; symbolization of truth-functional arguments; completeness of sentential logic. (B) Syntax and semantics of quantification theory; symbolization of quantification arguments; completeness of quantification theory; limitations of quantification theory. (C) Elements of set theory and and the foundations of mathematics; undecidability and Church's theorem. The text is A Modern Formal Logic Primer by P. Teller. Cost:1 WL:1 (Sklar)

419. Philosophy of the Arts. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 319. Will not satisfy 400-level course requirement for concentration in philosophy. Not open to philosophy graduate students. (3). (Excl).

See Philosophy 319. (Walton)

423. Problems of Space and Time. One Logic Introduction and either one other philosophy course or 12 credits of science; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Traditional philosophical questions about the nature of time and space have been strikingly influenced in the twentieth century by the results of contemporary physical science. At the same time, the important current physical theories of space and time rest explicitly or implicitly on deep-rooted philosophical assumptions. The purpose of this course is to study the mutual interaction between science and philosophy as illustrated in problems about space and time. Typical topics to be considered include the status of knowledge about the structure of space and time, substantial versus relational theories of space-time, spatio-temporal order and causal order, and the so-called problem of the direction of time. This course can best be appreciated by students who have either a background in philosophy especially logic and philosophy of science, metaphysics, epistemology or background in physical science or mathematics. An attempt is made in the course to introduce the fundamental ideas of both philosophy and science at a level which can be understood by those without extensive background so students need not be proficient in both science and philosophy to benefit from the course. The primary text is L. Sklar, SPACE, TIME AND SPACETIME. There are additional readings from such authors as Reichenbach, Poincare, Grunbaum, Smart, Wheeler, and others. Cost:2 WL:1 (Sklar)

428/Asian Studies 428/Pol. Sci. 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass standing or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

See Political Science 428. (Lieberthal)

431. Normative Ethics. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

Normative ethics is the search for basic principles that determine what kinds of acts are right and what kinds wrong, what kinds of states of affairs are good and what kinds bad. The course will focus on two chief families of normative ethical theories: utilitarian theories and Kantian theories. We shall be asking how best to formulate these theories, and we shall examine arguments for them and against them. We shall read Mill and Kant for background, and otherwise, for the most part, we shall be reading articles by twentieth century philosophers. Classes will consist in lectures with discussion encouraged. The course is designed to be at the level of an advanced undergraduate who has some prior background in moral philosophy. Philosophy 361 is excellent background. Three five-page papers will be required. There will be a midterm and a final exam, with essay questions drawn from study questions issued in advance. Cost:2 WL:4 (Gibbard)

457/Asian Studies 480/Buddhist Studies 480/Religion 480. Problems in Buddhism. Philosophy 230 or the equivalent. May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy. (3). (Excl).

See Buddhist Studies 480. (Gomez)

458. Philosophy of Kant. Phil. 389, 461, or 462, or permission of instructor, or concentration adviser. (3). (Excl).

The course focuses exclusively on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. The entire text will be analyzed, with a view to understanding Kant's epistemologicaldoctrines of the Aesthetic and Analytic, as well as the metaphysical critique of the Dialectic as a foundation for Kant's later moral philosophy.

461. Continental Rationalism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

This course will investigate the philosophical systems of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz, based upon a careful reading of selections form their major philosophical works. We will focus on the epistemology and metaphysics in these systems. The principal goal will be to understand the philosophical systems of each of the figures in its own right. To this end, there will be assigned reading in a number of secondary sources, selected to reflec t mahor interpretive controversies. Time-permitting, there will be some attention to the question of whether and in what sense "Rationalism" constituted a philosophical movement or genre, and to the "minor" Rationalist, Malebranche. The formal prerequisite, one introductory course in philosophy, does not in fact constitute adequate preparation. A one semester course in the history of modern philosophy (Descartes through Kant), or the equivalent, would provide a much more suitable background. Ideally, undergraduates who enroll will have taken at least one 300- or 400-level course in epistemology or metaphysics (e.g., Philosophy 383). (Loeb)

462. British Empiricism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

This course will be an examination of Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, the three major English language philosophical writers of the early modern period. The course will include a brief survey of Locke's Essay, a more in-depth look at Berkeley's Principles and Three Dialogues, and an examination of several of Hume's major writings, including the Treatise, the Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, and the Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. The course will concentrate on epistemological and metaphysical issues but will also focus on the broader philosophical implications of these topics. Students should have had some previous work in philosophy, preferably in the history of philosophy or epistemology.

468/Chinese 468. Classical Chinese Thought (To A.D. 220). Upperclass standing; no knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

See Chinese 468. (Munro)

474. Nineteenth-Century Philosophy: Hegel and Marx and the Origin of Social Science. Phil. 389 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Hegel's entire philosophical enterprise was more different from that of his predecessor's (notedly from Kant's) than is sometimes recognized. Indeed it is so novel that it has been described as the intellectual endeavor that later fragmented itself into the Social Sciences. We will be studying several of Hegel's works from this perspective. Emphasized will be some of the early essays, the Phenomenology of the Spirit, and the Philosophy of Right. This approach to Hegel obviously reduces the gap that many have supposed to exist between Hegel and Marx. We will therefore read Marx, more than usually, as continuing lines of thought that Hegel first broached. His so-called "Early Manuscripts," The German Ideology, and Das Kapital will be among our texts. Throughout an effort will be made to illuminate the history of the Social Sciences since their birth. (Bergmann)

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