For all English classes, registered students must be present at each of the first two meetings to claim their places. Any student who does not meet this requirement may be dropped from the course. NOTE: If you must miss a class due to religious observances, contact the instructor or leave a message for the instructor with the department (764-6330).


After taking or placing out of Introductory Composition, students may elect English 225 for further practice in the fundamentals of expository and argumentative prose. English 325 offers the opportunity for work in argumentative and expository prose at a more advanced level.

Several sections of English 223, the beginning course in creative writing, are available each term; the work is multi-generic, and two of the following will be covered in each section: fiction, poetry, and drama. More experienced writers may apply for admission to specialized sections of English 227 (Playwriting), English 323 (Fiction or Poetry), English 423 (Fiction), English 427 (Playwriting), and English 429 (Poetry). Admission to these advanced courses is by permission of the instructor, who will require writing samples.


Independent study in English must be elected under one of the following numbers: 226 (Directed Writing, 1-3 hours), 299 (Directed Reading, 1-3 hours), 426 (Directed Writing, 1-4 hours), 499 (Directed Reading, 1-4 hours). There is a limit to the total hours that may be taken under any one number (3 in 226; 6 in 299, 426, and 499). All elections require permission of the professor, on an election authorization (override) form to be turned in at CRISP and also on a departmental approval form. GSTA's are not normally authorized to supervise independent study.

124. College Writing: Writing and Literature. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

By connecting the two terms of its title, Writing and Literature aims to help prepare the student to produce the range and quality of expository prose expected in college courses. Works of literature will be considered for their effective use of language and argument. They will serve as reference points for thinking and writing strategies. Characteristically, sections of English 124 will involve the writing of a minimum of six essays, with considerable attention given to the preparation of drafts and to revision. The literary works which will serve as points of reference will vary from section to section and from term to term.

Course descriptions for individual sections will be available after March 27 in 224 Angell Hall.

125. College Writing. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

Like English 124 (Writing and Literature), English 125 (College Writing) prepares students for the various kinds of academic writing required of them as undergraduates at the University of Michigan. In addition to informal exercises or impromptu essays, students can expect to write six or more formal papers exemplifying the various modes of discourse which comprise our academic community.

Individual course descriptions will be available for reference in 224 Angell Hall after March 27.

217. Literature Seminar. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (HU).

This exciting range of courses will give the student the opportunity to focus early in the College career on a sharply defined topic or body of literary works, and to do so in a seminar format, with much emphasis on discussion and writing. Whatever the topic of the seminar, students will be introduced to large questions of how one interprets and values the works one investigates, of the relation between those works and the cultural order of which they are a part, and of the function(s) of criticism at the present time. Sophomore Seminars will be limited to approximately 20 students, and will serve to fulfill the College's Humanities Distribution requirement.

Descriptions for unlisted sections will be available in 224 Angell Hall after March 27.

Section 001 Baldwin and the Civil Rights Era. This seminar focuses on the writings of James Baldwin as a springboard for discussing larger aesthetic, historical, political, and social issues prominent during the writer's lifetime. We'll consider how writers of the period deal with controversies over civil reform, race relations, racial solidarity, and sexual liberation in their artistic visions by paying particular attention to the formal, linguistic, and ideological features of their work. In addition to Baldwin, we'll read works by Gwendolyn Brooks, Amiri Baraka, Eldridge Cleaver, Paule Marshall, Angela Carter, and Ishmael Reed. Be prepared for participating in class discussion, for a very heavy reading schedule, and for rigorous evaluation of writing skills. Two short essays, oral presentation, and term paper are required. Cost:5 WL:1 (Ross)

Section 002 Introduction to the Literature of the Americas: A Comparative Approach. Here are some of the texts that we will be reading in this section of English 217: From Haiti: Aime Cesaire, The Tragedy of King Christophe (drama); from Canada: Joy Kogawa, Obasan (novel); from the USA: F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby (novel); and Leslie Silko: Ceremony (novel). There will also be selections, or else, excerpts, from Brazil, Mexico, Cuba, & other Caribbean islands. To what purpose? "Do the Americas have a common literature?" which is how at least one collection of essays has recently wrestled with some very serious complications in the posing of the question. We will look at how proximity and difference; racial identities and hemispheric migrations; military force and economic power have all combined to shape, say, a native American view of what Mexico added to the Anglo-American re-shaping of the cultures of the North American Southwest as in Leslie Silko (Ceremony). No less relevant will be the implications of such a text as the one in which Ariel Dorfman (Chile) explores the cultural effect of Walt Disney and North American penetration into Chilean society in How To Read Donald Duck. There will be brief reports around which we will hold class discussions; a 5-page paper, AND a major final essay. You will be asked in that final essay to work on some comparative/contrastive project that involves at least any two regions covered during the term. WL:1 (Johnson)

Section 003 Some Ways of Looking at Ourselves. Literature Seminars are intended primarily for first and second year students; enrollment is limited to twenty, a number small enough to make informed conversation not only possible but necessary. In this section we will read a half dozen or so contemporary novels (that is, novels written more or less within your lifetime). We will talk about the kinds of assumptions involved whenever we read anything at all, and then we will approach these novels from a variety of directions and try to make sense (or senses) of them. We will also write about them, or our experience of them, and we will share our writing with one another. Students should not enroll in this section unless they are prepared to have an exemplary attendance record, and prepared also to read, to think, to talk, and to write, and to do all four regularly and with energy. That's what seminars are all about. Cost:2 WL:1 (Ingram)

Section 004 The Beat Generation. In this class we will read the poetry and novels of that group of writers from the 1950s who have come to be called The Beat Generation. In addition to studying what they wrote, we will attempt to capture the excitement of this transitional period in American life when the social stagnation of the Eisenhower, Cold War era was starting to be disrupted from within, partially arising from the entrance into American literature voices previously unheard. On the Road, The Dharma Bums and other writings of French-Canadian Jack Kerouac. The alienated threnodies of Jewish-American Allen Ginsberg, whose mother's involvement with the Communist Party launched him on a lifetime of alienation and social protest. The bizarre insights and prose style of William Burroughs, whose autobiographical book Junky and whose revolutionary novel The Naked Lunch shocked the literary world of his time and prefigured the postmodernist movement in contemporary fiction. The ecologically minded poet Gary Snyder, coming from a rural, working-class background in the Northwest, who became the first spokesman in poetry for the environmental movement. Laurence Ferlinghetti of San Francisco, whose Coney Island of the Mind was a highlight of West Coast Beat poetry. The Black Power pronouncements of Leroi Jones, aka Imamu Amiri Baraka, whose Blues People is the best book ever written on blues and jazz. Women did not figure largely in this movement, though we will read the poetry of Diane di Prima, and study Joyce Johnson's Minor Characters, which tells the story of the Beats from the vantage-point of Jack Kerouac's sometime lover. We will try to get a taste of the era through listening to jazz (the Beats were among the first to try to express jazz rhythms in their writing) and socially aware comedians of the time like Mort Sahl and Lord Buckley. Cost:3 WL:1 (Tillinghast)

Section 006 Literature and Medicine. This course will address the relationship between literature and medicine, examining topics such as the narrative structure of case studies, the use of metaphor in talking about disease, the imaginative function of illness in literature, cultural myths and iconographies of disease, literature by and about doctors and nurses and patients, representations of the human body, and literary responses to major health crises such as bubonic plague, syphillis and AIDS. Texts will include some of the following: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, H.G. Wells' The Island of Dr. Moreau, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Louisa May Alcott's Hospital Sketches, Ibsen's Ghosts, Freud's Dora, Chekhov's, "Ward Six," Camus' The Plague, Oliver Sacks' The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, Borges' "Funes the Memorious," Elaine Scary's The Body in Pain, and Susan Sontag's AIDS and its Metaphors. Requirements will include participation in class discussion, a number of informal writings, two 5-7 page papers, and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Vrettros)

223. Creative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (3). (HU). May not be repeated for credit.

All sections of 223 teach the writing of two of the following three genres: fiction (including personal narrative), drama, and poetry. Different sections will emphasize the individual genres to varying degrees. Classwork involves the discussion of the process of writing and the work of a few published authors. Students will do exercises meant to develop a sensitivity to language and a facility with evocative detail, voice, form, and so forth. Most classroom time, however, is devoted to reading and discussion of student writing. A final portfolio of revised finished work of 35-50 manuscript pages may be required.

All sections of English 223 will have course descriptions available for reference in 224 Angell Hall after March 27.

224. The Uses of Language. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4). (HU).

The aim of the second-year writing courses, English 224 and 225, is to help students improve the critical thinking and writing skills introduced in English 124 or 125. The emphasis in both 224 and 225 is upon well-rounded and rhetorically balanced explorations of various sides of a given issue what we call argumentative writing. This balance is achieved by analyzing the various claims at issue, probing different modes of reasoning, testing assumptions, questioning beliefs, and working to discover new ideas through written discourse. As with 124 and 125, revision will form an integral part of the analytic process. Sections of English 224 will focus upon a single theme, as outlined in the individual descriptions.

Course descriptions available in 224 Angell Hall after March 27th.

Section 001 Writing Our Own Lives. In this writing class, we will be grappling with questions that reveal underlying conflicts and value systems which affect our judgments in the decisions we make. Our work will entail uncovering individual issues of discord and attempting to see how those personal issues speak to a public forum. Although the reading list is still to be determined, we will select from texts that reveal a lawyer struggling to convince a jury to convict a sixteen year old to first degree murder, an analyst trying to come to grips with the "Challenger Disaster," a minority writer trying to understand how his ethnic background can survive in his mind as he attempts to integrate himself into a "majority" profession, a novelist exploring how personal relationships develop and are sustained, a holocaust survivor wondering about the process of decision making for survival, and a civil rights leader asking the essential question of how we can enact our lives to produce the best of all societies. With that in mind, we will also analyze John Irving's THE CIDER HOUSE RULES. Our work will encompess examining what is called "five arenas of the mind" those basic areas that expose diverse conflicts using texts of both professional and non-professional writers that illuminate those struggles. Some of what we read will be critical analysis and some will be fiction, but we will always be concerned with how we think and how we write. The class format will be discussion and more discussion, and we will be working through our own essay writing consistently in class. The conception of the class is one that celebrates the process of challenging and revising former ideas, one that works towards recognizing a synthesis of more complex possibilities. Each student will write a minimum of four essays, with an option for one major revision. WL:1 (Back)

225. Argumentative Writing. Completion of the Introductory Composition requirement. (4). (HU).

Like English 224, English 225 is centered upon practice in argumentative writing, but with topics drawn from a wide range of issues and problems. As in 224, students in 225 will work at structuring their written language to probe various aspects of the problem at hand. They will also explore the way language can be used as a vehicle for urging particular value systems, in order to learn to uncover the rhetorical strategies at the heart of such modes of discourse. Classes will be conducted in workshop format, and revision will form an integral part of the analytic process.

Course descriptions available in 224 Angell Hall after March 27th.

227. Introductory Playwriting. (3). (HU).

A crash course immersion into the world of professional playwriting. Original student work is read aloud each week by actors, then critiqued in workshop fashion by the class. Modeled after the Playwrights Units at such distinguished Off-Broadway Theaters as Circle Repertory Company and Ensemble Studio Theater, student playwrights are expected to write two revised one-act plays over the course of the term, see one play a week, read at least one play a week, meet weekly with an assigned partner, have weekly conferences with the instructor, and keep a journal. Mid-term and end of the year performances are open to the public. Instructor is a New York-based playwright and screenwriter with Regional theater and Off-Broadway credits (Arena Stage, GeVa, Victory Gardens, Circle Rep, Manhattan Theater Club) and the expectations of the workshop are of a similarly professional nature. To enroll, put name on waitlist at CRISP, come to the first day of class with dramatic-writing sample and compelling idea for an original play (class size limited to 15 writers). Cost:1 WL:1 (Roth)

230. Introduction to Short Story and Novel. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Short Story. Honors.
PURPOSE AND DESIGN OF COURSE:To read a substantial number of short stories (and two novels) by well-established writers of the past and of the present in order to develop strategies of interpretation beyond mere "plot" and "characterization." Our method will be comparative; in other words, during class periods we will read stories that in some way have apparent similarities and our task will be to expose their differences. At about midway in the term we will carefully read and analyze two novels, probably Ernest Hemingway's THE SUN ALSO RISES and Nathanael West's DAY OF THE LOCUST. Among the writers covered: Tolstoy, Chekhov, Dostoevski, Hawthorne, Melville, Jewett, Cather, Lawrence, Hemingway, Faulkner, Fitzgerald, O'Conner, Ellison, Atwood, Oates, Lessing, Gordimer, Mason, and others. PREREQUISITES: None. What is wanted here is an interest in reading with a willingness to explore one's own capacity for critical and creative thinking. PROCEDURES: There will be no mid-term. In its place there will be frequent in-class writing exercises based upon materials read for that week. Toward the end of the term there will be a longer out-of-class paper based upon materials read during this course. In addition, students will keep a special notebook in which they log their reactions to each story assigned. There will also be a final exam. WL:1 (Eby)

Section 002. We will read during the term a number of works of prose fiction, all of which are drawn from the recent historical past. Authors and works include Ernest Heminway, In Our Time and The Old Man and the Sea; James Joyce, Dubliners and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man; J.D. Salinger, Nine Stories and Raise High the Room Beam, Carpenters; V.S. Pritchett, On the Edge of the Cliff and Dead Men Leading. The Reading List deliberately includes works of short fiction only so that you can study the techniques and effects of these works intensely. In addition, the first, third, fifth and seventh books named above are examples of the "short story composite," i.e., a short story publication collected and arranged by the author. We will accordingly examine the proposition that such books have important dimensions beyond the import of the individual stories contained within them, that "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts." The other four books, all short novels by the same authors, will help us to elaborate on and modify such ideas and to explore other concepts as well, coming finally to appreciate in greater depth what philosophical and aesthetic richness prose fiction is capable of achieving. Since class discussion is paramount, steady attendance is required. Regular journal entries (frequent study questions provided for stimuli), two essays outside of class (1,200 words and 2,000 words) and two-hour final examination constitute the writing requirements. Possible essay topics for the shorter essay generated by students; individualized topic for the longer essay generated through individual conferences with Professor Heydon. Chief goal of the course is to have fun reading and understanding fiction, first to encourage and then to refine your direct perception and reaction to the written words. Small class size (22 maximum) becomes an intimate and jolly throng of literary enthusiasts. Cost:2 WL:1 (Heydon)

239. What is Literature? Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program. (3). (HU).
Section 003.
This course will introduce students to literature's formal aspects how it is put together, to what end, with what effect with attention to different literary works' relationship to the culture from which they arose and which they in turn helped produce. We will be focusing on American literature in particular, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century, and we will examine both canonical and non-canonical works (i.e. "classics" and "popular fiction"), works by both women and men, and will discuss the present state of literary studies, a field itself now attempting to answer the question of what is "literature." There will be three papers, a midterm and a final. Attendence is mandatory. Cost:2 WL:1 (Barnes)

Section 004. In this section of the course, we will raise and discuss questions related to the acts of reading and interpretation. We will also explore some of the basic techniques of analyzing different forms of writing. We will examine a broad range of texts, including theoretical, critical and literary works. The class will be based on a discussion format. Assignments will include weekly writing exercises, a mid-term, and a final paper. WL:1 (Gregg)

Section 005. In this class we will think seriously about the kinds of things we do and say about literature. Its goal is to help you become more self-reflective and critical as you read and write about books. We will achieve this goal by exploring together some fundamental and provocative questions. How do we decide what "literature" is in the first place? What is at stake when we decide whether a work of literature is good or bad? How can different assumptions and theories about literature change the way we interpret a single work? How do we talk about the "context" of a work of-literature? We will explore these questions through coordinated readings of literary, non-literary, and critical writings. The literature we read will be a diverse selection of novels, stories, and poems, and will include Emily Brontë's WUTHERING HEIGHTS, Zora Neale Hurston's THEIR EYES WERE WATCHING GOD, and William Faulkner's AS I LAY DYING. There will be three short papers, a final exam, and frequent informal writing exercises. Participation in class discussion will be mandatory. Cost:3 WL:1 (Pinch)

Section 006. This section of English 239 will address the question in the course's title by working through three stages. The first will be a provisional defining of "literature" by what may seem to lend itself to "close readings," where "texts" are explicated by features of their forms and their genres of fiction, poetry, and drama. This first stage puts skills of close reading to use in discussions of a large selection works, most by authors students have already studied or have heard of. The second stage will be concerned with an analysis and redefinition of "literature" through varieties of criticism, many of which require explicit consideration of knowledge that lies outside "the works themselves." Issues which involve assuming, proposing, or advocating different critics' ideas of what constitutes literature and "American" literary tradition or traditions will be introduced: These issues center on "cultural literacy" verses "multicultural literacy" and on conflicting concepts of "literary canon." The third stage will be a reading of three novels about which the question, What is literature?, has been or might be raised by proponents of one literary approach or another. Required texts include an anthology of (mainly but not entirely United States and British) fiction, poetry, and drama: a course pack; Edith Wharton's Ethan Frome; Carlows Bulosan's America is in the Heart; and Milton Murayama's All I Asking for is My Body. The last two of these works are in part about immigration, race, and labor in America, ideas about a worker's just rewards, and, as in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman in the anthology, about "the American Dream"; and the course will make use of a conference, during the term, on "Working in a Multicultural Society: The Changing Face of Labor in the United States." Frequent short essays and quizzes required. Cost:3 WL:1 (Sumida)

Section 007. We will look at a variety of texts, artifacts, and contexts that will help us to define more clearly the nature and properties of this thing we call "literature," and - of equal importance to understand the variety of interpretive strategies that we might use to gain some leverage on "literature" (whatever that might be). In the first half of the course, we'll be reading a number of works in different media, to help us begin to grasp the range and possibilities of literary experience; in the second half, we'll concentrate on interpretive strategies for texts widely understood to be literary, but our aim throughout will be to gain a greater awareness of the number of ways the products of the human imagination might be approached and the multiplicity of the notions of literature that these approaches create. Texts will include: Dickens, Great Expectations; Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter; Morrison, Beloved; Speigelman, Maus (or Maus II); shorter pieces by Roland Barthes, Ferdinand de Saussure, "Nate Shaw," and others. WL:1 (Freedman)

Section 008. The aim here will be to enhance your appreciation of different ways of reading literature and to expand your sense of different ways it's been read in the past. We'll start off by reviewing some basic analytic categories such as plot, character, and genre and then go on to see how such categories have been defined and redefined in the recent past. From there we'll address broader issues involving concerns such as the distinction between the literary and non-literary, the choice of interpretive methods, and literature's relation to social change. Though we'll pretty much stick to fiction written over the past two hundred years, we'll be sampling a wide array of materials that includes short stories, novels, the first-person narratives of immigrants and ex-slaves, the Western, and postmodern fiction. Written requirements consist of several response papers, two essays, and a final exam. WL:1 (Larson)

Section 009. This course will attempt to address the question of why and how we read literature, not by providing an answer to "what is literature?" but by considering the historical and cultural implications of reading and interpreting fictions. Why do we tell stories? Who decides what stories should be told when and which ones should be told again and again? How do we decide what stories mean? The course will also introduce readers to the function and purpose of literary criticism, to the notion that reading is not "natural" but that every interpretation is based on a set of assumptions that is able to address certain questions but not others. And finally, this course will suggest that becoming more aware about how one reads fiction and non-fiction prose will enable understanding of how we are everywhere interpreting signs that involve a process of "reading," from fashion items to cultural events. Readings will include various literary critical approaches to a classic text, a film adaptation of a novel, a 20th century rewriting of a 19th century text, a story based on a real event. Writing assignments will culminate in a portfolio which will include journal excerpts, response papers, and a literary critical essay. Cost:3WL:1 (Herrmann)

Section 010. In the last 75 years our ideas about the meaning and purpose of literature have changed. In 1919 T.S. Eliot argued that the best art is impersonal: "The business of the poet is to find new emotions, express feelings which are not in actual emotions at all." But by 1974 Julia Kristeva wants to argue the reverse. She suggests that literature gives us maps of both the personal and the political. The poet "revels in a certain knowledge...about an otherwise repressed, nocturnal, secret, and unconscious universe" by exposing what is "repressed, unsaid, uncanny" about the political world that we inhabit. In this course we will ask: Why is our vision of the literary text so volatile? What do we want literature to do for us? What is the difference between good art and bad art, and how have these differences changed over time? Are there timeless categories that can help us evaluate literary texts? Are there timeless texts that can help us evaluate literary categories? We will answer these questions by mixing literary theory with works of literature, ranging from the high modernist art of T.S. Eliot to the populist productions of People Magazine. 2 papers & a final exam. WL:1 (Yeager)

Section 011 The Art of Interpretation: An Act of the Mind. We hope to do the kind of analytical work in class that will allow you to join a community of people who carry on a continuing, informed conversation about literature. We will study literature which reflects both the social issues of the times and each author's unique shaping of that material. We want to read closely not only to see what authors say but how they say it. Thus, our readings will often focus on the dynamics of the imaginative process our own as well as each writer's.. Moreover, if we begin this term finding ourselves reading rhythmically, somewhat slow, understated works, we will progressively find ourselves in the midst of the potentially explosive energy of Beckett's Rockaby, Fowles' French Lieutenant's Woman, Thorton's Imagining Argentina, and Irvings' A Prayer for Owen Meany. The format of the course will be discussion and more discussion; the focus will be on the exchange of ideas to find the critical questions that are most significant to us. The requirements of the class will include: two thoughtful and analytical essays (8pp./ea); a short weekly response to a text; and a comprehensive final exam. Although still tentative the readings will be selected from the works of the following authors: Wordsworth, Dickenson, Whitman, Dickens, Hardy, Hawthorne, James, Yeats, Eliot, D. H. Hwang, Toni Morrison, Naylor, Atwood, A. Tyler, Dorris, Allende, Erdrich, Hong Kingston, Julia Alvarez, Tan, Marmon Silko, Nanci Griffith, Holly Near, and Sting. Cost:4 WL:1 (Back)

Section 012 Literary Relationships. This course prepares students to become active participants in the on-going conversation about literature that informed readers find so pleasurable and challenging. It will operate on the premise that learning to read texts well includes talking "well" about them. To provide a framework for our conversation, we will focus on the dynamics of literary relationships. We will discuss the relationships between reader and writer, considering how the narrative voice of a text speaks to us, shaping our responses; how we, as readers, also push against that narrative voice, composing our own sense of what a text means and how matters of gender, culture, and belief shape what we see as we read. Concurrently, we will consider the relationship between a particular text and its context its historical period, its social environment, its literary tradition, its author's biography asking how that relationship factors into the text's meaning. To keep us centered as we weave all these perspectives together, the selected readings will be ones that treat another kind of relationship that of the outsider and the system. This shared concern will allow us to see the wonderfully diverse ways that writers create versions of stories about creating a self in the face of antagonistic social forces. Included will be works by some of the following authors: Hemingway, Morrison, Dickens, Doctorow, Kafka, Fowles, Hawthorne, Charlotte Brontë, David Lodge, Murial Spark, and Don DeLillo. Class requirements include two papers (5-7 pages), brief weekly written responses to the readings, a final exam, regular attendance, and active participation in the class discussions. Cost:3 WL:1 (Wolk)

Section 013. This course (a prerequisite for English majors) is designed to introduce students to critical issues concerning the nature of literary studies. It is really more about what one does with literature rather than what literature is (though both of these issues are inextricably related). By examining literary, critical and theoretical works, students in the class will discuss, among other issues, how we define literature and the study of it; what constitutes a genre; how readers relate to texts; and what characteristically determines the selection of works for inclusion in literary studies. In the beginning of the course we will scrutinize these issues in relation to the idea of revising the canon, examining a series of shorter and longer prose fiction works, beginning with Alice in Wonderland (arguably, a descent into the chaos of symbolic interpretation). We will also study critical and theoretical considerations of literary analysis. Other works might include Roland Barthes' Mythologies, Oliver Sachs' The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat and Toni Morrison's Sula. Students will be required to complete several response papers, at least three essays and an exam and must participate actively in class discussion. Cost:2 WL:1 (Flint)

240. Introduction to Poetry. Prerequisite for concentrators in the Regular Program and in Honors. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
An introduction to lyric poetry with reading drawn from a wide range of English and American examples, from the 16th Century to the present. We will begin by considering some basic elements of poetry (including diction, tone, metaphor, rhythm) and various verse forms, with attention to the evolution of some of these (the sonnet, for example). The class will typically proceed by intensive discussion of a few poems each day. We will read a number of poets in some depth (probably including Donne, Keats, Dickinson, Yeats, and Rich) and conclude with a book of poetry by Mary Oliver. Short exercises, three or four short papers, and a final examination. WL:1 (Knott)

Section 002. In this course we'll explore various forms, techniques, modes and historical conceptions of poetic expression. While reading a wide range of poets in English from different periods, cultural traditions, and genres, we'll examine some critical approaches to analyzing and writing about poetry, and also consider the issues entailed in evaluating poetic and critical compositions. Giving close attention to poets' prosody and form, voice and rhetoric, theme and ideology, we'll also discuss how other influences, such as public reception and publication media, contribute to the meaning and significance of poetic conventions. Be prepared for participating in class discussion and for rigorous evaluation of writing skills. Several essays and revisions, midterm exam, and reading journal are required. Cost:5WL:1 (Ross)

Section 003. This course is for anyone interested in reading poetry with increased pleasure and understanding. Close reading of specific poems will be used to illustrate questions of voice, narrative, diction, rhythm and meter, sound, figures of speech, the line, form, authorship, audience, and context. During the term, we will move from a general survey of poetic techniques and forms to a brief but detailed study of the work of one or two authors. I expect to ask you to write four short papers, a mid-term, and a final, and to keep an (ungraded) journal of your day-to-day interactions with poetry. Other requirements for the course are regular attendance and active participation in class. Final grades will reflect all the requirements. Texts: Abrams, Glossary of Literary Terms, and The Norton Anthology of Poetry. WL:1 Cost:2 (McIntosh)

Section 004. In this section, we will emphasize that most beloved work ethic: Learn by doing. We will spend one day each week in intensive study of published poems, especially those poems whose themes challenge us by not allowing us to languish in easy, pastoral landscapes. We will study poems with teeth, poems that understand the complexity of teeth, their biting purpose, their tendency to rot, their ability to grind, to yellow as if theirs is a papery aging, the eliticism of proper teeth addressed as canine, bicuspid, molar; and, oh yes, their white, posed aesthetic, etc. We will examine poems that address the range of human experience, that respond to the difficult issues of being cultural, ethnic, social, political, religious, moral, immoral, ethical, economic, sexual, classed, labeled, and uncertain beings. On the other day of class, we will attempt to meet the challenge of our perceptions of experience through learning to organize these perceptions into poems. WL:1 (Moss)

Section 005. This prerequisite to the English concentration is open to anyone interested in developing a richer understanding and enjoyment of poetry. We will consider matters of poetic form (such as stanza structure, rhythm, and meter), diction (such as word choice, etymology, and sound), content (such as poems of love or war, the uses of allusion, and philosophic issues), and rhetoric (such as metaphor, irony, and symbolism). While studying X. J. Kennedy's INTRODUCTION TO POETRY, which contains mainly English-language works from the Renaissance to the present, we will work cooperatively toward developing widely applicable analytic, evaluative, and writing skills. Written work includes a daily reading journal, a 2-3 page paper on a single poem, a 3-4 page paper on at least two poems, and a 4-5 page paper on a single author or a single type of poem. Cost:1 WL:1 (Rabkin)

Section 006. This course aims to make you more aware, through a survey of contemporary American poetry, of the choices poets make. To what degree should a poem be personal or impersonal? Should it confess, explain, describe, argue, or sing? Should it sound like a novel, like music, like speech? Most poems do all of these things to various degrees; in order to read and write about poetry you'll need to perceive and define these. The course will also give you a vocabulary with which to write about poems; it therefore asks you to learn both a body of knowledge (books by 8 poets) and methods of reading. Some of the course will consist of discussion, in-class writing exercises, and work in small groups. Requirements: attendance, daily written responses, 2 papers, midterm, final. Books have been chosen for their stylistic variety and for their common interest in memory, language, mourning, and sexuality. We'll read the works of: Alexander, Bishop, Dove, Fulton, Gluck, Kinnell, Lowell, and Pinsky. WL:1 (Terada)

Section 007. This course is designed to enhance your enjoyment of poetry and to give you the skills that will help you to write about it. We will closely examine poems in a wide range of free and traditional forms, with equal emphasis on content (meditations on unrequited love, flea/mosquito bites, sinking ships, and interrupted dreams) and technical aspects (metaphor, rhyme, meter, tone) and how they intertwine. In one class we might look at a few poems written in different centuries on the same subject to see how poetry has evolved, and why it had to. We will also discuss whether I have just used the word evolved with any validity. On occasion we will read early drafts of work by such poets as Frost, Eliot, Yeats and Wilbur to better comprehend the deliberations that culminate in a poem. Required: participation in discussion, frequent short essays (2-3pp), one "rewrite" of a poem from our anthology, quizzes, and a final exam. Text: The Norton Anthology of Poetry. Cost:2 WL:1 (Rosser)

Section 008. This course begins to answer the question of how to read poetry with pleasure and skill. We will look carefully at poem after poem, with an emphasis on the poet's craft, or how the poem is put together. Requirements will include some memorizing, several short "excercises, " two formal papers of analysis, midterm and final. Class proceeds by discussion. Text is the complete Norton Anthology of Poetry. Cost:2 WL:1 (Zwiep)

Section 010. This course is for anyone interested in reading poetry with increased pleasure and understanding. We will read a wide range of poems of different kinds and periods, and try to develop skills useful in the analysis and discussion of poetry. Close reading of specific poems will be used to illustrate questions of form, rhyme and rhythm, imagery, tone and content. There will be numerous short, ungraded (but required) writing assignments, group presentations, one or two longer papers, a midterm and a final exam. Other requirements for the course are regular attendance and active participation in class; final grades will reflect all the requirements. Required text: The Norton Anthology of Poetry Cost:2 WL:1 (McSparran)

Section 011. This course aims to introduce students to a wide range of English poetry, studying both its thematic concerns and its formal characteristics. We will read and discuss poems grouped by theme for most of the term, and spend the last three weeks on an intensive reading of a single poet. Throughout the course, emphasis falls on close reading of and analytical writing about poetry. Three papers and two exams. Texts are the Norton Anthology of Poetry and M.H. Abram's Glossary of Literary Terms, and a small course pack at Liberty St. Kinko's. Cost:3 WL:1 (Krook)

Section 012. The focus of this course will be on the interplay of orally performed poetry and written/published poetry. Why are stores told in poetry? how does the sound of a story turn into verse? why would a poet choose rhyme? and how does the process of writing and revision end in what we will learn to define as poetry? The class will consider many genres and forms of poetry from nursery rhymes to ballads to epics to lyrics to songs to song lyrics. Political protest has, over the centuries, found its voice in oral and written poetry. How does poetry facilitate the telling of these too-long-silent stories? Does it? Where is the sound of poetry in contemporary cultures? The writing in the class will consist of frequent two-page papers on the poems or the poetic and critical devices and 'divisives' discussed in class. This class will be composed of written and oral endeavors, so students will be expected to engage as private writers and as classroom participants. (Skantze)

245/Res. College Hums. 280/Theatre 211. Introduction to Drama and Theatre. (4). (HU).

See Theatre and Drama 211. (Cardullo)

Primarily for Juniors and Seniors

302. Writing About Good Books. (4). (Excl).

The goals of this course are a) to engage students in books that are enjoyable and instructive and b) to help them write more effectively and with increased pleasure. The writing portion of the course lays great emphasis on revision. Each paper is written in two drafts, and the main criterion for grading is the thoroughness of revision of the first draft. There are four books and four papers, each written in two drafts. There are no exams. WL:1 (Meisler)

305. Introduction to Modern English. Recommended for students preparing to teach English. (3). (HU).

This course surveys the forms and functions of contemporary English. We will consider some of the major dimensions of English structure (orthography, phonetics, intonation, word formation, syntax, etc.) and how these structures characterize both English speakers and their linguistic purposes. During the term, we will explore the social and geographical dialects of Modern English (e.g., British vs. American English and Black English Vernacular), its professional jargons (e.g., the language of advertising, religion, law, and politics), and its situational varieties (e.g., the language of conversation, oral narrative, and literature) and will affect our actions and attitudes (e.g., our notions of 'good' English vs. 'bad'). Requirements for the course will include a language journal, a mid-term, a final exam, and a project investigating some aspect of Modern English structure or use. Cost:4 WL:1 (Cureton)

309. American English. (3). (HU).
Section 001 The Politics of English.
English and increasingly "American" English is an influential language around the world. Yet two centuries ago it was a language spoken only in isolated communities with little global influence. How English came to occupy its present position is one theme of our course. English has been influenced by other languages (through word borrowings, for instance), but it has also had an impact on other languages (OK, to pick the most influential example, appears almost everywhere, along with coke and rock). Cultural history and influence can be seen in this two-way borrowing process. At the same time, politics has shaped the varieties of English used within our culture. "Non-sexist" and "politically correct" English have lately become popular themes and reflect cultural trends and intense passions. There are even movements to demand that American citizens use English (with legal penalties for those who don't and strong informal pressures to conform to a "standard." Yet most Americans resist these forces and speak as they choose. Speech varieties solidify communities, and we will look at the features that form regional varieties of American English (for instance, "Michigan English") and that mirror other communities (for instance "Women's English", "Jewish English," "African-American English"). A phrase we might use to describe our situation is "caught in the web of words." Our course will help us identify the webs and locate the spiders. Cost:2 WL:1 (Bailey)

310. Discourse and Society. (3). (Excl).

Every day we come into contact with written information that is intended to inform us as consumers from labels on cleaning solutions to applications for checking accounts. This course is aimed at understanding how these types of information are structured, how people use them, what problems they encounter and how to create more effective materials. To accomplish this, the course is divided into main components. First, there will be an overview of different types of written information, their structure, function and use. The types of information investigated include product assembly instructions (e.g. how to put together a computer or a backyard swing), product use instructions (e.g., how to program a VCR or use a particular medication), interactive documents (e.g., how to apply for a checking account or use a money machine) and advisory information such as product warranties. In the second part of the course, students will work in small groups on the redesign of one body of written information. The course will include homework assignments and a final project. WL:1 (Keller-Cohen)

315/Women's Studies 315. Women and Literature. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Images of Women in Contemporary Theater.
This course explores images women have constructed of themselves through theater performance in the U.S. and Europe since the 1950's. Our readings will be drawn from playscripts and performance documentation as we explore not only language and narrative but also theater practice itself including such elements of production as staging, setting, costuming and casting. Feminist, critical, and performance aesthetics theories will aid our exploration. Students will write two 4-6 page papers. The papers will give students the opportunity to further explore and develop ideas and issues raised in class. Topics and details will be announced in class. All students will take part in the informal staging of scenes either as actors or director/facilitators. These scenes will be about 5-10 minutes in length, will require memorization, and simple staging. Assignments will be made in the second week of class. Evaluation will be based on thoughtful exploration, invention, and careful preparation, not on acting ability. The course method will combine lecture, discussion, and scene study. You will be expected to keep up with the reading assignments, be well prepared and be lively participants in class discussion.There will be a midterm and a final exam. This course satisfies the English Department New Traditions requirement. WL:1 (Cohen)

Section 002 Women in Literature: Narratives of Captivity and Redemption in American Women's Writing. The subtitle of this course is meant to be ironic, since students will be required to re-think the cliched notion of the woman/writer hemmed in by social constraints, in order to formulate more useful models for the rich variety of subject positions articulated by women writing in a historically multi-cultural America. In trying to figure out exactly what the term "Women in Literature" might mean, this course will consider: problems around literary authority, gender, and genre; the lace of women's writing with regard to "mainstream" issues (e.g., national reform, war, imperialism, religion); the politics of class, culture and location; female sexuality and fantasies of utopia. Readings will include prose fiction as well as critical and theoretical essays. Grades will be based on regular attendance, discussion participation, regular in-class writing assignments, 3 papers (probably around 7 pages in length), and a final exam. This course satisfies the English Department New Traditions requirement. Cost:3 WL:1 (Gunning)

Section 003 Stealing the Light: The Stories of Native American Women. This course will examine the ways in which Native American women writers have used the oral tradition and literary conventions to (re)invent their tribal and gender identities. The reading list will include stories and novels published between 1900 and 1991. Some of the authors to be discussed are Zitkala-SA, E. Pauline Johnson, Mourning Dove, Ella Deloria, Leslie Marmon Silko, Louise Erdrich, Anna Lee Walters, and Linda Hogan. This course satisfies the English Department New Traditions requirement. WL:1 (Bell)

317. Literature and Culture. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Bigotry and Maturity in the Literature of Two Cultures.
The purpose of this course is to invite its members to examine some assumptions of their own culture by comparing them to related assumptions in another, distant culture. Its method will be to compare the English Renaissance as it reveals itself in four of Shakespeare's plays with the post-World War II cultures of Europe and America reflected in eleven plays and novels by Kogawa, Sartre, Hochhuth, Ellison, Jones, Albee, Walker, Morrison and Kennedy. Each class except the first and last will begin with fifteen minutes of writing in response to a question intended as preparation for discussion that follows. In addition to these numerous in-class papers, two 2-3 page papers will be required as preliminary versions of two 5-6 page papers that are the chief written work of the course. No midterm or final examination given. This course fulfills the New Traditions Requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:5 (Fader)

Section 002 Literature of the American Wilderness. Puritan settlers in New England saw the forest around them as a "hideous and desolate wilderness," a place of "wild beasts and wild men" that they were destined to civilize. Today environmentalists characterize the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge as the "last great wilderness" in America and fight to save it from the oil companies. What is wilderness, and how have American attitudes toward wilderness evolved? The course will explore these questions and others about how Americans (including native Americans) have perceived the natural world and their relationship to it, as these arise from texts ranging from the earliest writing about America to twentieth century responses to Alaska. Readings will include texts illustrating the place of wilderness in the American imagination such as Henry David Thoreau's THE MAINE WOODS, John Muir's MY FIRST SUMMER IN THE SIERRA,Willa Cather's O PIONEERS!, Aldo Leopold's SAND COUNTY ALMANAC, William Faulkner's THE BEAR, and N. Scott Momaday's HOUSE MADE OF DAWN. We will also read some short fiction, a selection of poetry (including poems of Robinson Jeffers, Gary Snyder, Wendell Berry, A.R. Ammons, and Mary Oliver), and excerpts from the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition and from Parkman's The Oregon Trail, from accounts of their travels by early naturalists (Audubon), from the writings of frontier women, and from twentieth-century nature writers (including Edward Abbey, Annie Dillard, John McPhee, and Barry Lopez). Students will be expected to keep a weekly journal, to write a paper of ten pages, and to take a final examination. Anyone with an interest in the literature and the issues it raises is welcome. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English concentrators. Cost:2 WL:1 (Knott)

Section 003 Yiddish Literature in America. For Fall Term, 1993, this course is jointly offered with Judaic Studies 333. This course satisfies the English Department New Traditions and American Literature requirements. (Nowerstern)

318. Literary Types. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Fantasy.
This course will explore the nature and uses of fantastic narratives from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present, drawing texts from such widely different fields as fairy tales, science fiction, and the so-called New Novel. No special background in literature is required. The written work for the course will proceed on a contract-like basis involving weekly short papers, an optional longer paper, and two or three examinations. Texts include: HOUSEHOLD STORIES OF THE BROTHERS GRIMM (1812-1815), Dover; TALES OF E. T. A. HOFFMANN (1809-1822), U of Chicago Press, ppr; THE PORTABLE POE, (1835-1849), Viking, selections only; THE ANNOTATED ALICE, (1865-1872), Lewis Carroll, NAL, ppr; THE ISLAND OF DR. MOREAU (1896), Signet, ppr. and BEST SCIENCE FICTIONS STORIES, Dover, ppr. H. G. Wells; THE COMPLETE STORIES, Franz Kafka (1915), Schocken, ppr; ORLANDO, Virginia Woolf (1928), Harcourt Brace; THE ERASERS, Alain Robbe-Grillet (1953), Grove; THE TOLKIEN READER, (1949-1964), Ballantine, selections only; THE PHANTOM TOLLBOOTH, Norton Juster (1961), Random House, ppr; COSMICOMICS, Italo Calvino (1965), Harbrace; THE DEAD FATHER, Donald Barthelme (1975), Penguin, ppr; WOMAN ON THE EDGE OF TIME, Marge Piercy (1976), Fawcett, ppr. Cost:4 WL:1 (Rabkin)

319. Literature and Social Change. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Literature and Social Change; Literature and National Identity.
This course will examine the complex and contradictory relation between literature and questions of national identity and cultural difference. Through a close reading of a variety of texts from different literary traditions, the class will explore the ways in which the languages, forms, and ideologies of modern fiction are related to debates and disputes about the myths and master-narratives of the nation, of historical and ethnic memories, of regional, global, and linguistic boundaries. We will try to understand why stories need nations and why nations need stories; we will also examine the conflicting and sometimes parallel - ways in which creative writers from a cross-section of "national" literature's in English imagine their national communities to compensate for "historical gaps," or how such writers use narrative form to subvert national doctrines. Other issues addressed in this course include the question of borders and boundaries, immigration and exile, race and ethnicity, gender and sexuality, the idea of home, geography and historical memory. Our readings will be drawn from poems, essays, and novels by Whitman, Doctorow, Du Bois, Paule Marshall, Joy Kogawa, Michael Anthony, Earl Lovelace, Gloria Anzald`ua, Bharati Mukerjee, Chinua Achebe, and Wole Soyinka. The course requires four short writing assignments, a midterm exam, and a final exam. This course fulfills the New Traditions requirement. Cost:2 WL:1 (Gikandi)

323. Creative Writing. Junior standing and written permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Media and Other Arts.
A course in mixed media composition, especially combinations of poetry, drama, and fiction with graphic arts, painting, music, dance, and photography. Prerequisite: experience with one or more of these art forms and interest in exploring their relations with other forms of art. Permission of instructor to be obtained before CRISP registration by conference hours (posted on door of 2617 Haven Hall). Requirements are explained in detail during the pre-election interview. They include maintaining a journal of varied writing and other forms of composition and completing a series of weekly composition projects, individual and collaborative. Cost:2 WL:1 (Wright)

Section 002 Fiction Writing. Students are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work and on short stories selected from the text, and, finally, to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. Students who want to enroll in the course should get on the Waitlist at CRISP and bring a manuscript to class the first evening. A list of those admitted will be posted shortly thereafter. Cost:1 WL:1 (Ezekiel)

Section 003 Ficiton Writing. This section of English 323 will be devoted almost entirely to the consideration of student work. There will be no textbook, and there will be very little in the way of exercises and assignments. The class will be run as a workshop, meeting for three hours once a week to discuss the work of our classmates. Each student accepted into the class will be required to submit fifty pages for consideration by the class over the course of the term. Learning to write also means learning to read, and each student will be required to provide written critiques of each story to the author. Students will also be expected to actively participate in class discussions. Each student will be responsible for the copying of his or her work. WL: permission of instructor (Hynes)

Section 004 Poetry Writing. For this class you will read and write poems. The majority of class time will be devoted to workshopping poems by class members; however, poems from the assigned texts will also be discussed and occasionally "rewritten." Emphasis will be on experimentation with different forms and styles, based on the assumption that until you've tried them all, you can't make up your own. An informal journal will be kept on random readings in our anthologies. Naturally, attendance and enthused participation are requirements. By the end of the course, you'll have written ten original poems and at least two revisions Brilliantly. WL: Permission of Instructor Cost:2 (Rosser)

325. Essay Writing: The Art of Exposition. (4). (Excl).

This is an upper level composition course for students interested in improving their writing, with particular attention paid to the development of individual style expressed in the details of voice, tone, nuance, and rhythm. All classes will proceed on the assumption that these basic principles inform good writing: that wriitng is thinking; that writing well requires attention to issues of audience; that revision is a necessary part of the writing process; and that all writing reflects the writer's view of the world. Class discussion will include a consideration of student writing. To focus discussion and to provide subject matter for writing assignments, readings by professional writers will be assigned in most sections. Writing assignments will vary according to instructor, but the general requirement is forty pages of prose (300 words to a page).

Course descriptions for individual sections will be available in 224 Angell Hall after March 27.

Section 001 Writing Ourselves. Because I believe that good writers are first strong readers and critical thinkers, I have organized this class to help students sharpen their reading and thinking skills as a necessary part of their writing process. What we will do is read complex, interesting essays and stories that are written both by professional writers and by student writers (the members of this class), and we will talk about them and challenge their ideas as a way of developing our own ideas. Through these classroom conversations you will develop ideas for your own writing. The course is divided into five arenas of thought, each focusing on a particular conflict in decision-making, and you will write a 4-5 page paper on each arena. The general theme of the course is "conflicts in decision-making," a theme that will form the basis for your papers. We will discuss conflicts about the choice of career and about personal identity; conflicts about relationships; and conflicts about the way we shape our world and the way our world shapes us. The professional writings are varied and will include essays and fiction. You will also read interviews with the writers of some of these essays who will tell you about their writing process. The course will operate on a conversational model; thus you will be expected to contribute to class discussion, to challenge each other's ideas and your own. That conversation will provide a dialectic model for your writing. If you are reluctant to talk in class, perhaps you should consider another section. The class requirements include 4, 5-6 page papers one of those papers will be circulated to the class for them to read. One page comments on your classmates' papers, short weekly writing, regular class attendance, and contribution to class discussion. The text is Arenas of the Mind by myself and Lillian Back and supplemental fiction. WL:1 (Wolk)

English 350 & 351

This two-term sequence is designed to give students a principled sense of the range of literary works written in English; the first term will characteristically deal with works produced before the later seventeenth century to about Milton, that is; the second term will begin at about that point and proceed to the present. These courses will be open to English concentrators and to non-concentrators alike. The substantial writing involved with either of the courses will fulfill the ECB Junior/Senior Writing Requirement.

350. Literature in English to 1660. (4). (Excl).
Section 001.
This course, the first of a two-term sequence designed to study the historical development of literature in English, offers intensive study of some of the masterworks of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. While dealing with these texts analytically, we will also explore them in their historical, social, political and cultural contexts. Readings will include a substantial selection from Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (in Middle English; learn to read it and dazzle your friends), Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, some medieval plays, Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, a selection of Renaissance lyric poetry (e.g., Spenser, Shakespeare, Donne, Herbert, Marvel), maybe Jonson's Volpone (if time allows), and Milton's Paradise Lost. English 350 devotes three hours a week to lecture, accompanied by as much interaction as the size of the class allows and the vitality of the bodies in it generates. Groups of twenty-five students will meet a fourth hour under the leadership of seasoned doctoral students to discuss the material further and to work on the writing assignments for the course. Each student will write three essays of approximately five pages each and take a mid-term as well as a final examination. English 350 satisfies the Pre-1600 and the Pre-1830 requirements for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (Bauland)

367. Shakespeare's Principal Plays. (4). (HU).
Section 001 Shakespearean Plays.
This is the first term of a full-year course on the Plays of Shakespeare. In the Fall we will concern ourselves with the movement and development of Shakespearean tragedy by concentrating on "the grand style" of Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, and King Lear. But in doing so we will study the origins of this tragic mode in the earlier tragedies and its later manifestations in Antony and Cleopatra, and Coriolanus. This course is also for admission on a term by term basis. There will be a mid-term, final, and a series of short written assignments. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 and Pre-1830 requirements for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (Brater)

Section 008 Shakespearean Plays. A study of Shakespeare's dramatic works, selected to represent his exploration of major genres over the course of his career. Although we will be reading the plays intensively as literary works, we will also be considering social and political issues in Elizabethan and Jacobean England in order to clarify the complex engagement of Shakespeare's stage with cultural controversies of his period. Our goal will not, in other words, be merely to appreciate Shakespeare but to examine the impact of his drama in its own day and to explore its ramification for ours. The following plays will be studied: Richard II; A Midsummer Night's Dream; The Merchant of Venice; Measure for Measure; Hamlet; Othello; Macbeth; King Lear; The Tempest. The edition used for this section will be The Riverside Shakespeare and will be available at Shaman Drum Bookshop. Due to the expected size of the class, discussion will be difficult at best; students will be expected to be fully prepared for lectures, however, and to contribute ideas as much as possible. There will be a midterm and a final exam, as well as three relatively short essays. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 and Pre-1830 requirements for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (Mullaney)

English 370, 371, & 372

Each of these courses will range over the materials of the periods indicated below in one or more of a variety of ways. Some may be multi-generic surveys; some may focus on the development during the period(s) of specific genres; some may be topical, others formal in their principle of organization. All sections will emphasize the development of student skill in writing essays analyzing the materials and evaluating the approaches in question.

370. Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 The Romance in the Middle Ages and the Renassance.
The medieval origins and subsequent development of this very popular form will take us back first to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries for the story of Tristan and Iseult; then to some of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and to the anonymous Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (both fourteenth century), and then to Malory's Morte Arthur (fifteenth century). We'll conclude with an extended look at the sixteenth-century fusion of romance and heroic poem in Sidney's Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia and Spenser's Faerie Queene. The writing will include frequent short papers, at least one longer paper, two hour exams, and a final. I'll also ask you to keep journals recording your responses to the reading. This course fulfills the pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (English)

Section 002 Great English Books of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In this course we will read some of the Canterbury Tales, from the beginning, and Paradise Lost, from the end of our time span. In between we will read a concentrated selection of short poems and two or three non-Shakespearian plays of the Renaissance. The class work will be largely devoted to discussion of some of the assigned readings. There will be short written exercises, three papers and two special exams, and a final. The course text will be the first volume of the Norton Anthology of English Literature, 5th edition, ed. Abrams et al. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. (Lenaghan)

Section 003 Epic and Romance. In this course we will read a selection of some major works composed in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. We will begin with Old English poetry, including the great heroic poem Beowulf, continue with Middle English literature, including works by Chaucer and the Gawain poet, and then move on to Shakespeare, completing the course with Milton's Paradise Lost. There will be a mid-term and a final exam, and two papers. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (Frances McSparran)

Section 004 The Monstrous Other in Early English Literature. In this course we will investigate a variety of medieval literary figures that might in one way or another be deemed "monstrous." Discussion will involve concepts such as the Self and the Other, masculine and feminine, human and inhuman, as well as general issues in political and religious history. A tentative list of works to be considered includes: Beowulf, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and a selection of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and the Book of Margery Kempe. In general, we will be asking ourselves what values have influenced the construction and reception of figures such as Beowulf and Grendel, Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Wife and Bath and Pardoner, and Margery Kempe herself. There will be two papers, a mid-term, and a final examination. This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:1 WL:1 (Tanke)

371. Studies in Literature, 1600-1830. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Classicism to Romanticism.
This course will trace, through the writing of a few writers, the shift in English literature from Classicism to Romanticism admittedly huge, cloudy concepts that we shall pretend to fathom comfortably. We shall attend first to a poet of each period/style Pope and Wordsworth, respectively. Then and at greater length we will examine the novels of Jane Austen (Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park, and Emma, at least) and Mary Shelley (Frankenstein) Charlotte Brontë (Jane Eyre), Emily Brontë (Wuthering Heights), add one or two others. There will be two papers assigned and a mid-term and final exam. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (Beauchamp)

Section 002 Literature and Transgression. When the seventeenth-century French dramatist Racine wrote "Crime, like virtue, has its degrees," he identified not only the parallels between virtue and vice but also the fascinating variety of human transgressions. Following Racine's dictum, this course will examine various degrees of transgression, from extortion, theft and murder to blasphemy, rebellion and grave-digging, in British literature written between 1660 and 1830. Authors we will read include John Milton, Aphra Behn, William Congreve, Daniel Defoe, Alexander Pope and Mary Shelley. Students will be required to complete two major essays, an exam, several small writing assignments as well as participate vigorously in class discussion. Satisfies pre-1830 requirement. Cost:2 WL:1 (Flint)

Section 003 The Invention of America: Our Roots in 18th Century English Thought. In 1776 thirteen unimportant colonies on the North American continent declared their independence from Britain. Britain scarcely noticed at the time: it was months before very brief notice of the fact appeared in the newspapers America, or the United States, did not, however invent itself: it promised to try to give practical application to philosophical concepts which overturned tens of centuries of theory about the nature of man and society. Many of these concepts had been developed in Britain in the century preceding 1776. We hear about the Industrial Revolution: we shall study the intellectual revolution of the eighteenth century in England, with its loss of faith in civilization, its re-examination of the nature of man, of reason, and of society, and the ways in which the arts especially literature, displayed and demonstrated this revolution. We will read such authors as Dryden, Swift, Pope, Fielding, Burke, Hobbs, Locke, and Samuel Johnson, and come, I trust, to understand how the eighteenth century is alive and well in the United States today. There will be a computer conference, frequent short writing exercises, at least one longer essay, a midterm, and a final exam. This course meets the pre 1830. WL:1 (Cloyd)

Section 004 Other Worlds. This course will examine a number of diverse works during the period 1600-1830 which take place in imagined or geographically remote worlds and which sometimes contain mythological or fantastic characters. We will explore both the characteristics which make each world unique and the correspondences between it and the real world. There will be frequent writing of short pieces to be submitted for final judgement under a portfolio system, and a final exam. Works will be chosen from this list: Shakespeare, The Tempest; Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress; Milton, Paradise Lost; Behn, Oroonoko; Defoe, Robinson Crusoe; Swift, Gulliver's Travels; Pope, The Rape of the Lock; Mary Shelley, Frankenstein; poems by Blake, Coleridge, and Keats; Hawthorne, Rappaccini's Daughter; Poe, selected prose and poetry. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (Howes)

372. Studies in Literature, 1830-Present. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Literature and Technology.
English writing from 1830 to the present displays an explosive varitey of forms and contents. We will study this period in relation to the development of modern technologies. We begin with the transition from a pre-industrial age (the age of Cooper's "frontier" and Carlyle's "rural England") to the urban life of industrial modernity (the world of Dickens' HARD TIMES). Later readings include Mark Twain's A CONNECTICUT YANKEE IN KING ARTHUR'S COURT, Virginia Woolf's MRS DALLOWAY, and Thomas Pynchon's CRYING OF LOT 49. Throughout, we will consider how literature can help us understand the histories and technologies that have shaped both ourselves and what we read. How, for example, did the inexpensive magazines of the later nineteenth century affect the modern short story? How does our sense of what a modern story is inform the way we live our lives? At the same time, we will seek to expand our sense of what literature and writing can be. What kind of story tells a text devised for extraterrestrial readers, the plaque on the drifting space probe "Pioneer 10"? Class will be run through brief lectures and discussion. There will be two exams and several short writing assignments. Cost:2 WL:1 (Leon)

Section 002 Power, Discipline and Love in the Novel. From where do we get our ideas of love? Is love a personal commitment, a cultural construct, a chemical imbalance? Is marriage the embodiment of romantic love or the end of it? In this course we will not necessarily answer these questions, but we will explore the rise of the notion of romantic love in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and its relation to power and discipline in the novel. To a certain extent, love is always linked with power: to be "in love" is to acknowledge the other's power over you. But how is this represented differently in different cultures and in different eras, and how is love different (if it is) for women than for men? We will also consider how the novel not only depicts the relationship between love and power but how it joins in the power struggle through its "hold" over the reader. That is, to what extent is the novel's ability to make us care about its characters (generally considered a criterion for a "successful" work) its method of re-forming the reader, employing sympathy as a tool of control? Course requirements are mandatory attendance, two papers, a midterm and a final. Cost:3 WL:1 (Barnes)

Section 003 Literary and Social Issues. Despite its astonishing technological achievements certainly without parallel in former epochs the 20th century has been characterized as the "Age of Anxiety," and its most notable literature abundantly reflects this sense of mankind's alienation from the inner self and from the outer world. This course will examine representative English and American texts which powerfully treat themes of anomie, entropy, and isolation. The approach will be contrastive, achieved through clusters of novels exploring similar cultural, social, and intellectual "problems." For example: colonialism/imperialism in Conrad's HEART OF DARKNESS (Africa) matched with Graham Greene's THE QUIET AMERICAN (Vietnam); the woman in rebellion against strangling societal norms in Wharton's CUSTOM OF THE COUNTRY or (Kate Chopin's THE AWAKENING) and Lawrence's LADY CHATTERLY'S LOVER; the deracinated/isolated protagonist in his failed pursuit of community in Hemingway's FAREWELL TO ARMS and Faulkner's LIGHT IN AUGUST; the quarrel with God reflected in Joyce's DUBLINERS and Flannery O'Conner's COLLECTED STORIES; and finally the demoralization resulting from media saturation and mass culture in Orwell's KEEP THE ASPIDISTRA FLYING, Updike's RABBIT IS RICH and Nicholson Bakers THE MEZZANINE. On any good day, about 90% class discussion and 10% positioning lecture. Required - commitment (reasonable attendance and oral participation), along with the usual round of short and longer papers, a notebook of responses to readings, and a final exam. Non-majors welcome. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English majors. Cost:3 WL:1 (Eby)

Serction 004 The Monologue in Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. We will explore a variety of "monologues" from Victorian and Modern works, thinking as we go why a writer would choose to work with such a technique, discussing its advantages and limitations. Readings will concentrate on fiction, but will also include poetry and drama, perhaps an autobiography. A tentative reading list will cover the dramatic monologues of Tennyson and Browning; the "interior" monologues of James Joyce (with selections from Ulysses), of William Faulkner (As I Lay Dying or The Sound and the Fury) and of Louise Erdrich (Love Medicine); the first-person narratives of Henry James (The Aspern Papers) and Ford Madox Ford (The Good Soldier); the "dramatic soliloquies" of Virginia Woolf (The Waves); a play by Samuel Beckett (Krapp's Last Tape); the story-telling of Isak Dinesen (Seven Gothic Tales); and the autobiography of Robert Graves (Good-bye to All That). We might make a case for a single speaker in T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land, explore the uses of the first-person in poetry, and the third-person limited point-of-view in fiction (James' The Ambassadors). Requirements: two papers, midterm, final, assorted informal "excercises.". WL:1 Cost:4 (Zwiep)

391. Honors Survey: Medieval English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
This course, the first in the English Honors sequence, will range widely over the literature of England to five hundred years ago, providing acquaintance with the main literary types and with such works as Beowulf, Malory's Arthurian Prose, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, but it will focus more paritcularly upon three aspects of English medieval literature: early drama, Chaucer's poetry, and the notion of allegory. By lecture and discussion the course will seek to situate the literature read with its cultural context while exploring the resources a reader today can bring to the encounter with that culture and that literature. Requirements: active participation in the process of discovery and understanding, several essays, final examination. Cost:3 WL:1. (McNamara)

392. Honors Survey: Renaissance English Literature. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).
Section 001.
In this course, we examine selected examples of lyric, narrative, and dramatic literature from the English Renaissance, and will be occasionally aided in our discussions by relevant secondary readings in history and literary criticism. Although the themes, topics, and approaches we will explore will be numerous, the materials will also be selected and organized in order to allow an ongoing investigation of the ways in which gender, sexuality, and power were inextricably interwoven in both the society and the literature of the English Renaissance. Our readings will include selections from Petrarch, which will form the background for an examination of lyric poetry; excerpts from Spenser's The Faerie Queene; plays by Shakespeare, Tourneur, and Jonson; and Milton's Paradise Lost. The class format will alternate as seamlessly as possible between brief lectures and intensive discussion; all students will be expected to participate fully during all class sessions, and will also be required to prepare a brief oral presentation on an assigned topic. There will be two shorter essays and one longer term paper. Cost:3 WL:1 (Mullaney)

406/Ling. 406. Modern English Grammar. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Topic in Language and Literature.
This is an advanced survey of descriptive English grammar. The approach will be functional and theoretically eclectic. We will look closely at the formal and semantic motivations for basic grammatical categories and processes in English (word formation, "parts of speech," phrases, clauses and sentences) and we will discuss how these structures contribute to the expressive potential of the system. There will be daily practice in grammatical parsing, weekly quizzes, and a final exam on the factual material. The course should be attractive to those professionally interested in English education, practical criticism, or further work in linguistic theory as well as those generally interested in becoming more articulate about the structure of our language. Texts: Randolph Quirk, and Sidney Greenbaum, A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English and John Algeo, Exercises in Contemporary English. Cost:4 WL:1 (Cureton)

411. Art of the Film. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Film Theory and Criticism.
For Fall Term, 1993, this course is jointly offered with Film-Video 414. (Konigsberg)

412/Film-Video 412. Major Directors. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Major Directors: Orson Welles and Stanley Kubrick.
We will make a careful and analytical study of major films spanning the careers of two maverick American masters. The course will emphasize the cinematic "languages" and the dramatic themes of these directors, the relationship between what they say and how they say it, their styles, their content, and their contexts. I will post the exact schedule of films outside my office (2627 Haven Hall) before the beginning of the Fall Term. There will be one film per week, three lecture hours, and mandatory small discussion groups scheduled at your convenience. English/Film-Video 412 may be repeated if content is different from a previous election; there are no prerequisites. Nevertheless, the course is not "An Introduction to the Movies." Previous work in film history, theory, mechanics, critical analysis, and aesthetics couldn't hurt. Should film study be new to you, do not feel insecure. You will not be alone, and the course's reading will give you a solid foundation. I will also be happy to recommend preparatory reading before you leave for the summer; come see me this term. An obligatory lab fee, cheaper even than admission to campus film societies let alone commercial houses, covers the cost of seeing films, most of them probably at the Michigan Theater. Some reading (Giannetti's Understanding Movies or an alternate text if that is old news to you) and rigorous writing. If you harbor the deplorable opinion that high standards for the composition of analytical/critical prose are inappropriate for film courses, this class is not for you. Two 2-page papers; two 5-page papers; final exam; no "Incomplete" except under catastrophic circumstances. Anyone who uses "media" with a singular verb flunks. WL:1 (Bauland)

417. Senior Seminar. Senior concentrator in English. May not be repeated for credit. (4). (Excl).
Section 002 Literature, History and Caribbean Women's Writing.
This course is organized around two interrelated concerns: Caribbean women as discursive objects in the writing of selected European texts, and Caribbean women as 'speaking subjects'. We will be examining historical, literary and critical texts by and about selected Caribbean women writers. Requirements: oral presentations, two short papers and a research paper of 15 pages. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. Cost:2 WL:1 (Gregg)

Section 005 Native American Literature. In this seminar our main focus will be on a selection of five or six novels written by three leading contemporary Native American writers: James Welch, Leslie Marmon Silko, and Louise Erdrich. The novels to be taken up (not necessarily in this order) will probably include Welch's Winter in the Blood and Fool's Crow, Silko's Ceremony and Almanac of the Dead, and Erdrich's Love Medicine and Tracks. But we'll also be reading some short stories by lesser known writers, as well as several collaborative autobiographical works, e.g. Black Elk Speaks, both to "warm up" our critical skills and to gain some sense of the background against which our three novelists have written. In their efforts to present accurate, appropriate and forceful accounts of Native American life, Welch, Silko, and Erdrich have had to contend with stereotypes promoted by "Indian-lovers" as well as "Indian-haters". Our study of their writing should complicate if not explode these stereotypes; in some ways students electing this course will emerge from it "knowing" a lot less about Native Americans than they did before, the first step, of course, to acquiring some real knowledge about the highly various cultures, histories and current experience of the first inhabitants of this land. Students choosing to enroll should be ready to participate vigorously in class discussion, to make oral reports, and to write one or more short papers plus a long research paper. As all texts will have been written in Enlgish, no knowledge of Pikuni, Keres, Ojibwa, or Lakota will be required. Nor will any dancing with wolves. This course satisfies the university ROE requirement and the New Traditions and American literature requirements for English concentrators. WL:1 Cost:3 (Faller)

Section 006 The Hollywood Film Industry. In this course, we will read and/or watch many of the texts that construct the idea of Hollywood and compare that idea with what we can learn about the actual identity of the Hollywood studio system and its mores, customs, origins, and social ramifications. Some of our texts will be novelistic Nathanial West's Day of the Locust and Fitzgerald's The Last Tycoon may figure prominently here; some are cinematic we will watch, among other films, Singing in the Rain, A Star is Born, The Bad and the Beautiful, and The Player; we will also read in the history of Hollywood and look at some examples of fan magazines and other forms of the many textual productions that made Hollywood "Hollywood." Two short papers and one final paper; much reading and discussion. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Freedman)

Section 007 Recodings of Masculinity in Contemporary American Culture. In this course, we will pursue an interdisciplinary, multi-media investigation of masculinity in American culture. Working against the assumption that masculinity remains stable and singular across time and cultures, we will seek out contradictions, trouble spots, and points of crisis in order to think about masculinity as a cultural construct subject to continual renegotiation. Beginning with various cultural documents of the 1960's, we will follow the twists and turns of masculinity as it is represented (that is, constructed) in American culture up until the present moment. We will consider how American masculinity gets refigured through historical upheavals (wars, political movements, AIDS); how differences in race, class, and sexualities are integral to competing ideals of masculinity; and how masculinity represents itself in complicated relation to femininity. A wide variety of texts will enrich our understanding of, and theorizing about, masculinity: novels, films, theories, video, analyses of cultural icons, from Clint Eastwood to Peewee Herman. Students will have a say in determining the final reading and viewing list, but some possibilities: John Updike's RABBIT REDUX; Norman Mailer's ARMIES OF THE NIGHT; writings of the black power movement; excerpts from Robert Bly's IRON JOHN; a Tim O'Brien novel; TERMINATOR 2 and LETHAL WEAPON; SEX, LIES AND VIDEOTAPE; episodes of BATMAN, thirtysomething, THE COSBY SHOW; Frederick Exley's A FAN'S NOTES; sociological accounts of the trials and tribulations of masculinity; Ishmael Reed's RECKLESS EYEBALLING; scientific (and pseudo-scientific) theorizing about the male body and male sexuality; PARIS IS BURNING; David Guy's THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MY BODY; "hard-boiled" detective fiction. Requirements: Energetic class participation; commitment to seeing some films outside of class; one group project; several short papers; a final term paper or alternative project. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (S. Robinson)

Section 008 Poetry and Ethnicity. Poetry and Ethnicity (in which Gender Rears Its Head) is a seminar in which we will attempt to stake out the boundaries of ethnicity, gender, and culture in the creativity of poets. What is a poet's responsibility to race and sex? Are the demands of race, class, and gender inescapable? Are these demands so great that subconsciously poets are ruled by them, resulting in work that reveals consistently this influence? And what of our own knowledge of these classifications; do our interpretations and expectations of poems vary according to our perceptions of the poet's ethnicity, gender, class, etc.? Fascinating questions to be sure. In the staking out of these boundaries then, our goal may be the forming of a more complete list of questions rather than the providing of answers. We will read, discuss, do a project, write a seminar paper and poems of our own. WL:1 (Moss)

423. The Writing of Fiction. Open to seniors and graduate students; written permission of the instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Fiction Writing.
In this class we'll be writing, reading, and talking about fiction. Students who sign up for the class should expect to complete fifty pages of fiction; they should be willing to revise what they already have written. Participation in class discussions will be essential to the success of the course. Students interested in applying to the course should get on the waitlist at CRISP and bring a manuscript to the first class meeting. Cost:1 WL:1 (Baxter)

Section 002 The Writing of Fiction. Students are expected to maintain journals throughout the term, to comment thoughtfully and intelligently on one another's work and on short stories selected from the text, and, finally, to come up with approximately fifty pages of reasonably polished fiction. Attendance at the readings sponsored by the English Department is also encouraged. Students who want to enroll in the course should get on the Waitlist at CRISP and bring a manuscript to class the first evening. A list of those admitted will be posted shortly thereafter. Cost:1 WL:1 (Ezekiel)

427. Playwriting. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Playwriting.
This is an advanced playwriting class in which students write their own plays. Students who have taken 227 will be given preference; however, those who've had substantial playwriting experience will be considered. Admission is by permission of instructor. Students interested in joining the class should put their names on the Waitlist at CRISP and leave a play manuscript with phone number and address with the English Department main office, 7609 Haven Hall. The manuscript must be a one act or a full length play that is typed in manuscript form, and it must be received by Sept. 9, 1993. A list of those accepted into the class will be available in the English Department main office by September 14, 1993. Cost:1 WL:5 (OyamO)

429. The Writing of Poetry. Written permission of instructor is required. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.

This course is a poetry-writing workshop. Students will circulate and discuss their poems written during the term, as well as analyze a selection of poetry and criticism by eminent contemporary poets. We shall use an anthology of recent poetry as our central text. Students should be prepared to devote considerable time to composition and revision, and to extensive commentary on their fellow students' writing. Each student will keep a journal of readings, ruminations, and materials for poems. Some experience in creative writing courses is desirable, though not essential. Permission of the instructor is required. Leave a sample manuscript of 3-5 pages in Professor Goldstein's mailbox in the English Department office during the week before the first day of class, or bring a manuscript to the first class. A class list will be posted on the door of 1617 Haven Hall after the first day of class. Cost:1 WL:1 (Goldstein)

430. The Rise of the Novel. (4). (Excl).

What we now call the English novel was born out of a series of brilliant experiments during the eighteenth century. We'll be reading five eighteenth-century novels, plus one each from the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries to give us a beginning and end. The novels read will include Aphra Behn's Oroonoko, Daniel Defoe's Moll Flanders, Samuel Richardson's Clarissa, Henry Fielding's Tom Jones, Eliza Haywood's Betsy Thoughtless, Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy. and Jane Austen's Emma. Students will be required to write weekly "journals" on the text under discussion, as well as a mid-term, a final, and a paper, and to make one or two formal class presentations as part of a panel with other students. My hope is that our meetings will proceed as a series of lively discussions, and that class sessions over the course of the term will become one great, ongoing conversation. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (Faller)

432. The American Novel. (4). (Excl).

Why do American Writers express the subtlest philosophical issues through violent and melodramatic actions? Why do they create characters who aren't quite people, plots which interrupt themselves so often that they aren't quite stories, environments that are not the streets and houses we know, and endings that are not resolutions or answers so much as disturbing open questions? We will wrestle with these problems in an attempt to define what is unique about American fiction. At the same time, our primary focus will be on each work in terms of itself. The course will proceed ahistorically, by concerns rather than dates. This is a tentative listing of those concerns and the writers and works we will consider. Frontier as Metaphor: Hawthorne (Stories), Twain (Huckleberry Finn), Ellison (Invisible Man), Barth (End of the Road). Ontological Insecurity, or Anxiety and Power: Melville (Benito Cereno and Moby-Dick), James (Turn of the Screw), Faulkner (The Sound and the Fury), The Gendering of America: Chopin (The Awakening), Morrison (The Bluest Eye). We will move forward and back in time to identify literary and experimental issues that have seemingly permanent status in American lives. The course will combine lectures and discussions. Two essays, several one pagers, and final examination are required. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English concentrators. Cost:4 WL:1 (Weisbuch)

433. The Modern Novel. (4). (Excl).

The Modern (or Modernist) novel not to be confused with the contemporary novel, a very different kettle of fiction is the product of the first four decades of the twentieth century, give or take a decade. This course will study intensively a few of the crucial works of Modernist fiction, with brief excursions into the other arts and poetry. We will give some attention to the social and philosophical sources of the shift in Zeitgeist from Victorian to Modernist and the implications for the writing of fiction. Works to be read include Conrad's Heart of Darkness, Mann's Death in Venice, James' The Ambassadors, Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Kafka's The Metamorphosis, Woolf's To the Lighthouse, Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises, Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover and Faulkner's The Bear. There will be two papers assigned and a mid-term and final exam. Cost:3 WL:1 (Beauchamp)

434. The Contemporary Novel. (4). (Excl).

Although offered under the general rubric of "Contemporary Fiction," this course will differ from the standard such offering in several ways. First, it will attempt no survey; we will focus on nine or ten books. As such, and though there will be considerable reading, the emphasis will be on close analysis. Second, the curriculum has been designed around those authors who have agreed to participate in the class itself. The aim of the course is to provide the student as reader with a "living" sense of the writer to have the latter literally in the room with the former. The syllabus has been organized accordingly, and under the assumption that practitioners are crucial as spokespersons for the craft. Renowned authors are scheduled to visit the campus next fall, to appear in class, and then to offer public readings of new work. Resident faculty have also agreed to appear. Routinely, we will hold one class period devoted to the author prior to his or her arrival. Some plausible topics for such discussions include: the distance between intention and execution, the difference in the perceived and actual achievement, the process of revision; we might focus on the history of composition, the habits of the particular writer, the vicissitudes of reception, etc. Written questions submitted to each author will be part of the coursework, as will be a journal and essay. WL:1 (Delbanco)

440. Modern Poetry. (3). (Excl).

This course will discuss not so much Modernism, but Modernisms; Modernist poetry was not a single movement, but a series of clashes and alliances between movements, as contradictory as it was exciting. We'll discuss the developing poetics and politics of Modernism's various competing avant-gardes Imagism, Impressionism, and Vorticism, for example in relation to the philosophic and literary traditions from which they sprang and to which they reacted. We will try to trace Modernist poetry's rise and fall, and will discuss what's involved in being an avant-garde. The course will be particularly concerned to draw connections between Modernist poetry and related movements in the visual arts: Cubism, Futurism, primitivism. Since the poets involved frequently changed their positions and styles, we'll read the period very chronologically beginning with early Yeats, Pound, and Eliot, for example and then returning to their later work later in the term. This should also give the course more variety from week to week, as we'll always be reading a mixture of poets. Depending on class size and makeup, our experience of class time will vary. But since we meet only once a week in the evenings, we'll want to make each meeting count. Each meeting will contain some lecture, slide presentation of visual arts, question and answer, students' talks, discussion, and writing. Course requirements include attendance, 2 shorter and 1 longer paper, 2 midterms, a final, and possibly an oral presentation. We'll read the works of Yeats, Pound, Eliot, Stein, H.D., Lewis, Williams, Moore, Crane, Riding, and Auden, and discuss that of several visual artists and theorists (Picasso, Marinetti) as well. WL:1 (Terada)

442. History of Poetry. (3). (Excl).
The Short Poem in English.
This course is essentially for graduate students. Qualified undergraduates may be admitted by permission of instructor. This course meets TTH 10-11:30 AM in 1603 Haven Hall. It examines most of the major makers of the short poem in English, up to (roughly) the Second World War. The course does not pretend to be exhaustive it can't be only, in respect of the poems we read, uniformly good. My definition of the short poem is elastic. We will look at poems as short as "O Western Wind" and as long as Miton's Lycidas and Pound's Hugh Selwyn Mauberly. This course is subtitled The Hymn in the Throat, and that is important, as we'll see. Prospective students should know something about my mode of teaching. I don't expect to lecture but will teach from the open book, always with eyes close down to the page. I believe that poetry is written with words, not ideas, and though the latter interest me, my focus is insistently on the text. MFA students seem to share my bias, and in the last little while some of my best students have come from the writing program. WL:1 (Fraser)

443/Theatre 321. History of Theatre I. (3). (HU).

See Theatre and Drama 321. (Cardullo)

446. World Drama: Congreve to Ibsen. (3). (Excl).

We will be imagining the staging and production of works, focusing specifically on the use of actresses in the drama, addressing ourselves to how playwrights represent women on the stage. We will combine interpretations gained from considering the works in performance how women appear, interact and move across the playing space with more "literary" conceptions of female characters in the drama. As is clear from the range implied by the title of the course, traditional academic method retells the history of the theater using famous writers as signposts, moving from century to century, country to country according to the cultural surge of literariness. Along with traveling the rich if well-worn path from England to France, from France to Germany, from Germany back to England before arriving in Norway, we will venture to 18th- and 19th-century Spain, Latin America, China, Persia in search of forms of drama perhaps lesser known and less easily confined to "literature." Requirements include a mix of short papers, oral presentations, one full treatment of a particular period, country, theme, and collaborative mock staging projects. This class will be composed of written and oral endeavors, so students will be expected to engage as private writers and as classroom participants. For English concentrators, theater students and anyone interested in drama. (Skantze)

447. Modern Drama. (3). (Excl).
Ibsen to Brecht.
This course will examine the rise of modern drama in the Western world by concentrating on the work of Ibsen, Chekhov, Strindberg, Shaw, Pirandello, and Brecht. Emphasis will be placed on learning how to read a dramatic text for its performative qualities as well as for its potential for enactment. Although no previous experience in the study of drama or theater is required, the course will begin by concentrating on the differences between the modern repertory and the forms we associate with Classical and Shakespearean dramatic conventions. Other topics of consideration include: the transformation from melodrama to modern drama, the social consciousness of the twentieth century stage, and the rise of the female figure as subject of dramatic inquiry. Requirements: There will be a mid-term and a final exam. Cost:4 WL:1 (Brater)

449/Theatre 423. American Theatre and Drama. (3). (HU).
Section 001 American Theater & Drama.
Twentieth Century American Drama from O'Neill to the present. We will analyze texts from a variety of practical, working-theater perspectives: from that of the playwright, director, actor, and theater critic. Additionally, we will discuss the rise and fall of Broadway; the growth and institutionalization of Off-Broadway; and the growing decentralization of American Theater. Students are expected to read approximately 20 plays, write short bi-weekly papers, and make one group presentation. Cost:2 WL:1 (Roth)

450. Medieval Drama. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Medieval Drama..
This course is an introduction to the varieties of medieval and early renaissance drama: ribald comedies, serious religious dramas, and combinations of the two. We will read many plays, and since plays exist partly in their production, we will watch modern productions of some plays and attempt to determine how they change our interpretations. Throughout the term, we will also try producing parts of plays to learn about how they were staged in their time, how special effects were achieved, and how performance can alter audience perceptions. This course will require active participation in group efforts and discussions, some guided research, two short essays incorporating the research, and a final exam (the format of which will be decided by the class). This course satisfies the Pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:2 WL:1 (Tinkle)

462. Victorian Literature. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Victorian Poetry.
This course is devoted to the extreamly beautiful and interesting poetry of the Victorian period. We will focus on the work of Tennyson, Robert Browning, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Emily Brontë, Christina Rossetti, D.G. Rossetti, Swinburne, Gerard Hanley Hopkins, and Thomas Hardy. We will explore some of the following topics: the relationship of these poets to the romantic poets (especially Keats and Shelley) that preceded them; the relationship of Victorian poetry to the novel and to the visual arts; gender and genre; Victorian poetry and contemporary social and sexual ideologies. Some background in romantic poetry would be helpful, but isn't necessary. The class will be conducted as a discussion. Students will write several papers and do a class presentation. Cost:3 WL:1 (Pinch)

465/MARC 465. Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales. (3). (Excl).

The fourteenth century was a time of rapid social change and political turmoil in which the old agreements that had bound society together had dissolved. Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, since it is an anthology of stories told by fictional storytellers from across most of the social spectrum (it includes both the sober stateliness of the Knight's Tale and the ribald comedy of the Miller's Tale, for instance) can serve as an introduction to English society in the late Middle Ages as well as to the literary genres common in late medieval narrative. In its historical context, the Canterbury Tales also seems designed to create a new audience in English for a literature both playful and serious. We will read most of the Tales, paying particular attention to the work's qualities as an innovative, experimental collection of stories, and to its relation to the society about which and to which it speaks. Some central questions will be: how did the Tales speak to its original audience? What is the purpose of its famous interpretative openness? What are the links between literary innovation and social change? between literary and ethical analysis? We will explore the literary aspects of the Tales - for instance, its treatment of narrative voices, genre, and literary traditions and the effects it aims to create in its readers, whether medieval or modern. One or two short papers, one longer paper, and a final examination. This course satisfies the pre-1600 requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Taylor)

470. Early American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).

In this course students will read and discuss a variety of texts from the earliest days of Anglophone settlement through the first decades of the nineteenth century. Among other issues, we will examine the debate over the nature of the texts themselves (are they literature?), current concerns with mainstream and alternative works (what makes a key text?), and how one arrives at a definition of literature in the United States (what is American?). Among authors likely to be included are Mary Rowlandson, Cotton Mather, Jonathan Edwards, Benjamin Franklin, Joel Barlow, Phillis Wheatley, Charles Brockden Brown, Hannah Webster Foster, Lydia Maria Child and James Fenimore Cooper. Discussion/lecture format. Written requirements will consist of (at least) two papers and one examination. This course satisfies the American Literature and Pre-1830 requirements for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (Zafar)

471. Nineteenth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Nineteenth Century American Literature.
A survey of nineteenth century American fiction, non-fiction, and poetry up until the Civil War. The course will identify important cultural dilemmas and opportunities facing American writers of this period, most notably the emergence of a national culture, the question of a truly "democratic" literature and what this means, the impact of slavery as well as other explosive issues of the time. Authors to be studied include Hawthorne, Poe, Melville, Stowe, Thoreau, Whitman, and Dickinson. Requirements: two papers and final exam. Satisfies the American Lit. requirement for English majors. Cost:2 WL:1 (Larson)

472. Twentieth-Century American Literature: Key Texts. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Resistance to Racism in 20th Century U.S. Literature.
This version of the course is somewhat modified to take advantage of the Fall 1993 university-wide Theme Semester "Working in a Multi-Cultural Society," and the English Department's "New Traditions" and American Literature" requirements. We will examine literature (novels, poetry, drama, essays) and film to explore the depiction of racism (mainly white supremacism) and anti-racism in a variety of settings. Approximately one third of the material will focus on specific issues of racism in relation to work (including slavery) and the labor movement, and students in the class will be required to attend some sessions of the university-wide Theme Semester conference to be held in November. However, in accordance with the traditional agenda of this course, we will also try to consider some literature critical of sexism, class oppression, anti-Semitism, and other manifestations of bias, chauvinism, and exploitation in the United States. The writers to be studied challenge racism through diverse literary forms and from various political perspectives. The texts will range from famous works such as Toni Morrison's Beloved to lesser known ones such as Arna Bontemps' Black Thunder and Guy Endore's Babouk. Many of the authors will be women and writers of color, such as Alice Walker (Meridian), Lorraine Hansberry (A Raisin in the Sun) and Lillian Smith (Strange Fruit). The film Salt of the Earth, about race and gender issues in the struggle of Mexican-American miners, will be shown. Some of the race/labor novels will probably include Chester Himes' The Lonely Crusade and William Attaway's Blood on the Forge. Requirements will include two papers, a midterm, and a final exam. This course satisfies the New Traditions and American Literature requirements for English concentrators. Cost:5 WL:1 (Wald)

473. Topics in American Literature. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 North and South American Literature.
The course will identify common cultural dilemmas and opportunities in the Americas and examine common themes and mutual influences in United States and Spanish-American literature. Topics include: (1) Faulkner and Garcia Marquez as creators of imaginary fictional countries with real family histories; (2) Morrison's Beloved as counter-history to Faulkner's and as a home-grown example of magical realism; (3) Borges and Hawthorne as elaborate provincial artificers, cosmopolitan inventers bred in local American settings; (4) Neruda and Whitman as poets of the vast American landscape and of American sensuality, uncertainty, and fraternity; and (5) Islas and Arguedas as mediators between native, mestizo, and Euro-american cultures. Historical background will be provided when it seems called for. A reading knowlege of Spanish is desirable but not necessary. Students will be asked to contribute to discussions and write a short paper, a long paper, and a take-home exam. This course satisfies the American Literature requirment for English concentrators. Cost:4 WL:1 (McIntosh)

Section 002 Native American Literature. For Fall Term, 1993, this course is jointly offered with American Culture 498.001

Section 003 The American Writer: Cather, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Millay and Frost. In 1924 Ernest Hemingway described to Edmund Wilson his prose technique in his collection of short stories, In Our Time: "Like looking with your eyes at something, say a passing coast line, and then looking at it with 15X binoculars. Or rather maybe, looking at it and then going in and living in it and then coming out and looking at it again"; what he was really doing was giving us one way to read his work. We will read closely, discuss vigorously, and do some of our own writing about these five luminous and exemplary writers, each of whom began as a provincial. Those unruly provinces of the midwest and of New England were, in the first decades of the 20th century, the territory out of which they created a glamour, and a body of work that informs our own age. They eyed each other's work, kept company with each other were, in other words, part of a generation that changed American writing. We will discover how. This course satisfies the American Literature requirement for English concentrators. WL:1 (Milford)

477/CAAS 475. Early Afro-American Literature. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Early Afro-American Literature.
This course focuses on African American writers before 1860 and readings will be drawn from a variety of genres (poetry, autobiography, the novel, the political essay), as well as from current work on African-American literary history. Students will be asked to come to terms with the multiple dimensions of pre-Civil War black writing: How did the early black writer justify her/his authority as "author"? How did black literary strategies evolve to deal with the problems of white audiences' belief in "the black writer" as an oxymoron? How did these writers confront a restrictive literary marketplace? How did legal status, geographical location, class, gender, color, and religion shape a particular writer's point of view? (And to to further complicate things we will also be thinking about the very distinction between "early" or "late" Afro-American literature, and indeed the relationship between "Afro-American" and "American" literatures with respect to these questions.) Grades will be based on regular attendance, discussion participation, regular in-class writing assignments, 3 papers (probably each around 7 pages in length), and a final exam. This course satisfies the American Literature and New Traditions requirements for English concentrators. Cost:3 WL:1 (Gunning)

482. Studies in Individual Authors. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Reading Toni Morrison.
The purpose of this course is to provide a forum in which student's can explore the novels of Toni Morrison, one of America's foremost literary artists. We will move chronologically, beginning with The Bluest Eye (1970), and ending with a discussion of her 1992 publications, the novel Jazz and her acclaimed critical investigation of "whiteness and the literary imagination," Playing in the Dark. During the course of the semester, we will survey her development as an artist, paying particular attention to the complexity of her exploration of such issues as race, gender, class and the consequences of history and historical memory. We will utilize interviews Morrison has given, magazine articles, and critical essays to assist our efforts to gain a comprehensive understanding of the body of work of this accomplished writer. Course requirements: one longer (10 page) paper; one brief essay (5 pages); and frequent short writing assignments. Some familiarity with Morrison's work would be helpful, but is not required. This course satisfies the New Traditions requirement for English concentrators. Cost:4 WL:1 (Awkward)

Section 002 Samuel Johnson. Samuel Johnson remains among the most eminent figures of English literature, whether we consider him as a contributer or a subject of that literature. Coming out of the struggles of poverty and handicap, he rose through his own often despairing efforts to produce the first comprehensive dictionary in English, and some of the finest poetry, literary criticism, and fiction in English. After Shakespeare, he is probably the most widely quoted English author, and for much the same reason: he understood the human heart. He not only wrote great works, he became the subject of one: James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson, which portrays this depressed man at the center of literary London, delighting society with his wit . Johnson had many literary friends, both men and women, for whom he often labored to make their lives easier. The course will be built around Johnson, but we'll read and discuss the works of his friends as well: James Boswell's London Journal and Life of Johnson, Edmund Burke's Enquiry Into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, and Fanny Burney's Evelina are only titles of some of the longer works. The course meets the Pre-1830 requirement. Computer conference, "Notes and Queries," a couple of essays and a final exam. And, oh yes, an eighteenth-century dance seminar. WL:1 (Cloyd)

Section 003 William Blake's Illuminated Works. This course studies the (scripictorial) arts of William Blake's illuminated works and other literary and artistic inventions in relation to his times and the traditions leading to and from them. Written work will include journal writing with detailed commentary on individual illuminated designs and a longer paper. This course satisfies the Pre-1830 requirement for English concentrators. Cost:4 WL:1 (Wright)

483. Great Works of Literature. (1). (HU). May be repeated for credit with department permission.
Section 001 Seamus Heaney and the Literature of Northern Ireland.
An account of Northern Ireland since 1960 to the present time of The Troubles through the lens of the poetry of Seamus Heaney. (A mini course, Tu 4-5, one extended essay required). (McNamara)

Section 002 How Language Creates Its Own Environment. This course concentrates on close reading of poems by Wallace Stevens, Elizabeth Bishop, and Anne Stevenson and examines the ways writers use language to create an environment. (Stevenson)

486. History of Criticism. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 History of Literary Criticism.
This will be an introductory survey of developments in literary theory during the past two centuries, with emphasis on the sweeping changes that have taken place in the past twenty-five years. Major areas of study will include romanticism, modernism, New Criticism, post-structuralism, materialism, feminism, and multiculturalism. We will be using various kinds of literary theory to help us answer basic questions about what and why we read, questions like: What is literary pleasure? Do authors determine the meaning of their texts, or do readers? In what ways are texts embedded in society and politics? Can pornography be literature? Are male readers/writers different from female readers/writers? On what principles was our literary canon established, and should it be revised? Our focus will be on the usefulness theory might have for readers, whether they be students or literary critics. Mix of lecture/discussion, but with a strong emphasis on student participation. Two, possibly three short papers, and a final project. Cost:5 WL:1 (Kucich)

493. Honors Survey: Nineteenth Century English Poetry. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Concept of the Aesthetic: British Romantic Poetry From a Marxist Perspective.
This course is part of the English Honors Concentration and may be elected only by students already enrolled the program. In this course, we will use Marx's description of capitalism (its genealogy, its characteristic structures and relations, its internal contradictions) to bring into focus the social context of Romantic poetry. For an understanding of the mixed potentials of the aesthetic as defined by some representative works of the age, we take a dialectical approach, provided by cultural critics working within the tradition of Marxist thought. The overall plan is to situate what is in many respects a highly idealizing cultural practice within a framework that brings out its revolutionary potentials, then and now. WL:1 (Levenson)

494. Honors Survey: Nineteenth Century English Fiction. Admission to the English Honors Program. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Honors Survey: Nineteenth-Century English Fiction.
This course is part of the English Honors Concentration and may be elected only by students already enrolled in the program. It covers the development of the novel (primarily British, in the second half of the nineteenth century, with special emphasis on the relationship between literature and culture. We will attempt to establish a critical and theoritical framework for talking about issues such as the politics of gender and genre; imperialism and the construction of national identity; class relations and transgressions; literature and Social Darwinism, and the history of sexuality. Texts will probably include Wuthering Heights, Vanity Fair, Villette, Cranford, Bleak House, Middlemarch, Portrait of a Lady, Lady Audley's Secret, and She. Requirements include two 5-10pp. papers and final exam. WL:1 Cost:3 (Vrettos)

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