ANTHROPOLOGY

Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures, discussion section, laboratory and reading, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual sexual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early adaptive shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology and the changes in physical form that are the consequence of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. The "Eve" theory and other ideas about the origin of races and their development and relationships are discussed in this context. Class participation and discussion are emphasized and there is a required discussion/laboratory section for elaboration of lecture topics and supervised hands-on experience with primate skeletal material and replicas of human fossils. Student evaluations are based on a midterm and final examination, laboratory quizzes, and a laboratory exam. Cost:2 WL:2,4

368/Psych. 437. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order The major focus of the course will be the behavior or prosimians, monkeys and apes in the wild. Special attention will be given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, kinship systems, sexual behavior, vocal communication, competition, and other topics will be described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, and serves as an introduction to Anthropology 369 (Primate Social Relationships). Three lecture hours, and one discussion weekly. Two midterms, a term paper and a final exam. (Mitani)

398. Honors in Biological Anthropology. Senior standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected for credit twice.

Seniors who choose to enter the Honors program undertake a senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Most often this takes the form of an original paper of greater scope than is possible in an ordinary term paper, and it gives the student experience in conducting and writing up his or her own research. Students who are interested in joining the senior Honors program should consult with the departmental Honors adviser for biological anthropology, Frank Livingstone. Previous participation in the college Honors program is not a prerequisite for joining the senior Honors program. (Livingstone)

462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The first part of this course will outline the forces or factors determining the growth rates of human population and especially the role of infectious disease. The second part will emphasize the genetic adaptations due to malaria and then explore the implications of these associations for other genetic variation. The course grade is based on a midterm and final examination. Cost:1 WL:2,3,4 (Livingstone)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS).

This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. Satisfies diversity requirement. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Kottak)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist primarily of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. Cost:3 WL:4 (Lockwood)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of anthropological archaeology as a social science with a general survey of world prehistory. The presentation of method and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in anthropological archaeology as a social science. The survey of world prehistory will focus on four major problems in the development of human culture: (1) the emergence of Africa, between two and six million years ago, of the first proto-humans; (2) the appearance approximately 40,000 years ago of the first anatomically and behaviorally "modern" humans; (3) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the development of the first village farming communities; and (4) the rise of more complex, stratified societies from these simpler farming societies. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators. There will be three lectures (one hour each) plus one discussion section per week. Requirements include three in-class hourly exams and a final examination, plus four take-home exercises that give students firsthand experience with the application of analytical methods to real archaeological data. Required Readings: ARCHAEOLOGY (2nd edition, 1989), by David Hurst Thomas, plus additional readings, to be announced. Cost:3 WL:2 (Speth)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

315. Indians of North America. (4). (SS).

Native American communities, often deeply rooted in traditional places and voices despite relocations and losses of native languages all involve strong family ties and histories of local and regional power struggles. This course allows students to explore in some depth particular Native American cultural traditions emphasizing both the "old ways" and how such ways are interpreted by community members and outsiders. Secondly, we will look at cross cultural dynamics in the fields of political encounter between various Native American peoples and various others: developers, environmentalists, educators, other governmental authorities, poets, and social scientists, to name a few. Key issues include family relations, alcoholism, land rights, and freedom of religion. A recurrent question: what are the limits and possibilities of self-definition for Native American peoples, in what circumstances? Finally, we look at contemporary Native American fiction and non-fiction as cultural forces which challenge Western constructions of who Native American peoples are. Here we use traditional anthropological methods and "postmodern" deconstruction in a questioning manner. How can we understand images and image-makers from different cultural, historical and political positions? Grades will be based on four short papers. (Bierwert)

323. Pacific Islands Anthropology. (3). (SS).

This course part lecture and part seminar is an introduction to the traditional societies and cultures of Polynesia, Micronesia, and, to a lesser extent, insular Melanesia. We shall review the evidence for the peopling of the Pacific Basin, the theories of migration, and the (somewhat limited) evidence of prehistory and studies of "race". Also the main features of traditional social organization, politics, interethnic relations, religion, law, etc. The colonial histories of the different island groups, their contemporary status, demographics, international relations, and trade will also be outlined. Students will be expected to read together four sets of classic ethnographic monographs, familiarize themselves with the main points in the above topics (for which quizzes will be devised), and perhaps working with other students master the ethnographic literature for one island group and provide oral and written reports on it. Cost:3 WL:4 (Carroll)

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (Excl).

This course deals with late traditional and contemporary China, with an emphasis on the peasantry. The focus is on continuities and changes over the past 200 years. The first part of the course deals with regional and cultural variations, including the cultures of some of China's minority peoples, and with the socio-economic organizations of traditional China. The next segment deals with popular interpretations and expressions of China's major religions, folk art and literature, and forms of rebellion. In the last segment we discuss the reorganization of Chinese society since 1949, dealing with contemporary family and community organization, social stratification, the successes and failures of different forms of "collectivization," and some of the current social problems in the Peoples Republic of China. This is a lecture course with in-class discussion, open to students with junior standing or above. The readings are drawn mainly from the ethnological/cultural anthropology literature, supplemented with materials from the fields of literature, sociology, history and economics. They are drawn from Western and Chinese scholarship with translations of Chinese primary sources provided in a course pack. There is a midterm (essay) and a final exam (essay). Undergraduates have the choice of writing two short critical papers or a longer research paper on a topic of their choosing. Graduate students are expected to write a research paper or a review of a significant segment of the scholarly literature on Chinese society and culture. Cost:3 WL:2 (Diamond)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, with the emphasis on Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is first looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant and urban. The conceptual and historical relations between these are examined with reference to the writings of Ibn Khaldun and to such events as the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. In the second half of the course some cultural themes are discussed that recur throughout the area: the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from classics such as Doughty and Snouck-Hurgonje, as well as from recent anthropology.

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures I. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films and videos on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: FOUR 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize READING and LECTURE materials; participation in CLASS discussions; regular class attendance. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

417. Indians of Mexico and Guatemala. Anthro. 101, 222, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course provides an overview of Indian groups occupying Mexico and Guatemala. Groups include the Maya, Nahuatl (Aztec), Zapotec, Mixtec, Huichol, Mixe, Tarascans, etc. Course will focus on social and political organization, world view and religion, subsistence, settlement patterns, etc. Comparisons and contrasts between groups will be made in an effort to determine shared ancestry, the borrowing of various practices, the domination of one group over another, and independent developments. Two required papers (midterm and final) constitute course grade. No prerequisite. WL:4, overrides will be given at the first few classes. (Marcus)

Ethnology-Theory/Method

330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

This course is offered as an intensive upper-division introduction to cultural anthropology for students who have not had other anthropology courses, and as an introduction to Cultural Analysis for students who have had some (other sorts of) anthropology. Concentrators and non-concentrators at all levels, are welcome. The course is concerned with the individual, and with culture as a system of meanings. Attention will be focused both on exotic cultures and on our own, in an effort to develop a truly cross-cultural perspective on how different people construct "reality." Especially emphasized will be the role of communication, and of "mind" including cultural ontologies, epistemologies, logics, aesthetics, and rhetorics. There are no prerequisites. The goals of this course are to (1) facilitate reading of scholarly books and articles in cultural psychology, cultural semantics, intercultural communication, and the like; (2) learn to write clear and effective essays in these genres; (3) learn to think cultural analysis routinely. Cost:4 WL:4 (Carroll)

447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of HOMO SAPIENS. It reviews the theories of Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss and others who have attempted to comprehend that origin and development. The course will trace the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? Is racism, like modernity and its other social problems, a characteristic of civilization? These are some of the questions with which students will wrestle. The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:2 WL:3 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, function and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why is law obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs; women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal, or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers, or 3 6-8 page student papers. Lecture/discussion format. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of warfare (armed conflict) in pre-modern tribal societies drawing on materials from Melanesia, Africa and South America. The social, economic and political factors that elucidate the causes and conduct of tribal warfare are investigated through a comparison of case studies. The general applicability of theories that emphasize resource competition, balance of power, structural predispositions and adequacy of dispute settlement are assessed. Consideration of the conduct of warfare include: diplomacy, alliance, organization, mobilization, strategy, tactics, codes of conduct, casualty rates, territorial consequences, and the motives of participants. Course format consists of lecture and discussion. Course requirements include a class report and a take-home exam (final). This course is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of particular interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kelly)

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 Psychological Anthropology.
How deep are cultural differences? Do members of other cultures experience the world in fundamentally different ways? What is the relationship between culture and mind? Anthropologists have long claimed that each culture produces its own unique interior landscapes. Yet virtually all psychology rests on theory derived from observations of Northern Europeans and Americans. How reliable are such widely accepted accounts given the possibility of a cultural construction of reality? This combined lecture and discussion course explores how psychological research into the individual's mental environment intersects with anthropological work on social environments. We begin by reviewing early efforts by Mead and Benedict to link differences in childbearing practices to cultural variation, and continue to the anthropological version of the cognitive revolution, and finally to recent work examining the cultural construction of beliefs and desires. (Hirschfeld)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course is primarily concerned with the nature of religion and, secondarily, with religion's place in the human mode of adaptation. Using comparative ethnographic materials drawn from both tribal and complex societies it seeks to illuminate universal aspects of such concepts as the sacred, the numinous, the divine and the holy and to show how these concepts are generated in ritual. In the last part of the course the place of religion in the adaptations of particular societies will be considered and the ways in which it can become maladaptive will be approached. Grades will be based on two take-home essays of 1500-2500 words, one given at midterm the other final. Junior standing or permission of instructor required. The class is usually 1/4 1/3 Grad student 1/4 3/4 Undergrad. Undergrads can join a voluntary discussion group (Hrs to be arranged) for an additional credit hour. WL:2 (Rappaport)

450/ABS 496/Relig. 404. Comparative Religion: Logos and Liturgy. Upperclass standing and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated with permission for a total of 6 credits.

See Religion 404. (Tice)

451/CAAS 459. African-American Religion. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the nature of religion in the lives of humans, within the framework of culture, and as a pervasive social institution. It will focus on the special case of the intensive and involved character of religion in the history and the lives of Afro-Americans. These special uses of religion create special problems. We will analyze those problems. The course is open to all students and it requires no special background or preparation. There will be two examinations and two short written assignments. Class participation and attendance are required. The required texts are: Afro-American Religious History, M.Sernett; Community in a Black Pentecostal Church: An Anthropological Study, M.D. Williams; The Human Dilemma, M.D. Williams. The course objectives are to: (1) Introduce the subject of religion as a social institution, as a pervasive component of culture, and as a contemporary adjustment and adaptation to peculiar social problems, (2) Demonstrate how an anthropological analysis can be used to understand religion in contemporary society, (3) Develop skills in critical thinking and analysis, (4) Present the relationship between culture, institutions, religion, subculture, and the nature of man (humans), and (5) Enable students to understand the religious institutions of humans generally and Afro-Americans specifically. Cost:2 WL:4 (Williams)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001: Television, Society, and Culture.
Television has been compared to a new religion, cultivating homogeneity, uniting adherents in a common set of images and symbols. Television executives, commentators and reporters have become "key gatekeepers" assuming roles played historically by political and religious leaders. TV has been labeled "narcoticizing" and faulted for diverting attention from serious social issues and replacing effective thought and action with passive absorption in portrayals. Television has been said to reinforce existing hierarchies and impede social reform. It also stimulates participation in a worldwide cash economy, and TV's worldwide spread has raised concerns about cultural imperialism. Ethnocentrism is common in the evaluation of television and its effects. Understanding of TV impact can be broadened through a cross-cultural approach to this medium, which, specific content and programming aside, must be recognized as one of the most powerful information disseminators, socializing agents and public-opinion molders in the contemporary world. This seminar will consider cross-cultural diversity in TV and will assess the medium's various social, cultural, and psychological dimensions and effects. Students, who will include seniors, concentrators and graduate students in American Culture, Communication, Anthropology, and other related fields will each investigate an aspect of television. Students will be responsible for attending class, organizing and participating in discussions of particular readings, and presenting, orally to the class and in writing, a term paper based on research concerning some aspect of TV impact. Cost:3 WL:1,3 (Kottak)

Linguistics

478/Ling. 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 442. (Myhill)

Archaeology

385. The Archaeology of Early Humans. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course will introduce students to the many exciting new discoveries in the archaeology of our earliest human ancestors, tracing what we know of human cultural and biological evolution from the first appearance of upright, small-brained, tool-making humans, 2.0 to 2.5 million years ago, to the appearance of fully modern humans in the last 30,000 to 40,000 years. The course will be divided into two segments. The first briefly surveys the techniques and methods used by archaeologists to find ancient archaeological sites, and how they go about studying the fossil human remains, animal bones, and stone tools from these sites to learn about ancient lifeways. This section also looks at how studies of living primates in the wild, such as chimpanzees, as well as modern hunter-gatherers, such as the Bushmen and Australian Aborigines, can help us to interpret the distant past. The second segment of the course turns to the actual archaeological record, looking at some of the most important finds from Africa, Asia, and Europe. In this segment, the course follows the accelerating developmental trajectory of our ancestors from the simplest tool-makers, who lacked any sign of art or religion, to humans much like ourselves, who began to bury their dead with clear displays of ritual and who adorned the walls of their caves and their own bodies with art. The course is oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators in anthropology. Requirements include three in-class hourly exams and a final examination. Required readings: a textbook, to be announced. Cost:2 WL:2 (Speth)

587/Class. Arch. 531/Hist. of Art. 531. Aegean Art and Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 or 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See Classical Archaeology 531. (Cherry)

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week in seminar to read and discuss a selection of significant monographs and papers in ethnology, and a selection of writings on fieldwork methods and research strategies in ethnology. This seminar provides background for the students to define their own senior Honors thesis project. By the end of the term, the students will have decided on a project, and begun preliminary work on it. In consultation with the Honors advisor the student may request any member of the Anthropology Department to serve as a main thesis advisor or second reader. In the Winter term, the students will convene periodically in seminar with the Honors advisor to discuss their research projects and get feedback from the group, as well as staying in contact with the Honors advisor and second reader. By the end of the term, each student should have completed the research and write-up for their thesis so that they can make a formal summary presentation of it for the group. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects. (Diamond)


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