The Department of Classical Studies believes that the literature, monuments, and social institutions of the ancient world, together with the reflections of the Greek and Roman thinkers about their own cultures, are of unique value in themselves, well worth our contemplation and understanding; and that as we attempt to learn about and appreciate classical civilization, we necessarily learn as well a variety of contemporary methodologies and disciplines.

The department offers three groups of courses for distribution, those in Classical Civilization (introductory courses that require no knowledge of Greek or Latin), courses in Classical Archaeology, and upper level language courses in Greek and Latin authors or genres. While only a few courses are repeated in yearly or biennial rotation, most courses are offered less regularly. This system guarantees that the instructor approaches the subject each time with fresh impetus. We believe in a healthy change and variation in our course offerings. The undergraduate advisor of the Department of Classical Studies will consider and, if appropriate, authorize other classical civilization, literature, and archaeology courses for distribution credit upon request by students during the first drop/add period each term.

Classical Civilization offerings include the general surveys of Greek and Roman civilizations (CC 101 and 102), which provide (through readings, lectures, and discussions) a broad understanding of the literatures, thought, and social development of ancient Greece and Rome, and thus provide the student with knowledge of and appreciation for our cultural origins, as well as an acquaintance with modern methods for understanding an ancient culture. These courses are taught each year. CC 101 is offered in the Fall and CC 102 is offered in the Winter. Other courses provide understanding of particular aspects of the ancient world, approached from a variety of disciplines and studies literary, philosophical, historical, sociological, and so on. Some students (particularly those who have already developed special interests in such disciplines) may wish to explore one of these topics without having had a broader introduction.

Classical Archaeology offerings include the broad surveys of the archaeology and monuments of Greece (Cl.Arch 221 offered in the Fall) and Rome (Cl.Arch 222 offered in the Winter) and a general introduction to archaeological field methods (Cl.Arch 323). Other courses use the material remains of specific cultures both to introduce students to the diversity of the ancient world and to demonstrate how, through a variety of multi-disciplinary approaches, the archaeological record can be used to reconstruct the life-ways of past societies.


221/Hist. of Art 221. Introduction to Greek Archaeology. (4). (HU).

This course surveys the history and art of Crete and Greece as revealed by archaeology from the third millennium through the 4th century B.C. In the prehistoric period, particular attention is given to architectural and ceramic developments as well as to the crosscurrent of trade and economic contacts among Asia Minor, Crete, and mainland Greece. Emphasis is also given to the impact archaeology has had on views and theories of history: the destructions of the civilizations of Crete and Troy, the end of the bronze age, the volcanic eruption of Thera. In the historic period, major artistic developments in architecture, sculpture, and painting are considered and special attention is given to social interpretations: temples as banks and monasteries; sculpture as dedication, decoration, and commemorative propaganda; architectural sculpture as realized myth. Discussions in the sections will concentrate on the historical background, archaeological field techniques, methods of dating and stratigraphy. The sections will meet in the Kelsey museum where it will be possible to work with the actual ancient artifacts recovered in University of Michigan excavations. There are two one-hour examinations and a final, as well as illustrated lectures and assigned readings. Cost:2/3 WL:1 (Pedley)

421/History of Art 421. Art and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. One previous art history, anthropology, or classical archaeology course recommended. (3). (HU).

See History of Art 421. (Root)

439/Hist. of Art 439. Greek Vase Painting. (3). (HU).

An introductory survey of the painted pottery produced on the Greek mainland from Mycenaean times through the early Hellenistic period. Pottery will be examined for art historical, cultural, and archaeological information. The artist's progress in realistic representation of the human figure as revealed on Greek vases will be studied. Emphasis will be placed on the domination of the pottery market by different cities at different times. The use of pottery as an archaeological tool in dating and evaluating an excavation will be discussed. There are illustrated lectures and extensive reserve reading. A midterm, final, and a paper are expected. Cost:1 WL:1 (Herbert)

531/Hist. of Art 531/Anthro. 587. Aegean Art and Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 or 222; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The scope of this lecture course is the prehistoric art and archaeology of mainland Greece, Crete and the Aegean islands, seen in their wider Mediterranean and Near Eastern context, from earliest human settlement down through the end of the Bronze Age at about 1100 B.C. Although a wide range of sites, artifacts, and works of art will be surveyed, the emphasis is on understanding when, how and why regional states controlled from palace centers - the first outside the Near East emerged in the Aegean early in the second millennium B.C. and collapsed near its end. This will entail examination of a variety of related issues such as the origins of farming, metal-working, writing, trade, etc., as well as considering the evidence of language and mythology, and the special problems posed by the iconography of prehistoric cultures. There will be a midterm, a final, and one paper. Cost:2-3 WL:3 (Cherry)

536/Hist. of Art 536. Hellenistic and Roman Sculpture. Hist. of Art 101 or Class. Arch. 222 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See History of Art 536. (Gazda)

Classical Greek (Division 385)

Elementary Courses

101. Elementary Greek. Graduate students should elect the course as Greek 502. (4). (LR).

In combination with Greek 102, this is the first half of a year-long introduction to ancient Greek and is designed to prepare students for the reading of Greek texts. Greek 101 concentrates on fifth-century B.C. Attic Greek which was the language of the "golden age" of Athens. The Greek language of that time and place represents a cultural and linguistic central point from which students can pursue their own interests within a wide range of Greek literature which extends from the Homeric epics to the Byzantine era and which includes the archaic, classical, and hellenistic periods as well as the KOINE Greek of the New Testament. The purpose of the course is to develop the fundamentals of the language so that these fundamentals can then be applied to whatever area of ancient Greek students wish to pursue. Cost:2 WL:1 (Porter)

102. Elementary Greek. Greek 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 310, or 503. Graduate students should elect the course as Greek 503. (4). (LR).

Greek 102 is the second term of the elementary ancient Greek sequence and requires that the student has already completed Greek 101. In Greek 102 students will supplement their study of syntax and grammar by reading Attic prose selections. There will be a series of quizzes and hourly exams in addition to a final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Dobrov)

301. Second-Year Greek. Greek 102 or equivalent. The language requirement is satisfied with the successful completion of Greek 301 and 302. (4). (LR).

This course is the first half of the second-year ancient Greek language sequence. It includes reading and analysis of ancient Greek texts. It includes attention to language skills. The main purpose is to equip a student with the strategies necessary for reading connected prose. It is followed by Greek 302 which is offered Winter term where Greek poetry is read. (Seligson)

Intermediate Courses

401. Readings in Classical Greek Prose. Greek 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of nine credits.

We will concentrate on translation, comprehension, and explication of Herodotus or Thucydides. Course requirements: an hour exam at midterm, a final exam, and a paper some 5-10 pages in length. Cost:1 WL:3 (Pedley)


101. Elementary Modern Greek. (4). (LR).

An introductory course in language with special emphasis on developing speaking skills. Most of the classroom time is spent on drills and on elementary dialogues among the students and between the students and the instructor. A creative approach to language learning is followed, whereby the class simulates everyday life situations and the students are asked to improvise responses to those situations. Instruction also focuses on elementary grammar and syntax. Homework involves preparation for the dialogues and drills. Additional exercises at home and in the classroom - include descriptions of objects and contexts, problem-solving, interviews among students, and conversion of dialogues into narratives. (Van Dyke)

201. Second Year Modern Greek I. Modern Greek 102. (4). (LR).

This course is designed to improve the speaking, reading and writing, as well as listening skills of students. The course begins with a thorough review of materials taught in the first year and continues with the completion of grammar and syntax and writing. Besides the familiar drills, homework includes a greater amount of creative writing. Journalistic prose, short stories, literary excerpts, as well as films and television materials are included in the course. There are weekly quizzes or tests, a midterm and a final examination. (Gagos)

Latin Language and Literature (Division 411)

Elementary Courses

Two convictions are basic to the Elementary Latin Program of the Department of Classical Studies: (1) it is possible for every able-minded person to master the basic facts of a foreign language and (2) the learning experience leading to such a mastery is a privilege that is very specifically human and ought to be most satisfying. Essential facts of morphology, syntax, semantics, vocabulary, history and culture are taught, and a knowledge of these facts enables students to understand Latin written by the famous authors of the Golden Age. Since at least 50% of the vocabulary of an educated speaker of English is Latin in origin, English vocabulary improves as Latin stems and derivatives are learned. The program normally takes four terms to complete. A placement test may be taken at the beginning or end of a term, and a student may succeed in placing out of one or more courses in the introductory sequence.

In the Elementary Latin Program, the department is offering Latin 101, 102, 194, 231, and 232. Latin 101 (see below) is for students with little or no previous Latin. A placement examination will determine the appropriate course for other students who enter the elementary sequence. Students with questions about which course to elect are encouraged to visit the department office in 2016 Angell Hall, 764-0360, or contact Professor Knudsvig in 2012 Angell Hall, 764-8297.

101. Elementary Latin. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 103, 193, or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 101 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course has as its primary objective the acquisition of a fundamental understanding of basic Latin grammar. The text for the course is Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, LATIN FOR READING. Latin 101 covers approximately the first half of the text. Grading is based on quizzes, class participation, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

102. Elementary Latin. Latin 101. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 193 or 502. (4). (LR).

All of the assigned tasks/exercises in Latin 102 are directed toward the reading and translation of Classical Latin and not toward writing or conversation. The course continues the presentation of the essentials of the Latin language as it covers the last half of Knudsvig, Seligson, and Craig, LATIN FOR READING. Extended reading selections from Plautus (comedy) and Eutropius (history) are introduced. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

193. Intensive Elementary Latin I. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101, 102, 103 or 502. (4). (Excl).

This course is a rapid introduction to Latin and is intended for students with little or no prior Latin. Upperclass undergraduates in such fields as history, medieval or renaissance literature, or linguistics and who need to acquire a reading competence in Latin as quickly and as efficiently as possible should elect this course. So should other undergraduates who intend to continue the study of Latin and want a rapid introduction that enables them to take upper-level Latin courses as soon as possible. This first term course covers elementary grammar and syntax. Cost:1 WL:1

231. Introduction to Latin Prose. Latin 102 or 103. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).

This course reviews grammar as it introduces students to extended passages of classical Latin prose through selections from such authors of the first centuries B.C. and A.D. as Caesar and Livy. Class discussions center upon the readings. Grading is based on class participation, quizzes, hour examinations, and a final. Cost:1 WL:3

232. Vergil, Aeneid. Latin 231 or 221. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 194, 222, or 503. (4). (LR).
SECTIONS 001 and 003.
The goal of this course is simple: to learn to read extensive passages of Vergil's Aeneid, with comprehension and enjoyment. Careful attention is paid to Vergil's style, the more common poetic features he employs, mythological references, and the relation of the text to the life and time of the Emperor Augustus. Quizzes, hour exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. Cost:2 WL:1

SECTION 002. The goal of this course is simple: to read extensive passages of Vergil's Aeneid with comprehension and enjoyment. To the degree that there is mastery of the paradigm forms and the principal parts of the most common irregular verbs, the daily assignments will be made easier. Careful attention is paid to Vergil's style, the more common poetic features he employs, mythological references, and the relation of the text to the life and times of the Emperor Augustus. Three hour exams, a two-hour final, and regular participation in class will determine the course grade; there are no papers. In-class translation is followed by a discussion of the text under consideration that day. (Nissen)

301. Intermediate Latin I. Latin 194, 222, 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).

The primary goal of this course is to serve as an introduction to the study of Latin literature, and, through the literature, of Roman culture. Texts by major poets and prose authors will be read with a view to their literary, historical, and political contexts. Translation, and review of morphology and syntax as needed, will be stressed. There will be quizzes, a midterm, and final exam. Cost:2 WL:3,4 (Garbrah)

401. Republican Prose. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.
Section 001: Cicero's Orations.
We will read two or three speeches by the renowned late Republican orator Cicero. The first aim of the course is to ensure that all students can read Latin prose with confidence; to that end, we will review grammar as required and try to increase reading speed. Beyond that, we will look at Cicero's speeches in their historical context and also as polished products of Roman rhetoric at its very best. Grades will be based on several short papers, a mid-term, and a final examination. Books should cost less than $50. (Frier)

409. Augustan Poetry. Latin 301 or 302 or permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

Fall Term, 1993, we will read Books 7-9 of Virgil's AENEID. Many students will have gained their first experience of Latin by reading in the earlier books of the AENEID. The present course assumes knowledge of the the first six books, in translation at least (the best modern English version is by R. Fitzgerald, available as a Vintage paperback, 1984). Our aim will be to make a detailed exploration of Books 7-9, through close in-class reading of the Latin text and discussion of literary and cultural problems. Students will be expected to read at a fairly rapid rate, and to explore secondary sources on reserve. There will be a short midterm test, a final exam, and one paper. (Dobrov)

421/Education D421. Teaching of Latin. Junior standing in Latin and permission of instructor. I: (3); IIIb: (2). (Excl).

A workshop-type course designed to provide prospective secondary and college teachers with the skills necessary to analyze structures and texts and to design instructional materials and class presentations. The course will also introduce the students to those aspects of modern linguistic theories that have practical application to teaching and learning Latin. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

426. Practicum. Junior or senior standing, and permission of instructor. I and II: (3); IIIb: (2). (Excl).

Permission of the instructor is required to elect Latin 426. Students must submit a plan for a project related to the teaching of Latin. The course is designed for students who wish to continue work begun in Latin 421. Cost:1 WL:3 (Knudsvig)

453. Sallust. (3). (Excl).

We begin by going through the text of Sallust, concentrating on Catilina and Jugurtha, and paying special attention to the manner in which statements in the prefaces to the two works are borne out in subsequent narrative. We will then go on to place Sallust within the tradition of Roman historical writing by examining parallel accounts by other ancient historians of Rome, in particular Livy. One of Sallust's most intelligent ancient readers was Saint Augustine. We will therefore conclude with Augustine's interpretations of Sallust, and while doing so will consider selected fragments of the Histories. The edition we will use is that by L.D. Reynolds, Oxford (1991). (S. MacCormack)

470. Catullus. (3). (Excl).

This course will be a close reading (translation and analysis) of the poems of Catullus. Our aim will be to explore in detail Catullus' poetry through careful translation of the Latin text, consultation of secondary sources, and discussion of literary and cultural issues. We will have the opportunity to translate the majority of Catullus' collection. Close attention will be paid to poetic techniques, his language and style, as well as the organization of the poems in the collection. Simultaneously, issues of poetic interpretation, such as allusion, utilization of modern critical approaches, historical sitedness, literary polemic, and narrative voice, will also be an integral part of the course. Students will be required to present short in-class reports on selected poems and secondary materials. There will be an hour mid-term and a final exam (primarily translation, sight and prepared) and a short paper (5-7 pages). (Myers)

Classical Civilization (Division 344)

Courses in this division do not require a knowledge of Greek or Latin. They are intended for students who wish to acquire knowledge of ancient literature, life, and thought, and of the debt modern civilization owes the Greeks and Romans.

101. Classical Civilization I: The Ancient Greek World (in English). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Great Books 191 or 201. (4). (HU).

This course serves as an introduction to the civilization of ancient Greece from its beginnings to the Hellenistic age. All reading is in English translation. Lectures will trace the development of Greek literature and thought within the context of Greek society. Literature read includes THE ILIAD and THE ODYSSEY of Homer; selected homeric hymns; selected tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides; selected comedies of Aristophanes; selections from the historians Herodotus and Thucydides; and philosophical writings of Plato and Xenophon. The readings average about 90 pages per week. There will be a midterm, two brief papers, and a final examination. Freshmen Honors students in Honors sections will write enough to meet the Introductory Composition requirement. This course is the first of a two-term series. Classical Civilization 102 is offered in the Winter Term and represents an equivalent treatment of the civilization of ancient Rome. It is recommended that the course be taken as a sequence, but it is not required. Cost:3 WL:4 (Dillery)

388/Phil. 388. History of Philosophy: Ancient. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 388. (White)

452.Food in the Ancient World: Subsistence and Symbol. (3). (Excl).

Food keeps people alive a universal truth. But it is also true that patterns of eating and drinking are peculiarly individual to each culture, and the ancient Mediterranean world was no exception. This course will trace the mechanics of producing food in the Mediterranean environment, as well as investigating the types of foods available and levels of general health. How successfully, for example, were malnutrition and famine avoided? Styles of consumption also marked out both symbolic and religious boundaries (through dietary restrictions) and social distinctions (through lavish feeding). Social occasions where food and drink were key (the Greek symposium, the Roman banquet) will be analyzed, and possibly even reenacted. All manner of ancient evidence archaeological and textual will be employed to study a time span ranging from Homer to Constantine. There are no course prerequisites. Requirements will include a mid-term and final examination, and a 5-10 page paper. Cost:2-3 WL:1 (Alcock)

473. Roman Decadence. (3). (HU).

This course surveys and analyzes the phenomenon of decadence in the Roman world from the beginnings of the Roman Empire to the fourth century. Works read (in English translation) include Vergil's Aeneid, Ovid, Petronius, Seneca, Juvenal, Apuleius, Augustine, and others. Areas of concern include literature, society, religion and philosophy as they undergo crisis and conflict in an age of anxiety. Hour examination, final examination. Lecture and discussions. Cost:2 (Witke)

483/ABS 483/Religion 488. Christianity and Hellenistic Civilization. (4). (Excl).

See Ancient and Biblical Studies 483. (Boccaccini)

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