111. First Special Speaking and Reading Course. Graduate students should elect the course as Dutch 511. (4). (LR).
This course provides the student with the basics of the Dutch language. We mainly use the monolingual course-book LEVEND NEDERLANDS (LIVING DUTCH) and each lesson from the book will consist of everyday conversation, a grammatical explanation, exercises, a coherent word list, questions about the conversation, discussion, and homework. To enliven the class the teacher will provide the students with songs, newspaper articles, comics, etc. Films and video will be used where possible. Books: LEVEND NEDERLANDS, Cambridge University Press, New York; W. Z. Shetter, INTRODUCTION TO DUTCH, Nijhoff, The Hague; Bruce Donaldson, A DUTCH VOCABULARY, AE Press, Melbourne, 1985. J. Hulstijn, M. Hannay, An ENGLISH SELF-STUDY SUPPLEMENT TO LEVEND NEDERLANDS, Amsterdam, 1981. Also recommended: B.C. Donaldson, DUTCH REFERENCE GRAMMAR, The Hague, Nijhoff, 1981. Cost:2 WL:3 (Broos)
231. Second-Year Dutch. Dutch 112 or the equivalent. Graduate students should elect the course as Dutch 531. (4). (LR).
The course will start with an overview of the basic grammar of the Dutch language. We will develop skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening by means of texts to be announced. Comics, songs, newspaper articles, and literature will enliven the course and introduce the students to contemporary Dutch society. Books: B.C. Donaldson, Beyond the dictionary in Dutch, Muiderberg: Coutinho, 1990; P. de Kleijn, E. Nieuwborg, Basiswoordenboek Nederlands, Groningen, Wolters-Noordhoff, 1983. Cost:2 WL:3 (Broos)
339. Independent Study. (2-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.
This course serves the needs of students who wish to develop special topics not offered in the Dutch Studies curriculum. It may be a program of directed readings with reports, or it may be a research project and long paper. Courses in the past covered different areas like Dutch-Indonesian literature, the language of Rembrandt and his contemporaries, Dutch between English and German, etc. Courses must be supervised by a faculty member and the student must have the faculty member's agreement before electing the course. Cost:1 WL:2 (Broos)
480. Modern Dutch Literature. Dutch 231 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
The course will examine the poetry and prose of both The Netherlands and Belgium in modern times. The reading of poems, short stories, novellas, etc. in the original language will provide the student with material for discussion about authors, opinions, place and points of view of Modern Dutch literature. Topics in the past have included modern Dutch poetry, Dutch colonial literature, the legacy of Anne Frank: World War II in modern Dutch literature. The course will be conducted totally in Dutch. Cost:1 WL:3 (Broos)
491. Colloquium on Modern Dutch Culture and Literature. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
The first part of this course entitled Anne Frank in past and present will deal with the history of Anne Frank in The Netherlands, her hiding and arrest, her famous diary, its popularity and the attacks on its authenticity. In the second part of the course we will look at the holocaust, as portrayed in other accounts, diaries, stories and films, with special emphasis on survivors and their problems, children of survivors etc. Although some of the literary examples will be taken from the Dutch, all literature will be read in English and the course will be conducted in English. Students are asked to write a midterm paper and a final paper on a chosen subject. Regular class attendance and participation in class discussions are required. Suggested reading (tentatively): Anne Fank: The Diary. Etty Hillesum: An interrupted Life. Marga Minco: Bitter Herbs. Harry Mulisch: The Assault. Cost:2 WL:3 (Broos, Wolfswinkel)
101. Elementary Course. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 100. (4). (LR).
First course of a two-term sequence in elementary German. The first-year program is designed to develop the ability to understand and speak "everyday German", to develop reading and writing skills, and to get to know the German-speaking world through discussions and readings. Ample opportunity is provided to develop conversational skills in a wide variety of situations encountered in German-speaking cultures. Additional time outside of class is required to listen to cassettes, to watch videos, to work on the computer, to read, and to study the structure of the German language. There are chapter tests and a final. The language of instruction is German. Cost:2 WL:2
102. Elementary Course. German 101 or the equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 100 or 103. (4). (LR).
Second course of a two-term sequence in elementary German. See German 101 for a general description. Cost:2 WL:2
103. Review of Elementary German. Assignment by placement test or permission of department. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 100 or 102. (4). (LR).
Course for students who have had two to three years of high school German or one or more terms of college German – not at the University of Michigan – but who are not yet at second-year performance level. This course is designed to develop the ability to understand and speak "everyday German," to develop reading and writing skills, and to get to know the German-speaking world through discussions and readings. Ample opportunity is provided to develop conversational skills in a wide variety of situations encountered in German-speaking cultures. Additional time outside of class is required to listen to cassettes, to watch videos, to work on the computer, to read, and to study the structure of the German language. There are three major tests and a final. These sections meet FIVE times per week. Students may enroll in 231 upon satisfactory completion of this course. The language of instruction is German. Cost:2 WL:2
111. First Special Reading Course. Undergraduates must obtain permission of the department. (4). (Excl).
The objective of this course is to teach students to read simple German expository prose. Course content focuses on an introduction to the essentials of German grammar and syntax both in class lectures and in texts. Students are required to read but not to write and speak German. The course uses traditional methods of instruction which present rules of grammar and syntax as well as a basic vocabulary. Since much memorization is necessary, it is essential that students have time to do required course work which averages about twelve hours each week exclusive of class time. Course requirements include daily preparation and recitation, three one-hour examinations devoted to specific problems of grammar and vocabulary, and a final examination requiring the translation of sight passages without the aid of a dictionary. The class is taught in English, and the course text is Jannach, GERMAN FOR READING KNOWLEDGE, (third edition). There are no course prerequisites, but German 111 is open only to graduate students who wish to fulfill a German foreign language requirement and to advanced undergraduates in special programs who already have met the LS&A foreign language requirement. Undergraduates must receive departmental permission prior to electing the course. Cost:1 WL:2
112. Second Special Reading Course. German 111 or the equivalent (placement test). (4). (Excl).
The objective of this course is to teach students to read German for research purposes with the aid of a dictionary. Course content includes an intensive review of grammar and syntax followed by translations from texts in the humanities, the natural and social sciences. Choice of reading texts is determined in part by the composition of the class. Course requirements include daily preparation and recitation, one examination following the completion of the grammar review, one examination during the reading of assigned texts. The final examination requires the translation of sight passages with the aid of a dictionary. The course prerequisite is German 111 or a placement examination (CEEB, GSFLT, or departmental). Like German 111, German 112 is open only to graduate students and undergraduates in special programs. Cost:1 WL:2
231. Second-Year Course. German 102 or the equivalent (placement test). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230 or 221. (4). (LR).
Third of a four-term sequence in contemporary German. The second-year, or intermediate, program is designed to increase students' proficiency in understanding, speaking, writing, and reading German. Students are expected to increase the level of accuracy at which they can express themselves and the range of situations in which they can function in German-speaking cultures. There will be an intermediate grammar review and selected readings. There are three hourly tests and a final examination. Students write essays related to class readings. The language of instruction is German. Cost:3 WL:2
232. Second-Year Course. German 231 or the equivalent (placement test). No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 230 or 236. (4). (LR). Some sections of German 232 address special topics, e.g., music, philosophy, science, current political issues, etc.
Second course of a two-term sequence in contemporary intermediate
German. The second-year program is designed to increase students'
proficiency in understanding, speaking, writing, and reading German.
Students are expected to increase the level of accuracy at which they can express themselves and the range of situations in which they can function in German-speaking cultures. They will be able
to read, comprehend, and discuss a large variety of texts. Traditional
whole class instruction is supplemented with communicative activities
involving pairs or small groups of students. There are three hourly
tests and a final examination. In addition, students write essays
related to class readings. The language of instruction is German.
Section 002 – The Geography of German. This section will deal with two interrelated topics: Landeskunde (Geography) and Dialektologie (Dialectology). What differentiates Northern Germany from Southern Germany? Zürich from Berlin? Vienna from Hamburg? Is it more than mountains or oceans, the way holidays are celebrated, the stories that children are told, the politics, the regional costumes, the food served at breakfast, or the jokes? Where does the question of variation of language over space fit into this question? We will look at the topographical and cultural geography of German-speaking Europe; as part of this process, we will consider in some depth the question of language variation over space, or dialectology. Course materials will include: a course pack for readings, maps, and dialect atlases (which will be held on reserve). Evaluation will be based on a number of short essays, two (short) exams, quizzes, and participation and quality of contribution. The language of instruction is German. (Lippi-Green)
Section 004 – Music. It is the purpose of this section to help students with a strong interest in music to apply their German language skills to this area. The will be done in a variety of ways which will be brought together in a course pack. (a) The most obvious area is music based on German texts, not only Romantic Lieder (Schubert, Schumann), but also some motets (Schütz), cantatas (Bach), librettos (Mozart, Wagner), and some modern Lieder (Mahler, Wolf, Schönberg). (b) A second group of readings will comprise texts written by German musicians (Mozart's letters, Schumann's essays, various performers' lectures). (c) The third body will consist of short articles – biographical, historical, analytical – on music and musicians, written in German and unavailable in English. Both students with performing ambitions and those with a primarily historical or receptive interest in music should thus be able to integrate their German studies into their future careers. The language of instruction is German. (Seidler)
Section 005 – Opera. In this segment, we will study one complete German opera and substantial selections from three others. Primary emphasis will be on the texts. We will also experience these operas as musical drama through tapes and/or videos after becoming familiar with the texts. The approach to the music will be non-technical, but students will be expected to learn some basic German musical terms related to opera. The works selected are highlights in the history of German opera: Die Zauberflöte by Mozart, Fidelio by Beethoven, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg by Wagner, and Der Rosenkavalier by Richard Strauss. The Strauss opera was written in collaboration with the great Austrian poet and dramatist Hugo von Hofmannsthal, with the result that the libretto is of a high literary quality in its own right. This text will be read in its entirety. The language of instruction will be German. Students will write frequent short papers in German and will be asked to make one brief oral presentation in German. (Crichton)
Section 006 – Regional Literature. This section, to be offered together with Section 002 – The Geography of German - will explore the concept of "Heimat" ("homeland") in its historical and literary contexts. How has the definition of "Heimat" changed over time, and what does it mean for German-speaking people from different places in different historical periods? How did Hitler's Reich pervert the concept? How did the displacement and exile of hundreds of thousands of German-speaking people recast it? What kind of language and metaphor are used in literature that evokes a "Heimat"? The partner section of this course (002) looks at the topographical and cultural geography of approximately six geographic regions in German-speaking Europe; in this section, we will follow that study with an analysis of representative literature from these regions by some of the best known authors of Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, ranging from the early 19th century to the present. Course materials will include: a course pack for readings, maps, video tapes of the TV film "Heimat" (to be held in the Language Resource Center). Evaluation will be based on several short essays, one or two hourly exams, quizzes, and participation and quality of contribution. The language of instruction is German. (Blicke)
325. Practice in Writing and Speaking German. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).
The sequence of German 325 and 326 is required for concentration in German. It is primarily intended to improve fluency and accuracy in written and spoken German. One hour each week is devoted to a systematic grammar review including translation from English to German. The remaining class time is devoted to German conversation based on readings and topics chosen at the discretion of the individual instructor. A German essay of one or two pages is assigned approximately every week. One or more five-minute oral presentations may be required. There are midterm and final examinations. Cost:2 WL:2
326. Practice in Writing and Speaking German. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).
See German 325.
350. Business German. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).
This is an introduction to the vocabulary, practices and procedures found in German business activity. Included are the nomenclature of office procedure, business letters and reports. In addition the course examines the German educational and political system from the standpoint of business practices, such as merchandising and advertising. The reading consists of the reading of actual business, merchandising and advertising material. There is a midterm and a final examination, and the writing of papers and translations during the course is required. The text consists largely of a course pack and a basic text. Cost:1 WL:4 (Fabian)
380. Charlemagne, Arthur, and the German Troubadours. German 232 or equivalent. (3). (HU).
This course is designed for students with a 4-term proficiency in German and can be taken to fulfill the concentration requirements. It is an introduction to medieval German literature, with the texts presented in modern German. For the Early Middle Ages, the works will include a drama, a heroic story, and a historiographical account on Charlemagne. As to the 12th century, there will be readings from pre-courtly narratives inspired by the first two crusades, e.g., the German 'Song of Roland' and a story of adventure in the Orient. Pertaining to the High Middle Ages (starting around 1170), we will read a romance about King Arthur's knights. Selections of troubadour lyrics (1150-1300) will reflect the changing social, political, and literary landscape. This can also be seen in examples of the medieval novella. The instructor will speak German, students may use English. Student evaluation will be based on class participation, two papers to be written in English, and a final exam with essay questions. Texts: Course pack and books, as far as available. Cost:2 WL:4 (Scholler)
381. Eighteenth to Nineteenth-Century Drama. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).
This course provides an introduction to German literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries through several of the great dramas of the period. In conjunction with German 382, 383, 384, or 385 this course can be elected in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a German concentration or for a German teaching major or minor. The course will begin with Lessing's comedy Minna von Barnhelm, set against the backdrop of the Seven Years' War. We will then read the famous love tragedy, Die Gretchen-Tragödie excerpted from Goethe's Faust. Our third text will be Kleist's Prinz Friedrich von Homburg, a historical drama that depicts the existential struggle of a young man in confrontation with death. The course will conclude with Büchner's Woyzeck, a drama that was far ahead of its time in its focus on a "hero" from the lowest ranks of society. The emphasis of the course is on the analysis of the works, mainly in class discussion. The instructor will speak German. Students are encouraged to do likewise as much as possible. There will be two short interpretive papers and a final exam, normally in English. Cost:1 WL:4 (Crichton)
384. Short Fiction: Romanticism to Realism. German 232 or the equivalent. (3). (HU).
Drawing on novellas by the great masters of 19th-century German prose, this course provides carefully paced reading practice at the third year level. Included are works by Ludwig Tieck, E.T.A. Hoffman, Eichendorff, Kleist, Grillparzer, Droste-Hulshoff, Keller, Meyer, and Gerhart Hauptmann. Chosen to be representative of the most significant writers of this period, these works encompass Romanticism, Poetic Realism, and Naturalism, the first phase of "modern" German literature, and should provide a comprehensive and aesthetically rewarding survey of the main trends and currents by covering the aims of the Romantics, pre-Freudian psychological writing, 19th-century sociological problems, painting and music of the period. Discussion is emphasized. A course pack is available. A term paper and a final exam are required. (Cowen)
415. The German Language Past and Present. One year beyond 232 or the equivalent, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
The objectives of German 415 are to introduce students to the assumptions, terminology, and methodologies of both descriptive and historical linguistics, and to apply these to a survey of the growth and development of German from pre-literate times to the present, with emphasis on the emergence of the standard literary dialect. Although a major concern will be the internal structure of the language, we shall relate this to the cultural context in which the language has evolved. Instruction will be through lectures and discussion. Required will be a number of homework problems to be handed in; several written exercises in class; a final examination; one 10-page term paper; and one 10-minute oral presentation in class, on the content of the term paper. Texts to purchase: John T. Waterman, A History of the German Language; Werner König, dtv-Atlas der deutschen Sprache; and a course pack. Cost:2 WL:3 (Kyes)
425. Intermediate Composition and Conversation. German 325 and 326; or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).
Various approaches are used to improve the student's written and spoken German. Each week a composition of at least two pages is assigned. Sometimes the instructor assigns specific topics while at other times students select their own. Occasionally students are required to listen to a tape on some aspect of German history or culture and to use it as a departure point for an essay. Class discussions are based on topics selected by the instructor and the students. Brief presentations by individual students are required. German is used exclusively in class. The final course grade is based on compositions as well as participation in discussion. German 425 is regularly offered during the Fall Term while German 426 is regularly offered during the Winter Term. German 426 may be taken independently of 425. Cost:1 WL:5. Call me at 663-9673 about getting an Override (Weiss)
450. Medieval German Literature in Modern German Translation. One year beyond 232 or the equivalent, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
The course is designed for concentrators of German as well as students in other fields who have a sufficient knowledge of German. It is an introduction to the study of the main literary genres of the centuries between approximately 700 and 1300. The readings will be selected from heroic, spiritual, courtly, and post-courtly literature. They will include the earliest medieval drama, Europe's first animal epic and its first chivalric romance, its finest Tristan story, and its best known Parzival-Grail romance, the 'Nibelungenlied,' and pre-Boccaccian novella. The lyrics of the German troubadours will be treated, with musical illustrations, in the latter part of the term. The discussions will center upon thematic and moral concerns, ideological and cultural background as well as formal aspects of the works. Attention will also be directed to other literatures of the Middle Ages (e.g., Scandinavian, English, French). Texts include books and course pack. The grade will be determined on the basis of class participation, a midterm exam, and a paper of medium length. Cost:2 WL:4 (Scholler)
458. German Literature after 1945. One year beyond 232 or the equivalent, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course will provide students with an overview of literary trends in the German-speaking cultural context as well as a focus on representative themes of the immediate postwar period through the present: homecoming, exile, the Stunde Null, the cultural revolt of the 1960s, feminism, and finally, cultural diversity in a German context, unification, and Gegenwartsbewältigung. Authors include Paul Celan, Ingeborg Bachmann, Heinrich Böll, Günter Grass, Christa Wolf, Peter Handke, Jurek Becker, Ulrich Plenzdorf, Heiner Müller, Peter Schneider, Elfriede Jelinek, and Emine Sevgi Özdamar. Requirements include: regular attendance and participation, one ungraded paper (3-5 pp.), one class presentation (students may work together in groups if they so desire), a term paper, and a final paper (each 10-12 pp.). Students will be encouraged to discuss their topics with the professor and to rewrite papers (optional). The readings, discussion, and papers will be in German. Cost:3 WL:4 (Simpson)
471. German Literature from Its Beginning to the Present I. One year beyond 232 or the equivalent, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
German 471, and its companion course 472, provide an overview that integrates the students' specialized knowledge of German writers, genres, and periods into a larger interdisciplinary context. The approach is threefold: (1) Lectures in German sketch in the different philosophical, cultural, and socio-political backgrounds against which major literary works were created, certain genres flourished or disappeared, and literary movements arose; (2) a literary history is read as a supplement to lectures and discussions, and (3) German texts from all genres (poetry, drama, narrative prose) are read in their entirety. Ger. 471 is devoted to German literarure from its beginning to the Enlightenment; Ger. 472 covers STURM UND DRANG through contemporary literature. While identification of significant milestones in German literary history is important, greater emphasis is placed on students' ability to compare, contrast, and assimilate works of different authors, movements, and interdisciplinary influences, and on the development of the students' esthetic sensitivity, critical judgement, and imagination. Students will have a midterm and a final, and write a term paper. Cost:1 WL:2 (Paslick)
491. German Honors Proseminar. Senior Honors standing. (3). (Excl). May not be repeated for credit.
Completion of the sequence of German 491 and 492 is required for an Honors concentration in German. Interested students not already in the German Honors concentration program should apply to Professor Simpson for admission (minimum 3.0 GPA with at least 3.5 in German). German 491 is regarded as a preparatory term in anticipation of 492 (Winter Term), in which each student writes an Honors thesis. The kinds of works to be read will thus be determined by the perceived needs of the students, geared possibly toward already-identified thesis topics and/or toward intensified focus on one genre, period, or specific authors, etc. Regardless of ultimate subject matter, the intent of the seminar will be to increase students' critical reading abilities and their familiarity with the employment of secondary literature. Requirements for the course include (at least) one oral presentation and two papers (totaling about 25 pages). Students are urged to contact Professor Simpson in advance of the Fall Term to arrange an interview in which particular individual needs and interests will be discussed, so that the course may be tailored to fit each group. Cost:2 WL:3 (Simpson)
531/Education D431. Teaching Methods. Senior standing; and candidate for a teaching certificate. (3). (Excl).
This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of the theoretical foundations of the teaching of German as a foreign language. The major approaches to foreign language teaching are discussed with particular emphasis on approaches that focus on communicative language learning/learning for proficiency. Emphasis is placed on the practical application of theories of language learning and teaching to the German language classroom. There will be a final written paper, and the participants of the course are expected to give several short oral papers. Teaching assistants enrolled for this course must also participate in the five-day orientation workshop provided by the department prior to the start of the Fall Term. Cost:2 (VanValkenburg)
540. Introduction to German Studies. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
Proseminar for beginning graduate students, and others by permission, with a maximum of student participation. The course is to inform about: bibliographical tools, literary terminology, various methods to be applied to the study of literary works, of the history of literature from the Renaissance to the present, major aspects of poetics (genres, metrics, etc.) Students will give a presentation in class and a term paper resulting from it; there will be a final examination on bibliographical tools and literary terms. Cost:2 WL:4 (Schelle)
Courses in this section do not require knowledge of German.
330. German Cinema. Junior or senior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).
This course traces the development of the German cinema in its social, political and cultural context. It presents major films and filmmakers in relation to their historical circumstances and to developments in the other arts. The subject matter falls into three periods: The Expressionistic period of film making following World War I up to 1933, the era of the Third Reich from 1933 to 1945, and from 1965 to the present. Filmmakers discussed include F.W. Murnau, Fritz Lang, G.W. Pabst, Volker Schlondorff, R.W. Fassbinder, Werner Herzog and Wim Wenders. The films cover various genres of fictional and documentary approach. Ten to twelve films will be shown. There will be some opportunity for additional viewing on an individual basis. The course will consist of lectures and directed discussions. The required readings consist of secondary material on the cultural background of the German cinema, and commentaries on the films and film makers. Students will write five short (two to four page) papers and a term paper. The films will be viewed in VHS format. Cost:2 WL:4 (Fabian)
375/MARC 375/Rel. 375. Celtic and Nordic Mythology. (3). (Excl).
See Religion 375. (Beck)
First and second year SWEDISH (Swedish 103, 233) will be offered Fall Term, 1993. Taught by a lecturer from Sweden, an experienced language teacher, Swedish can be used to meet the LS&A language requirement. The program also has a third-year advanced seminar for students with proficiency in Swedish. It is Scand. 430, Colloquium in Scandinavian Literature.
Any students who would like to concentrate in Scandinavian
Studies must complete two years of Swedish. Second-year proficiency
in Swedish is required to participate in the University of Michigan
exchange program with the University of Uppsala, Sweden. For further
Marion Marzolf, Program Director
103. Elementary Swedish. (4). (LR).
For students with little or no previous knowledge of Swedish, this course provides a basic introduction to Swedish vocabulary and grammar, with the emphasis placed on developing communicative language skills. Extensive practice in listening, speaking and reading and writing. The students will be evaluated on the basis of class participation, assignments and tests. The teacher is a native speaker from Sweden. Cost:2 WL:1 (Olvegård)
233. Second-Year Swedish. Swedish 104. (4). (LR).
This course covers the material of a second year course in Swedish language. The emphasis is on speaking, writing, reading, and listening skills. Readings are selected (for oral commentary) from contemporary Swedish prose, poetry and politics. Both books and newspapers are used. All instruction will be in Swedish and tests and examinations will be given at regular intervals. Grades will be determined on the basis of class participation and tests. Students needing Swedish 103 and 104 or the equivalent for entry into this course can meet the prerequisite by passing an examination given by the instructor. The teacher is a native speaker from Sweden. Cost:2 WL:3 (Olvegård)
430. Colloquium in Scandinavian Literature. Reading knowledge of Swedish. (3). (Excl). May be elected twice for credit.
For students with two years of Swedish (Elementary and Second-Year Swedish), or the equivalent. All literature, discussions and instructions will be in Swedish. The students will get a greater insight of Swedish culture, politics, history etc by reading, writing and discussion. Grades will be based on class participation and papers. The teacher is a native speaker from Sweden. Cost:1 WL:4 (Olvegård)
Courses in this section do not require knowledge of a Scandinavian language.
331. Introduction to Scandinavian Civilization. (3). (HU).
The course provides the opportunity to become acquainted with the society and culture of modern Scandinavia: Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Iceland. No knowledge of a Scandinavian language is required. Readings and lectures are in English. Several lectures are by guest specialists in history, social issues, the arts and literature. Students will research current topics on Scandinavia for class discussion, write two papers and final examination. Grades are based on class participation, papers and final. Cost:3 WL:4 (Marzolf)
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