University Courses (Division 495)

First-Year Seminars, offered under the University Courses division in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, provide a unique small class educational experience to first-year students.

Seminars are offered by outstanding faculty and emeritus faculty from many different departments on a variety of topics. Each provides a group of approximately fifteen students with a stimulating introduction to the intellectual life of the University by exposing them to engaging subject matter and offering the opportunity for active participation that a small class will afford. It is hoped that students who take a seminar will find in it a sense of intellectual and social community that will make the transition to a large university easier. Some may discover a subject to pursue in further courses.

Seminars are open to all first-year students and should be elected along with other courses. Each will count toward satisfying the distribution requirements of the College in one of the three basic subject areas: Humanities (150), Social Sciences (151), or Natural Sciences (152).

Collegiate Seminars, offered under the University Course division (495) in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, provide a unique small class educational opportunity to students.

Seminars allow a student to personalize his or her education. Each seminar is taught by a regular professorial faculty member. Each is limited to approximately twenty students. Interaction between student and teacher, made possible by the small size of the class, facilitates deeper learning and allows the student to get to know a faculty member personally. Moreover, students find that in seminars, they learn much from one another because a learning community develops, and dialogue among students as well as between student and teacher takes place. We strongly recommend that each student take at least one seminar during the four years at Michigan.

Collegiate Seminars are open to any student who has completed the Introductory Composition Requirement. The seminars emphasize critical thinking about important and central topics and feature further instruction in writing.

All Collegiate Seminars count toward satisfaction of the College's distribution requirements in one of the three basic subject areas: Humanities (250), Social Sciences (251), or Natural Sciences (252).

101. Methods of Thinking. ECB writing assessment. (4). (Introductory Composition).

This course has two aims: (1) to improve the student's ability to read with understanding, to think critically, and to write well; (2) to help the student to achieve a better understanding of the nature of intellectual activity and of education. College work is, and should be, different from high school work, requiring different and more sophisticated intellectual skills and techniques. But almost all courses in college concentrate exclusively on their own special subject-matter. A sociology course concentrates on teaching you sociology, a chemistry course on teaching chemistry, and so on. College instructors rarely teach in an explicit and direct manner the intellectual techniques and frameworks necessary for successful college work. They assume that you have these skills already or can somehow pick them up along the way, while they go ahead and teach their own special subjects. University Course 101 attempts to teach these skills directly and explicitly, to make your college career more successful and to sharpen abilities which will be invaluable in later life whatever field you may work in. This is a course for the person who is seriously interested in intellectual activity. It is not a remedial course and it is not an orientation course. Some of the materials which we will discuss will be complex and profound, and a number of the topics lie on the intellectual frontiers of our time.

The topics for discussion will include the following: the nature of argumentation, evaluation of arguments and positions, methods of reading, types of critical thinking; special intellectual problems in the humanities, the social sciences, and the natural sciences problems such as the relation between theory and reality, bias and subjectivity in the social sciences, the nature and justification of the humanities; questions about education, including morality in education, diverse ideals of the educated person, open admissions, reverse discrimination, academic freedom, and the unionization of the faculty. This course will be taught in small sections of no more than fifteen students each, so that students can receive individual attention. Readings will be assigned covering the above topics. We will proceed by class discussion supplemented by some lectures. There will be a number of writing assignments throughout the term. [Cost:2] [WL:5. Admission restricted to Honors freshmen through overrides at the Honors Office.] (J. Meiland)

110/Biology 110. Introduction to Global Change I. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Natural Resources 110. (4). (NS).

See Biology 110. (Teeri)

150. First-Year Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001. Ethics Moral Values.
Broadly, the science of ethics or morals is concerned with character and behavior that is approved or disapproved. Thus, the science of morality seeks intelligent, reliable judgment of behavior and character. The terms approval and disapproval indicate the point of view from which ethical science investigates its field. Critical thought undertakes to order such specifics as just, saintly, ought, honorable, courageous, intemperate, treacherous, perverse, corrupting, and related ideas under the general rubric of value. Therefore, it is the purpose of this seminar to explore the behavior and character associated with composing a "symphony of values" by each student. Each student will be required to write two brief papers (not to exceed 10 pages), one on her or his symphony of values and one on a moral, personal interest. Grades will be determined by the quality not quantity of participation, class discussion, and papers submitted. The required reading will include: Fried, Charles. Right and Wrong, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1978. Additional reading will be assigned in class. (Cash)

Section 002. Gibbon and the Decline of the Roman Empire. Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire remains one of the great works of history in the English language. As such, it invites study both for its own sake and as a persistently powerful interpretation of Roman history and the nature of the empire. The purpose of this class is to examine Gibbon the historian, his self conscious creation of the image of the ideal historian in his highly literary autobiography, and then to examine the historian at work. We will look at the way that Gibbon constructed his narrative, the difficulties he had with his sources, and the problem of folding different topics into a narrative framework. We will also look at some of the controversy that his history generated with the publication of volume 1 in 1776. In the end, we will try to control three topics: Gibbon's construction of history, the quality of his history as an account of the decline of the Roman empire (it is still regarded as one of the most penetrating ever written), and Gibbon's place in his intellectual world. There will be three short papers (5-7 pages) an oral report and three short in class writing exercises. (Potter)

Section 003. Modes of Fiction. The pleasure we derive from reading stories may be deepened by a study of the art of fiction, a phrase which implies an important set of relations between what is told and the manner of its telling. This course in "The Modes of Fiction" identifies some of these relations and shows how they operate in a variety of short pieces of fiction. It establishes a useful vocabulary of definitions (theme, subject, tone, etc.); it inquires into the interplay between the elements of fiction; it tries to discriminate between kinds of fiction and evaluate their effects. Its aim is to create a community of discourse about literature through a study of how stories are told. Analysis and discussion will be the usual class procedure. Writing consists of several short papers at the beginning of the term followed by three or four longer critical papers. (Steinhoff)

Section 004. Racism. The seminar experience is designed to provide each member an opportunity to explore a wide range of socio-psychological, eco-political, philo-ethnical and educational problems associated with racism. These are highly interdependent and overlapping. Attention will be given such questions as: What is racism? Who is racist? What is personal racism? What is institutional racism? What is the significance of racism and strategies for change? The seminar sessions will consist of lectures, discussion and individual reports, not to exceed 10 pages. The grade in the seminar will be based on the quality of individual assignments, contribution to the class discussion, midterm and final examinations. Farley, Reynolds. Blacks and Whites. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1984. Racism in America and How to Combat It. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Clearinghouse Publication, Urban Series, No. 1, January, 1970. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (in course pack). (Cash)

Section 005. Understanding Russia Through its Heresies and Heretics. This course is an introduction to Russian culture, which examines some of its most extraordinary features in order to understand what distinguishes Russia so markedly from other European countries. Russia's remarkable and numerous heresies and heretics, literal and figurative, from the Middle Ages to the present day, have played an abiding and surprisingly central role in the definition and redefinition of "Russian-ness," and have attracted many modern writers, artists and historians, who have seen in such heretical "outsiders" elements key to an understanding of Russia as a whole. Materials including texts, music, film, and paintings representing a range of interests and historical periods will be examined; figures to be studied include the so-called "mad monk" Grigory Rasputin, the great prose authors of the nineteenth-century (including Tolstoy and Dostoevsky), the seventeenth-century schismatic Avvakum, author of the "first Russian autobiography," and the dissidents and martyrs of the Soviet period; if possible, a visit to a Russian sectarian community in the Midwest will also be included in the course. Requirements are: active participation in class discussion; one presentation; five short (2-3 page) papers; a final, longer (10 page) paper. (Makin)

Section 006. The Art of Pablo Picasso. This seminar will involve lectures, films, class discussions, and projects, all centered on the extraordinary achievements of the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881-1973). Picasso during his very long and very active career not only played a key role in revolutionary redefinitions of form and content in the visual arts of painting and sculpture, but he also produced objects and images which continue to challenge the imaginations in spheres ranging from private fantasy to public "policy." The text will be Hilton, Picasso (paperback). Substantial additional readings will be assigned from the material on reserve for class discussion, papers, and projects. There will be two short papers (5-7 pages) and a class presentation project based on a precis of 7-8 pages. There will be no examinations. Regular class attendance and participation in discussion is mandatory. (Miesel)

151. First-Year Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (SS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001. Current Issues in Sport Sociology.
A four hour seminar designed: to analyze and clarify the behaviors, cliches, and rituals that have traditionally characterized the institutionalization of sport in America; to provide opportunities to develop an understanding of the pervasiveness of sport and its influence on disparate societal elements such as: clothing styles, automobile design, language, sexual behaviors, social values and the concept of hero; to discuss and examine sport in terms of socialized theories from both microscopic and macroscopic perspectives; to review current issues in sport: Proposition 48, values in sport, sport organization, socialization into sport, and socialization via sport; to consider deviance, discrimination, religion, gender relations, politics and education in terms of sport as a social institution, as a microcosm of society and the interconnectedness among society's basic institutions; to provide an opportunity for students to facilitate their literacy in sport beyond a knowledge of names, places and statistics by developing a basic research project of their choosing on a current issue relevant to the course material. (Vaughn)

Section 002. Public Education in the South for Blacks and Other Minorities, 1863-1954. The purpose of the seminar will be to trace the development of elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education of Blacks and minorities in the southern states of the United States from the Emancipation Proclamation to May 18, 1954. Particular emphasis will be focused on judicial litigations from the supreme court decision to Plessy vs. Ferguson, from which the doctrine of "separate but equal" evolved, to the historic Brown vs. Topeka, Kansas Board of Education 1954, which upheld the fundamental principle that racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional. Of special importance will be seminar discussions revealing how Blacks and minorities were successful in achieving an education in spite of the barriers confronting them in the states where they resided and resulting from court decisions, including the Supreme Court of the United States. Students will be expected to read a number of the classic writings of Black and minority authors such as W.E.B. DuBois, E. Franklin Frazier, Booker T. Washington, John Hope Franklin, and many others. The writings of contemporary Blacks and minorities will be explored as well as books about Blacks and minorities such as Gunnar Myrdal's, An American Dilemma. Students will be expected to prepare readings, participate in seminar discussions, and develop a research topic preferably centered around one of the southern states under investigation in the seminar. (Palmer)

Section 003. Identity, Alienation, and Freedom. The purpose of this seminar will be to explore the concepts of identity, alienation and freedom as psychological and philosophical ideas. However, the orientation will be specific and applied to the normal situations and predicaments that college students experience. Questions to be considered: surviving as an individual in a large and often impersonal University; living up to and/or dealing with the expectations of parents and teachers; questioning authority in the context of the classroom; trading-off career pressures and personal goals in setting educational priorities. Of special importance will be the examination of the sometimes frightening loss of a sense of identity that accompanies significant alterations in life style, such as that experienced by students in the transition from high school to college or later, in the transition from college to the "real world." In addition to regular class meetings each student will meet individually with the instructor every third week at which time the student's individual reading and writing will be developed and discussed. Grades will be determined by the quantity and quality of this reading and writing. (Pachella)

Section 004. The West in Asia. This is an exploration of the interaction between an expanding West and traditional Asian states and cultures. European and later American efforts to establish trade with a far richer and more sophisticated Asia led to colonial regimes which came to dominate most of Asia, but these in turn stimulated the rise of Asian nationalism and the eventual defeat of colonialism, as well as profoundly influencing the nature of modern Asian societies. Asia is taken here to extend from the Indian subcontinent through Southeast Asia and China to Korea and Japan. The course begins with the circumstances which underlay late medieval Europe's exploration and expansion overseas, of which the first Asian venture was Vasco daGama's voyage to India in 1498, and then deals with the rise of Western colonial regimes and semi-colonial orders (in China and Japan), and ends with the opening of the Pacific War at Pearl Harbor in 1941, which marked the end of Western colonialism in Asia. This course is run on a discussion basis, with ample opportunity for student input. There are four short essay-style papers, and a highly varied set of readings. (Murphey)

170/American Culture 170/History 170/Women's Studies 210. Histories of "Witchcraft." First-year students only. (4). (Introductory Composition).

See American Culture 170.

172/Asian Studies 111/History 151. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

This course is about cultural politics in South Asia. Politics is fundamental in all historical processes; the contention here is that South Asian culture is and has always been, constituted in relationship to the political stakes attached to a deployed in cultural formations, convictions, institutions, and disputes. In recent years, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka have all witnessed a series of culture wars, in which issues of belief, identity, and allegiance have become increasingly central to the conflict. We will use this beginning point to then review the history of "India," tracing genealogies (history backwards) and rethinking the politics of history itself; indeed, once we read these cultural debates it will be difficult to forget that our own engagement with the historical past is inevitably part of the ongoing politics of South Asian civilization in the contemporary global world. (Dirks)

173/Slavic 225. Arts and Cultures of Central Europe. (3). (HU).

See Slavic Surveys 225. (Toman, Eagle, Carpernter)

174/Russian 231. Russian Culture and Society: An Introduction. (3). (HU).

See Russian 231. (Ronen)

182/Hist. of Art 182/Women's Studies 211. Gender and Popular Culture. (3). (HU).

"Popular culture" is a complex social system and this course concentrates on its visual manifestations in various media. We will focus on women as signs or emblems, as producers, and as consumers, of "popular culture," with some attention also to the representation of masculinity and of race/ethnicity. Mainstream and marginal, appropriated and subverting, reflective and formative, the "popularity" of certain cultures often places them outside an academic framework, but this course seeks to alter that exclusion. After a brief historical and thematic introduction, we will focus on twentieth century American culture, examining such possible examples as romance in fiction or films like Gone With the Wind; the "buddy" system in Westerns and Thelma and Louise; women in music, including Madonna; advertising and shopping; prime-time television. Student participation will include the writing of a journal, reporting on two "pulp" novels or films, producing a longer essay, and regular discussion in classes. Students will keep a journal where they will gather any images which interest them and comment on these representations; write a 3-4 page report on two "pulp" novels, films or television episodes; produce a longer essay approximately 10 pp. late in the term. No prerequisites. (Simons)

183. Public Policy and Science. First and second year students only. (3). (Excl).

This course aims to help students become better consumers of scientific research so that they will become better informed citizens and more effective makers and implementers of public policy in the future. The class will consider the general nature of science, public problems, and public policy, and their relationships. Questions will be raised about the reliability and validity of scientific findings, their relevance to public problems, and their implications for personal and societal values. Students will formulate public policy on specific problems of interest to them by consulting the literature and local experts. The class will hear and discuss presentations by the instructor, guests, and students. Evaluations of students' performance will be based on three short essays, take-home exams and a 15-20 page final project. (Gold)

210. Perspectives on Careers in Medicine and Health Care. (4). (Excl).

This course is for students considering a career in the health professions. It is designed to help them acquire perspectives to facilitate their decision-making process. Health care professionals visit the class and share their educational and professional experiences. Students become acquainted with the prerequisites for professional and graduate schools and spend time with dental, medical, osteopathic, nursing, and public health students. We consider problems facing the health professions in the 90s: problems of health care delivery, the high cost of medicine and its effect on the uninsured and underinsured. We discuss issues relating to malpractice and death and dying. Students are expected to respond in writing and in class to the visitors, to the reading materials, and to films. Two course packs serve as the required texts. All students are responsible for taking definite steps toward the development of their own goals through a self-inventory of their values, skills, and interests and through a term paper exploring a possible career direction. Evaluation is based on class attendance and participation in and completion of all assignments. The class meets Mon. 3-5, 432 West Engineering; Thurs. 7-9:30 p.m. at 2130 Dorset Rd., Ann Arbor. A map showing the location of 2130 Dorset Rd. will be available at 1017 Angell Hall. Cost:2 WL:5 Enrollment by override only: contact Fran Zorn at 1017-H Angell Hall (763-2062) or call 662-0682 and leave a message. (Zorn)

250. Collegiate Seminars. Open to any student who has completed the introductory composition requirement. (4). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001. Hamlet in Its Contexts.
Hamlet is probably Shakespeare's most popular and familiar play. To get some idea of why this might be, we will start the course by looking carefully at the play itself, as a text and as a dramatic production. Then we will consider some of the contexts of the play, most obviously other plays by Shakespeare and his contemporaries ( and maybe more recent plays written with Hamlet in mind) but also discussions of relevant bits of history and psychoanalysis and various kinds of literary criticism. Throughout we will try to keep the dramatic nature of the play in mind as a reference for the utility of these contextual readings what help would they be to a director or actor doing Hamlet? There will be a final exam, an in-term exam, and several short (about 3 pages) papers. (Lenaghan)

Section 002. Reading Poems, Writing Verse. This will be a course in close reading. We will read poems, because there the need for close reading is most acute, and we will concentrate on poems written in meter. It will also be a course in a kind of verse writing aimed at discovering the limitations and attendant possibilities for expression that a given verse form provides. Such writing assignments will be carefully structured; I won't expect you to have an aptitude for creative writing. There will be frequent short papers, one longer paper, oral presentations, and a final exam. I'll also ask for daily journal entries recording your responses to the assigned poems. The class is intended for underclassmen of diverse interests; for those considering concentration in English, it will substitute for the prerequisite English 240. Cost: less than $50. (English)

Section 003: What Can We Know About the Historical Jesus? How reliable are the gospels' portraits of Jesus? Through an acquirement of the different critical methods which scholars apply to the gospel texts, the students will be enabled to form a defensible answer to this question. In addition to the methodological instruction, the students will acquire a basic knowledge about the religious, historical, and social world of the gospels. Grades will be based upon the students' ability and willingness to wield the methods of critical scholarship when reading the gospels. Both oral and written exercises will be required. (Fossum)

Section 004. Bhagavad-Gita: A Text in Context. Bhagavad-Gita is a very important Hindu religious text, read widely by the Hindus and non-Hindus alike. The University does not currently provide a systematic course dealing with this important text. This course will study the Bhagavad-Gita in its changing contexts. (1) Historical Text. The Bhagavad-Gita is part of the famous Indian epic Mahabharata, the largest known epic poem of about 100,000 verses. How and why a religious text such as the Bhagavad-Gita came to be incorporated into the epic is an important question. (2) Philosophical synthesis. A product of post-Buddhist Hindu India, the Bhagavad-Gita represents a conscious attempt to bring together divergent philosophical traditions and create a new synthesis of action and renunciation, and polytheism and monotheism. (3) Divergent interpretations. The text as handed down became an important religious document of great authority, and every subsequent philosophical-religious tradition had to interpret it in a unique way to find support for its own doctrines. We will investigate some of the reasons for these divergent interpretations. (4) Divergent political philosophies. In recent times, nationalist leaders like B. G. Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi derived inspiration from this text for their nationalist struggle against the British, and interpreted it in divergent ways to suit their own political purposes, one deriving a message of justified violent struggle, the other deriving non-violence from the same text. Students will be expected to select particular dimensions of the text and do focused reading and writing from a variety of approaches. There will be greater emphasis on trying to understand how and why a religious text gets interpreted so differently by different people at different times, than on just the contents of the text. There will be weekly discussions, short papers, a longer term-paper, and a presentation. (Deshpande)

Section 005. Theory and Practice: Student, Knowledge, University The question this course will be asking is, "What are we all doing here, anyway?" This course wants to direct our attention to the idea and experience of liberal education itself. It wants to get beyond subject matters and methods to ask questions about underlying assumptions, basic premises, first principles as to what it is to be a person and a student, the nature of knowledge, the idea and operative realities of the University. We will try to do this by reading and discussion of various writings: some works of fiction touching on these questions (John Updike, The Centaur; Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man; Dostoevski, Crime and Punishment; perhaps George Eliot, Middlemarch ); some of the dialogues of Plato; the Michigan Daily; official notices posted here and there; and posters, inscriptions on blackboards, graffiti. The course works by discussion prompted by questions designed to uncover usually unexamined postulates, in which the fundamental issues of living and learning will be brought before us and, I hope, made as real, immediate, pressing as the myriad concerns of daily life usually are for us. The aim is at once highly ideal and eminently practical: to ask what is a University for? How do things actually work here? Why do they work that way? How might or should they work? What are we all doing here, anyway? The course requires committed, persistent attendance and participation; frequent, brief writings; one extended, meditative essay; one final examination of the readings. Arid speculation and most of the normal routines developed to fend off intellectual engagement will be eschewed. (McNamara)

251. Collegiate Seminars. Open to any student who has completed the introductory composition requirement. (4). (SS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001. Identity: Self, Community, and Power.
Students will ask how individuals, across a lifetime, construct a self, absorbing and rejecting elements of the social context. Students will look at particular crucibles: the relation of the individual to the power of the state; the relation of the individual in a stigmatized group to her own culture and to the majority culture; the issue of identity in the successive stages of women's lives; the issue of identity in the corporate organization; the prerequisites for liberation from abusive relationships. Students will read fieldwork, essays, and novels; do independent field work; and write every week. The instructor will introduce material from his current research with members and leaders of white racist groups. The course calls for a student who has imagination, takes her own life seriously, has sober interest in the social and political world, wishes to stretch herself, and likes adventure. (Ezekiel)

Section 002. The Psychology of Stereotypes. Stereotypes play an important role in social interaction. That is, most people have at least tentative expectations concerning such matters as attitudes, interests, and abilities of different types (or categories) of people; e.g. women, professors, Jews, Mexicans, etc. Moreover, these expectations are often influential in affecting the way we respond to individual members of different social groups. Discussions of stereotypes often stress their dysfunctional character, but do not provide a systematic account of how they originate and how they function. In this seminar, we will examine classic and contemporary explorations of the stereotype concept, with an emphasis on the social, motivational, and cognitive bases of the stereotype process. We will discuss this literature as it relates to existing theories and research on attitude formation and attitude change. (Manis)

Section 003. Travelers East: From Beowulf to the Cosmos. A good way of learning about changes in ourselves is to measure our changing perceptions of "foreigners." In this seminar we will read, look at, and compare descriptions by adventurers, explorers, and tourists, men and women, who traveled to what they called "exotic" places. Beginning with Beowulf, readings will include crusader chronicles, reports on the Mongols, dialogues with Muslims, Lawrence of Arabia, an Agatha Christie commentary on Iraq, depictions in art and on film of "the mysterious east," and accounts of "contacts" with aliens. Our goals will be to understand the difficulty of cross-cultural contact and to gain a better insight into the historical analysis of literature. (Lindner)

Section 004. Immigrant and Ethnic Communities In North America. The class consists of an anthropological approach to the history of immigration to the United States and Canada; the formation, acculturation and maintenance of immigrant and ethnic communities; and the nature of ethnic boundaries and interethnic relations in American society. Specific topics to be covered include: assimilation; bilingualism; stereotyping and discrimination; ethnic associations including the ethnic church; ethnic media; the ethnic family and household; ethnic politics; ethnic labor; and the revitalization of ethnic subcultures. The course will take a seminar format, supplemented by relevant audio-visual materials and some lectures. Class requirements include several short papers, some of which will be based on ethnographic fieldwork, and one exam. (Lockwood)

252. Collegiate Seminars. Open to any student who has completed the introductory composition requirement. (4). (NS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001: Mind, Brain, and Perception.
The course introduces freshmen and sophomores to the seven major issues in Biological Psychology and serves as the equivalent of Psychology 170. We deal with the following questions in seminar format:: 1) How has "smart" (intelligent) behavior evolved in animals (including humans)? 2) How does the brain work and what is its role in regulating behavior? 3) What part do theory and criticism play in the study of mind and of behavior? 4) How do we perceive and process information from our environment? 5) Is the mind a computer and is the computer a form of artificial intelligence? 6) How does our intelligence direct our perceptions and our behavior? 7) Can we predict and control behavior? This seminar is open only to those who are willing to play an active part in class discussion, write and revise three papers, and read five selected paperbacks. Final exam optional; grade based upon class participation and papers. (Stebbins)

Section 002. Ecological Constraints on Development. The course explores the relationship between a region's environmental setting and its prospects for economic development. Through readings and discussion, the errors of the past and perspectives for the future are explored, with an emphasis on development problems in the Third World and the special ecological forces operative there. Readings are drawn from environmental sciences, economics, political science, history, and the popular press. Note: Permission of instructor required. (Vandermeer)

280. Undergraduate Research-A (Grade). First or second year student in LS&A, and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). A maximum of six credits of 280 and 281 may be counted toward graduation.

This course provides academic credit for students engaged in research through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP). To receive credit, the student must be working on a research project under the supervision of a University of Michigan faculty member. Students may elect the course for 1-4 hours of credit. For each hour of credit, it is expected that the student will work three hours. The grade for the course will be based on a final project report evaluated by the faculty sponsor and on participation in other required UROP sponsored activities, including monthly peer advising sessions, and submission of a journal chronicling the research experience. Students will receive a letter grade for this course. This course is open only to students enrolled in the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program. Note: Biweekly mandatory evening sessions will be required every other Tuesday or Wednesday. Contact the UROP office to sign up for these evening sessions or for further information (747-2768).

281. Undergraduate Research-B (Credit). First or second year student in LS&A, and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. (INDEPENDENT). A maximum of six credits of 280 and 281 may be counted toward graduation.

This course provides academic credit for students engaged in research through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP). To receive credit, the student must be working on a research project under the supervision of a University of Michigan faculty member. Students may elect the course for 1-4 hours of credit. For each hour of credit, it is expected that the student will work three hours. The grade for the course will be based on a final project report evaluated by the faculty sponsor and on participation in other required UROP sponsored activities, including monthly peer advising sessions, and submission of a journal chronicling the research experience. This course is offered for credit / no credit only. This course is open only to students enrolled in the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program. Note: Biweekly mandatory evening sessions will be required every other Tuesday or Wednesday. Contact the UROP office to sign up for these evening sessions or for further information (747-2768).

441. Global Interdependence. Upperclass standing. (3). (Excl).

This course examines historical, cultural, political, economic and technological factors underlying increasing global interdependence, with a special focus on international economic exchange in different historical periods and cultures. The course is open to upper-level undergraduates and graduate students from throughout the University; there are no other prerequisites for admission. The course coordinator is Prof. Linda Lim of the International Business Department of the School of Business Administration, with funding provided from the Center for International Business Education with a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. The course will feature lectures by professors from different departments who are experts in the particular topics to be studied. Students will be expected to actively discuss readings drawn from different disciplines, and to prepare a series of short papers. There will be a final short-essay exam. No texts will be required; course pack. This course will combine lecture and discussion sessions. The course will meet TuTh 2:30-4. (Lim)

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