Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS).

The course explores the biological basis for variation in human morphology, physiology, and behavior across different modern populations around the world, and through human evolutionary history. Major topics discussed are evolutionary theory, genetics, human adaptation, primate and human behavior, and the human fossil record. No special knowledge is required or assumed. Cost:2 WL:2 (Strassman)

168. First Year Seminar in Primate Field Studies. (3). (NS).

A seminar designed for incoming freshmen. Students will be introduced to science as a mode of inquiry by applying Darwin's theory of natural selection to the behavior of nonhuman primates. Emphasis will be given to long-term field studies of primates in the wild. One three-hour discussion/lecture. Class participation, weekly writing assignments, and a term paper required. (Mitani)

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4). (NS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures, discussion section, laboratory and reading, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual sexual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early adaptive shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology and the changes in physical form that are the consequence of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. The "Eve" theory and other ideas about the origin of races and their development and relationships are discussed in this context. Class participation and discussion are emphasized and there is a required discussion/laboratory section for elaboration of lecture topics and supervised hands-on experience with primate skeletal material and replicas of human fossils. Student evaluations are based on a midterm and final examination, laboratory quizzes, and a laboratory exam. Cost:2 WL:2,4 (Wolpoff)

368/Psych. 437. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order The major focus of the course will be the behavior or prosimians, monkeys and apes in the wild. Special attention will be given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, kinship systems, sexual behavior, vocal communication, competition, and other topics will be described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, and serves as an introduction to Anthropology 369 (Primate Social Relationships) and 568 (Primate Behavioral Ecology. Three lecture hours, and one discussion weekly. Two midterms, a term paper and a final exam. WL:1 (Mitani)

462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

The first part of this course will outline the forces or factors determining the growth rates of human population and especially the role of infectious disease. The second part will emphasize the genetic adaptations due to malaria and then explore the implications of these associations for other genetic variation. The course grade is based on a midterm and final examination. Cost:1 WL:2,3,4 (Livingstone)

468/Psych. 439/Women's Studies 468. Behavioral Biology of Women. One of the following: Anthro. 161, 361, 368, Psych. 430, Biol. 494. (4). (Excl).

See Psychology 439. (Smuts)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS). (This course fulfills the Race or Ethnicity Requirement).

This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. Satisfies diversity requirement. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Section 001:Kottak; Section 150:Peters-Golden)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist primarily of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. Cost:3 WL:4 (Lockwood)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of anthropological archaeology with a general survey of world prehistory. Discussion of method and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in anthropological archaeology. The survey of world prehistory will focus on four major topics: (1) the emergence in Africa of the first proto-humans, between two and six million years ago; (2) the appearance of the first anatomically and behaviorally "modern" humans; (3) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the development of the first village farming communities; and (4) the rise of more complex stratified "state-level" societies. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators. There will be three one-hour lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements: three in-class hourly exams and a final examination, plus 3-4 take-home exercises that give students firsthand experience with the analysis and interpretation of archaeological data. Required readings: ARCHAEOLOGY (1989, 2nd edition), by David Hurst Thomas, plus additional readings to be announced. Cost:3 WL:2 (Sinopoli)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

315. Indians of North America. (4). (SS).

Native American communities, often deeply rooted in traditional places and voices despite relocations and losses of native languages all involve strong family ties and histories of local and regional power struggles. This course allows students to explore in some depth particular Native American cultural traditions emphasizing both the "old ways" and how such ways are interpreted by community members and outsiders. Secondly, we will look at cross cultural dynamics in the fields of political encounter between various Native American peoples and various others: developers, environmentalists, educators, other governmental authorities, poets, and social scientists, to name a few. Key issues include family relations, alcoholism, land rights, and freedom of religion. A recurrent question: what are the limits and possibilities of self-definition for Native American peoples, in what circumstances? Finally, we look at contemporary Native American fiction and non-fiction as cultural forces which challenge Western constructions of who Native American peoples are. Here we use traditional anthropological methods and "postmodern" deconstruction in a questioning manner. How can we understand images and image-makers from different cultural, historical and political positions? Grades will be based on four short papers. (Bierwert)

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (Excl).

This course is open to upperclassmen and graduate students. It covers late traditional and contemporary Chinese society and culture. The focus is on continuities and transformations over the past 200 years. The first half of the term deals with pre-1949 regional and class variations in social organization and cultural practice and includes some discussion of China's minority peoples in addition to the majority Han Chinese population. Among the topics to be discussed are family and marriage, gender roles, economic organization, social stratification, popular religion, and the tensions between local practice and state ideologies. The second half of the term treats the reorganization of Chinese society since 1949, with an emphasis on social and cultural features that have emerged or reemerged since decollectivization in the late 1970s. This is a lecture course with in-class discussion. The readings are drawn from the anthropological and sociological literature, supplemented with readings from popular literature, social history, and rural economics. There is a midterm essay exam and an essay final. Undergraduates have the choice of writing two short critical papers or a longer research paper on a topic of their choice. Graduate students are expected to write either a research paper or a review of a significant segment of the literature on a particular issue. (Diamond)

403. Japanese Society and Culture. Anthro. 101, 222, or any Japan course. (4). (Excl).

This is a multi-media course designed to introduce and explore salient and inter-related themes, patterns, and practices in (mostly post-WWII) Japanese society and culture. Our overall aim is to appreciate the ways in which Japanese women and men, girls and boys (from punks and theater fans to police officers and office workers) construe, construct, communicate, reproduce, create, and resist everyday practices and realities. We will also examine critically parochial stereotypes of Japan, whether they are of Japanese or Euro-American invention. (Robertson)

405. Peoples and Cultures of India. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

Following a survey of the peoples and cultures of South Asia - which will include the Indian sub-continent and Sri Lanka - the course will focus on five culturally salient phenomena: person, family, caste, labor and ethnicity. A course pack in addition to several monographs will constitute the required reading for the course. A paper, a midterm and a final examination will be required of all students. The course will be structured on a lecture-seminar format. Cost:3 WL:3 (Daniel)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, with the emphasis on Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is first looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant and urban. The conceptual and historical relations between these are examined with reference to the writings of Ibn Khaldun and to such events as the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. In the second half of the course some cultural themes are discussed that recur throughout the area: the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from classics such as Doughty and Snouck-Hurgonje, as well as from recent anthropology.

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures, I. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films and videos on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: FOUR 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize READING and LECTURE materials; participation in CLASS discussions; regular class attendance. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

416/Hist. 476. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (3). (SS).

This course surveys the history of the vast region now known as Latin America, from the Spanish and Portuguese invasions beginning in 1492 to the nineteenth-century wars of independence. Our challenge in this course will be to understand this history from an American rather than European point of view. The course will thus focus on the indigenous ("Indian") roots and realities of Latin America; on the disruptions, realignments, and continuities in the major indigenous civilizations of the Americas (Aztec, Maya, Inca) in the course of the three centuries of colonization; and on the creation of peculiarly American societies, including African-American, mestizo, and settler communities, in the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. It will balance chronological (Conquest to Bourbon Reforms), geographical (Peru, Mexico, Central America, Caribbean, New Granada, Brazil), and topical approaches: the shifting uses and definitions of labor and land, race and ethnicity, gender and religion in the colonial context. The method of instruction is lecture and class discussions of assigned readings. Grades will be based on papers and two brief exams. Cost:3 WL:4 (Frye)

422. Ethnography in America. Junior standing, and one course in anthropology or American Culture at the 200 level or above. (3). (Excl).

This course explores American society and culture through ethnographic studies, that is, studies based on long-term participant observation. A central concern of the course is the workings of social class in and through other dimensions of American life: in the domains of race, ethnicity, and gender; in schools and families; in small communities and urban neighborhoods. Because American culture emphasizes social mobility, and because other barriers to mobility (particularly race) have been more visible, class is one of the most hidden features of American society. It can however be teased out through a close reading of ethnographies, as well as of various kinds of cultural productions: films, novels, mass media. While the general question of class will remain constant, the ethnographic focus (whether on schools, families, small communities, etc.) will vary from term to term. Seminar format, one midterm paper and one final paper. Cost:3 WL:4 (Ortner)

442/ABS 440/Hist. 440. Ancient Mesopotamia. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

See Ancient and Biblical Studies 440. (Yoffee)


447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of Homo sapiens. It reviews the theories of Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss and others who have attempted to comprehend that origin and development. The course will trace the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? Is racism, like modernity and its other social problems, a characteristic of civilization? These are some of the questions with which students will wrestle. The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, function and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why is law obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs; women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal, or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers, or three 6-8 page student papers. Lecture/discussion format. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

336. Warfare in Tribal Society. Anthro. 101 or 222 and sophomore standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of warfare (armed conflict) in pre-modern tribal societies drawing on materials from Melanesia, Africa and South America. The social, economic and political factors that elucidate the causes and conduct of tribal warfare are investigated through a comparison of case studies. The general applicability of theories that emphasize resource competition, balance of power, structural predispositions and adequacy of dispute settlement are assessed. Consideration of the conduct of warfare include: diplomacy, alliance, organization, mobilization, strategy, tactics, codes of conduct, casualty rates, territorial consequences, and the motives of participants. Course format consists of lecture and discussion. Course requirements include a class report and a take-home exam (final). This course is designed primarily for undergraduates and should be of particular interest to non-concentrators and concentrators alike. Cost:2 WL:4 (Kelly)

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001: Peoples and Cultures of the Himalayas.
The Himalayan region is a cultural watershed inhabited by descendants of immigrants both from South and Central Asia. It has until recently been one of the least ethnographically known regions of the world. Much of the research in the region has, as a result, been largely descriptive. This course is intended to be a general survey of Himalayan peoples as well as an introduction to current research issues in the area. Lectures will discuss the varieties of ethnic groups in the region (cultural and social variations and similarities), the incorporation of multiple ethnic communities into state societies, ecological issues, and current social change. The course materials will focus largely on Nepal, but students with interests in other Himalayan countries and regions Bhutan, Sikkim, India, Tibet, and Pakistan will have an opportunity to explore their interests through additional reading assignments and other course requirements. The final reading list is currently being developed. Assignments will include a review of a book not covered in class and a term paper. Prerequisites: At least one class in cultural anthropology. Students are strongly recommended to have had exposure to the ways that anthropologists talk about kinship. (Fricke)

Section 002 Language and Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective. This course will introduce students to an anthropological perspective on the relationship between language and gender. We will analyze how language both emerges from and reproduces gender ideologies and gendered practices in all societies. Women and men as gendered subjects communicate (and miscommunicate) with members of their own and the opposite sex; what patterns are visible in their communication styles, what are the causes and consequences of these patterns, and how do their meanings differ across cultures? We will also consider how other aspects of an individual's identity, such as race, ethnicity, class, age, and sexual orientation, articulate with gender in linguistic interactions. Students will be required to complete three exercises, all of which involve linguistic analysis and the writing of essays. In these exercises, as well as in the midterm and final exams, emphasis will be placed on the ability to write clearly and concisely. Students will engage in small-group work during class and will be expected to participate in class discussions. (Ahearn)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course is primarily concerned with the nature of religion and, secondarily, with religion's place in the human mode of adaptation. Using comparative ethnographic materials drawn from both tribal and complex societies it seeks to illuminate universal aspects of such concepts as the sacred, the numinous, the divine and the holy and to show how these concepts are generated in ritual. In the last part of the course the place of religion in the adaptations of particular societies will be considered and the ways in which it can become maladaptive will be approached. Grades will be based on two take-home essays of 1500-2500 words, one given at midterm the other final. Junior standing or permission of instructor required. The class is usually 1/4 1/3 Grad student 1/4 3/4 Undergrad. Undergrads can join a voluntary discussion group (Hrs to be arranged) for an additional credit hour. WL:2 (Rappaport)

451/CAAS 459. African-American Religion. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the nature of religion in the lives of humans, within the framework of culture, and as a pervasive social institution. It will focus on the special case of the intensive and involved character of religion in the history and the lives of Afro-Americans. These special uses of religion create special problems. We will analyze those problems. The course is open to all students and it requires no special background or preparation. There will be two examinations and two short written assignments. Class participation and attendance are required. The required texts are: Afro-American Religious History, M.Sernett; Community in a Black Pentecostal Church: An Anthropological Study, M.D. Williams; The Human Dilemma, M.D. Williams. The course objectives are to: (1) Introduce the subject of religion as a social institution, as a pervasive component of culture, and as a contemporary adjustment and adaptation to peculiar social problems, (2) Demonstrate how an anthropological analysis can be used to understand religion in contemporary society, (3) Develop skills in critical thinking and analysis, (4) Present the relationship between culture, institutions, religion, subculture, and the nature of man (humans), and (5) Enable students to understand the religious institutions of humans generally and Afro-Americans specifically. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Cuba and its Diaspora.
This course examines Cuban history, literature, and culture since the Revolution both on the island and in the United States diaspora. In political and cultural essays, in personal narratives, in fiction, poetry, drama, visual artworks, and film, we will seek a comprehensive and diverse view of how Cubans and Cuban-Americans understand their situation as people of the same nation divided for thirty-five years by an iron wall of political differences. Topics to be considered include Afrocuban culture, changing gender conceptions, everyday life under communism, and the construction of exile identity. We will read works by Alejo Carpentier, Fidel Castro, Roberto Fernandez Retamar, Louis Perez, Oscar Hijuelos, Reinaldo Arenas, Lourdes Casal, Nancy Morejon, Coco Fusco, Margaret Randall, and Cristina Garcia, among others. There are no prerequisites for this course. Students will be expected to participate actively in class discussions and to do independent research for a final essay. (Behar)

Section 002 Archaeology of South Asia. This course will examine the archaeology and cultural sequence of South Asia (modern Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal). The focus will be geographically and chronologically broad, and will situate understandings of the South Asian past in the context of the history of archaeological research in the region. Issues to be examined include: the arrival of humans in South Asia and Paleolithic lifeways; origins of settled life and agriculture (in Pakistan, South India, Kashmir); origins and organization of complex societies (Indus, Ganges, and Anuradhapura states, Deccani chiefdoms, South Indian iron age); and the impact of large and small scale population movements and cultural contacts. Requirements: 2 essay exams, 2 map exercises, and a research paper. Texts: Chakrabarti: Theoretical Issues in Indian Archaeology; Allchin and Allchin: The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan; Kenoyer: Old Problems and New Perspectives in the Archaeology of South Asia. Cost:3 WL:4 (Sinopoli)

Section 003 Television, Society, and Culture. Television has been compared to a new religion, cultivating homogeneity, uniting adherents in a common set of images and symbols. Television executives, commentators and reporters have become "key gatekeepers" assuming roles played historically by political and religious leaders. TV has been labeled "narcoticizing" and faulted for diverting attention from serious social issues and replacing effective thought and action with passive absorption in portrayals. Television has been said to reinforce existing hierarchies and impede social reform. It also stimulates participation in a worldwide cash economy, and TV's worldwide spread has raised concerns about cultural imperialism. Ethnocentrism is common in the evaluation of television and its effects. Understanding of TV impact can be broadened through a cross-cultural approach to this medium, which, specific content and programming aside, must be recognized as one of the most powerful information disseminators, socializing agents and public-opinion molders in the contemporary world. This seminar will consider cross-cultural diversity in TV and will assess the medium's various social, cultural, and psychological dimensions and effects. Students, who will include seniors, concentrators and graduate students in American Culture, Communication, Anthropology, and other related fields will each investigate an aspect of television. Students will be responsible for attending class, organizing and participating in discussions of particular readings, and presenting, orally to the class and in writing, a term paper based on research concerning some aspect of TV impact. Cost:3 WL:1,3 (Kottak)


473/Ling. 473. Ethnopoetics: Cross-Cultural Approaches to Verbal Art. Two courses in anthropology, linguistics or literature, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 473. (Bierwert)

475. Ethnography of Writing. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Considering genres that range from constitutions to contracts, and from literatures to list, this course looks at writing as a cultural phenomenon. The approach is contextual and historical, situating specific forms of writings in relation to class, gender, and ethnicity, and with respect to pre-colonial, colonial, and nation state settings. While western-modelled and evolutionary approaches are criticised, the tools of a cultural analysis of writing are advanced. This approach draws on recent departures in linguistic anthropology, adapts ideas from literary criticism, and integrates indigenous theories about texts. Ethnographies of writing are anchored in detailed studies set in places such as schools, courts, political arenas, literary circles, and ordinary life. Topics will include the relation of the spoken and the written, script versus print, authors and authority, advents of literacy and colonial writing. (Mesick)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistic 417. (Dworkin)

478/Ling. 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 442. (Milroy)


380/Class. Arch. 380/Hist. of Art 380. Minoan and Mycenaean Archaeology. Class. Arch. 221 and 222, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See Class. Arch. 380. (Cherry)

384. Prehistory of Egypt. (3). (SS).

This course provides an anthropological perspective on the sequence of prehistoric cultures in the Nile Valley from the Lower Stone Age time (100,000 B.C.) until the death of Tutankhamun (ca. 1340 B.C., in the 18th dynasty). It begins with the earliest evidence for humans in Egypt and the Sudan, followed by a description of later Stone Age hunters and gatherers, and the origins of agriculture in the Nile Valley. A discussion of the Predynastic village sequence and the rise of the Egyptian state is followed by lectures on hieroglyphic writing, religion, sociopolitical organization, diet, pyramid building, and mummification. A midterm and final exam provide the basis for the course grade. No prerequisites. However, Anthro 101 recommended. WL:4 (Flannery and Marcus)

385. The Archaeology of Early Humans. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course will introduce students to the many exciting new discoveries in the archaeology of our earliest human ancestors, tracing what we know of human cultural and biological evolution from the first appearance of upright, small-brained, tool-making humans, 2.0 to 2.5 million years ago, to the appearance of fully modern humans in the last 30,000 to 40,000 years. The course will be divided into two segments. The first briefly surveys the techniques and methods used by archaeologists to find ancient archaeological sites, and how they go about studying the fossil human remains, animal bones, and stone tools from these sites to learn about ancient lifeways. This section also looks at how studies of living primates in the wild, such as chimpanzees, as well as modern hunter-gatherers, such as the Bushmen and Australian Aborigines, can help us to interpret the distant past. The second segment of the course turns to the actual archaeological record, looking at some of the most important finds from Africa, Asia, and Europe. In this segment, the course follows the accelerating developmental trajectory of our ancestors from the simplest tool-makers, who lacked any sign of art or religion, to humans much like ourselves, who began to bury their dead with clear displays of ritual and who adorned the walls of their caves and their own bodies with art. The course is oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators in anthropology. Requirements include two in-class hourly exams and a final examination. Required readings: a textbook, to be announced. Cost:2 WL:2 (Speth)

387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (Excl).

Humans have inhabited North America for over 10,000 years. This class surveys the varied adaptations and lifeways of these peoples and explores how and why they changed through time. Because this class seeks to reveal culture history, as determined through archaeology, our coverage will include a discussion of Native American, and European interaction during the 16th through 19th centuries. In general the focus of the course will be on North America north of modern Mexico. It is suggested that students planning to enroll in Anthropology 387 take Introduction to Archaeology, or Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. Instruction will be by lecture supplemented by slides and films. Some artifacts will be used for illustrative purposes. Evaluation will be based on examinations. Cost:2 WL:2 (Speth)

491. Prehistory of the Central Andes. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

The development of precolumbian Andean civilization, from the terminal Pleistocene (c. 13,000 years ago) through the European contact period (16th century A.D.). The major emphasis is on how anthropological archaeologists and ethnohistorians have studied the evolution of increasingly complex organization after c. 2500 B.C., from early agricultural village society through the Inca empire in the broad region between central Chile and Colombia. At least one course in introductory anthropology is recommended. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a take-home midterm exam (25%), a take-home final exam (50%), and a 10-page ten paper (25%). There is no textbook, but a course pack of journal articles will be assembled. Instruction is primarily lecture, but in-class discussion is encouraged. Cost:2 WL:1 (Parsons)

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration adviser.
Section 001- Honors Ethnology.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week in seminar to read and discuss a selection of significant monographs and papers in ethnology, and a selection of writings on fieldwork methods and research strategies in ethnology. This seminar provides background for the students to define their own senior Honors thesis project. By the end of the term, the students will have decided on a project, and begun preliminary work on it. In consultation with the Honors advisor the student may request any member of the Anthropology Department to serve as a main thesis advisor or second reader. In the Winter term, the students will convene periodically in seminar with the Honors advisor to discuss their research projects and get feedback from the group, as well as staying in contact with the Honors advisor and second reader. By the end of the term, each student should have completed the research and write-up for their thesis so that they can make a formal summary presentation of it for the group. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects.

Section 002 Honors Archaeology. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. This seminar provides background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation.

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