Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible, the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. Cost:3 WL:1; you MUST attend the first discussion section to claim your place in the course.

101. Biology and Human Affairs. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS).

This course is an introduction to those aspects of biology that have direct applicability to the lives of people in today's world. It covers current controversies within biology, especially as they relate to human life and human affairs. Topics discussed include IQ and genetics, sex roles, agriculture, world hunger, and the environment. Background information is given for each topic, but the emphasis is placed on the controversies and the role of science in human affairs. In addition to the two lectures per week, there is a two-hour discussion period in which the topics are further explored and films are frequently shown. Cost:3 WL:1

102. Practical Botany. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS).

Practical Botany is an introductory course in learning how to grow and use plants. Students will learn how to grow, identify, propagate, and take care of many different useful plants both common and exotic ones. The major topics in lecture and laboratory include wine, mead, and beer making; plant propagation by cuttings, and other vegetative means (runners, bulbs, corms, offsets, divisions, underground stems, and plant tissue culture or micropropagation); breaking seed dormancy, and seed germination; forcing spring corms and bulbs into flower indoors; edible wild plants; natural plant dyes and dyeing wool; fall vegetable gardening, organic gardening and composting; alternative means of pest control; plant pruning, including bonsai; landscaping around the home; how to make hanging baskets and terrariums; drying and use of plants for crafts; flower and fruit types and structure as related to pollination and plant breeding; construction of solar greenhouses and coldframes; herbs and their uses. Hands-on work by the students is a major part of this course. There are several field trips which emphasize ecology, edible wild plants, and poisonous and medicinal plants, as well as a visit to Peter and Hazel Kaufman's farm at Dexter, MI. Guest lecturer, Jim Quinn, will tell us in lecture about Willow Run Farms at Belleville, MI, where herbs are grown hydroponically in greenhouses heated with methane obtained from the Wayne county garbage dump as "bio-gas." One of the highlights of the course is a natural and edible wild foods banquet which the students prepare. There are two lectures and one four-hour discussion/lab period per week. The labs are held at the Botanical Gardens (free bus transportation is provided). Required book is PRACTICAL BOTANY by Peter Kaufman et al, available as a course pack (book now out-of-print). Cost:2 WL:3; sign up at 4103B Nat Sci. (Kaufman)

130. Animal Behavior. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (3). (NS).

The course is an introduction to the behavior of animals in their natural environment. Social behavior of birds, mammals, and insects is emphasized. Topics include: the environment as animals perceive it, natural selection and adaptations, development of behavior, communication, sexual cooperation and mate choice, social behavior of animals in groups, the importance of family relationships, and the evolution of traditions. The course objectives are to gain a background in the natural behavior of animals and to explain the evolution of behavior. By the end of the course you should be able to: 1) evaluate the evidence that behavior is shaped by natural selection, 2) recognize the interaction between environmental modification and genetic determination, and 3) explain sexual behavior, aggressive behavior, and social interactions in terms of evolution. The course consists of lectures, readings, slides and movies. Grades are based on two midterms, and a final exam; exams are multiple choice. Texts: The Selfish Gene (rev. ed., R. Dawkins) and Animal Behavior, an Evolutionary Approach (5th ed., J. Alcock). Cost:2 WL:1 (Payne)

140. Genetics and Society. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS)

This course is designed for students not concentrating in the sciences. The course will provide students with a background in genetics, 1) to allow them to understand and appreciate some of the latest developments in genetics reported in the local and national press, 2) to discuss the social history of the field of genetics, 3) to introduce students to "the scientific method" as applied to genetics, and finally 4) to discuss aspects of genetics which have a bearing on our everyday lives. Topics to be discussed will include, but not be limited to (in no particular order): genetics, race and IQ; forensic applications of genetic fingerprinting; gene therapy; recombinant DNA technology and possible environmental concerns, T.D. Lysenko and the communist ideal, the human genome project, genetic diseases and therapeutic abortion. The course will meet three times a week, and two hours will be devoted to discussion. Course evaluation will be based on exams (consisting mainly of questions requiring short essay answers) and one or more term papers. Cost:1 WL:1 (Adams)

152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130 or the equivalent, or Chemistry 210 placement. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. Those with credit for Biol. 100 are advised to elect Biol. 195. (4). (NS).

First term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology, other science programs or preprof studies. Other suitably prepared students wishing detailed coverage of biology are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are: (1) to provide factual and conceptual knowledge, (2) to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological hypotheses, (3) to give an integrated overview of modern biology and (4) to develop thinking and writing skills. Topics in Biology 152 are divided among four areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology, (b) genetics, (c) evolution, and (d) ecology. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. There are usually two midterm exams and a final exam. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 002 of Biology 152 and ANY lab/disc, plus Biology 153 (see below). For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem.

153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 152 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl).

Biology 153 is a one-credit discussion course that is meant to be taken concurrently with Biology 152, a four-credit lecture/lab course. Biology 153 is a reading/discussion course designed to introduce elements of current ecological and evolutionary thinking. Topics that may be covered include issues such as the nature of adaptation and adaptationist thinking, the units of natural selection, human evolution, issues in sociobiology, biodiversity and the "biodiversity crisis", global climate change, and the ecological basis of conservation biology and resource management. Throughout emphasis will be placed on the nature of science and the scientific method. Weekly reading assignments provide the basis for discussion. Students are expected to participate in discussions and a term paper is required. Open only to students admitted to the LS&A Honors program. To accompany Biology 152. Cost:1 WL:1 (Werner)

154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS).

This course is a continuation of Biology 152, and covers the following topics: (a) plant biology; (b) development; (c) animal structure and function; and (d) animal behavior. The aims and format are the same as those for Biology 152. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. There are usually 2 midterm exams and a final exam. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 031 of Biology 154 and ANY lab/disc. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem.

155. Introductory Biology Honors: Term B. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 154 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 10 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl).

This course will focus on physiology because it helps achieve an important educational goal to frame questions that can be answered. Of course, to explore a physiological function we will need to describe a structure's anatomy and to think about its evolutionary significance. This is one of biology's revered triads: structure function adaptive significance. We will travel to the edge of the information frontier in at least one biological area to get the feeling that comes when you know what the experts know. During the term we will have an opportunity to apply biological information to several issues in ethics, medicine and human behavior. Throughout we will practice writing and speaking skills, both better informing the minds and stirring the hearts of our listeners and readers. Permission of instructor or admission to the College Honors Program required. To accompany Biology 154. Cost:2 WL:1

206/Micro. 291. Microbiology Laboratory. Micro. 101 or Biol. 152-154 or 195; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The course consists of a one-hour lecture and two 3-hour laboratory sessions each week. The first six lectures trace the history of microbiology; the remaining lectures are devoted to malaria, plague, tuberculosis, influenza, and AIDS. The laboratory sessions introduce microscopy, aseptic technique, staining, and the culture and identification of microbes. Medically important bacteria are given emphasis. Grades are based on two lecture exams, a lab grant proposal, and the identification of unknown bacteria. The course is required in the Microbiology concentration program, and is appropriate for concentrations in Biology, Botany and Cell Biology. Cost:3 WL:1 (Mann)

209. Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (3). (Excl).

This course is offered for students intending to concentrate in botany and related sciences. It is a required course in the botany concentration program, satisfies the physiology requirement of the biology concentration program, and serves as an elective in other concentrations. The content of the course material falls into three sequential parts: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzyme action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, lipid metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism; (2) cellular and internal transport, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, cell water relations, plant water relations, and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development in which a variety of factors that influence plant growth and development, such as hormones, light, photoperiodism, and temperature are discussed. The lectures serve as the major source of information, and are intended to introduce the basic concepts and mechanisms that underlie plant functions.

Six exams; two exams per part; take-home format. Students must purchase the assigned textbook and a course pack. Because of the highly empirical nature of plant physiology, students are recommended to take the laboratory (Biol. 210) with this course. This course is offered ONLY in the Fall term. Cost:3 WL:3 (Ikuma)

210. Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 209. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This laboratory course is offered to supplement and complement the plant physiology lectures (Biol. 209), and the laboratory exercises are organized to follow closely the three main sequential parts covered in lecture: i.e., (1) plant cell physiology, (2) cellular and internal transport, and (3) plant growth and development. Plant physiology is a highly empirical science. The lab exercises are designed to have students experience representative experiments in each of the three parts and learn a variety of experimental approaches used in modern plant physiology. This course serves as one of the three lab courses required in the biology concentration program. Offered only in the Fall. Cost:1 WL:3 (Ikuma)

224. Biology of Cancer. One term of introductory biology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS).

The Biology of Cancer is a lecture/discussion course designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the biological events associated with the formation of cancer. This course is organized around three fundamental questions: what is cancer, what are the causes of cancer, and can cancer be cured or prevented? Lectures will include descriptions of classical and recent experiments which address these questions, and will also provide students with the vocabulary and background needed to critically read and evaluate technical literature dealing with the subject of cancer. Although introductory biology is a prerequisite for this course, an attempt will be made to accommodate the needs and interests of students of varying backgrounds, including non-biology majors. Student performance will be evaluated by a combination of exams and a term paper based upon library research. In order to provide the time required for this library research, the lecture-discussion meetings will be dismissed for approximately two weeks late in the term. There will be no assigned textbook, but some reading will be assigned from the course pack and there will be an extensive reserve list of relevant books available in the Undergraduate Library. The class will meet twice a week for an hour and a half; in general, meetings will consist of a one hour lecture followed by questions and discussion. A weekly one hour discussion session will also be held. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kleinsmith)

304. The Gene Concept. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305, and admission to the College Honors Program. (2). (Excl).

Designed for Honors' students concurrently enrolled in Biology 305, or those with a particular interest in genetics. The students will be exposed to the theoretical basis of genetics in a discussion format. "Classical" articles that contributed to our understanding of gene transmission, structure and function will be read and discussed with the students. The instructor will provide background for each grouping of articles. Pairs of students will be responsible for leading discussion of assigned articles. Active participation of all students is expected. In addition, time will be set aside for discussion of relevant current topics from the media, ethical considerations, and other issues bearing on the process of genetic research. A term paper on "The Gene Concept" will be required a preliminary draft by the 10th week and a revised draft by the last day of classes. A course pack will need to be purchased. Cost:1 WL:1 (S. Allen)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent).Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for students who are concentrating in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and problem sets covered in the discussion sections. Cost:2 WL:1 (Pichersky and Schiefelbein)

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course provides students with laboratory experience on basic genetic principles. Students should have already taken or be concurrently taking the 305 Genetics lecture course. The first half of the course is devoted to genetic analysis in Drosophila by a series of crosses and in Sordaria (a fungus) by ordered tetrad analysis. Students will analyse the linkage relationship and mapping of unknown mutants of Drosophila. The experiments in microbial genetics during the second half of the course include mapping by conjugation in E. coli, transduction experiments using bacteria and phage, and complementation experiments for studying gene as a unit of function using different "his" mutants of yeast. One hour lecture on Mondays 12-1 PM and one three-hour lab are scheduled each week; additional 3-4 hours of lab time per week is expected at irregular times. Students are expected to write four lab reports and to keep a complete and accurate record of all results and analyses in a bound lab notebook. There are 2 tests given during the term. Cost:1 WL:1 (Jeyabalan)

310. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311 or Biol. Chem. 415. (3). (Excl).

Introductory Biochemistry is designed to be a general introduction to the chemistry of biological systems. This course will furnish basic information concerning the organization of chemical reactions in cells and will include information on the enzymes that catalyze these reactions as well as on the interactions between different pathways. Topics covered include: amino acid structure and nomenclature, protein structure and function, enzyme kinetics, intermediary metabolism as well as some "system" based information such as the molecular basis for muscle contraction. This is a lecture based course, the final grade is based on three in-class exams and a final. Cost:3 WL:1 (Ocorr)

311(411). Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent); and Math. 113 or 115; and organic chemistry and physics. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol 310 or Biol. Chem. 415. (4). (Excl).

This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's. Upon attaining mastery, the student takes both a written and an oral quiz which is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed and performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 75-80 hours/week. Cost:3 WL:1 (Osgood)

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; Chem. 215 or equivalent. Not open to students who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 427 or 428. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course provides (1) understanding of basic functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, (2) detailed appreciation of the evidence that has established our current understanding, (3) through study of how evidence is used, inferences about how science works, and (4) awareness of how cellular and molecular biology contribute to human affairs. Interdependence of intracellular structure and function is stressed, along with efforts to phrase explanations in molecular and evolutionary terms. Course content includes: introduction to cell functions and diversity; membrane structure and function; organelle function and biogenesis; properties of cell surfaces; intracellular transport; secretion; cell cycle and division; cytoskeleton; and methods for study of cell function. The aim is to provide a selected background in cellular and molecular biology for biology concentrators and others. Most students enrolling have a strong foundation in biology, and have completed either genetics or biochemistry. For more detailed treatment, students should take Biology 427 or 428. There is a textbook; purchase is optional, but recommended. Recommended readings are on reserve in UGL. Exams include questions which require interpretation of data, formulation or test of hypotheses, and interpretation of experiments. Students whose introductory biology course lacked contents of Biol. 152-154 or 195 may have greater difficulty with this course, but any difficulty can be overcome via study of biochemistry and genetics. Cost:3 WL:1 (Shappirio, 764-1491)

336. Introductory Immunology. Biol. 152 and 154 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is intended to introduce pre-professional and biology concentrators to the experimental and theoretical principles of immunology. Topics covered will include a detailed study of the organs, cells and molecules that constitute the immune system; the humoral and cellular immune responses; antibodies as biological and biomedical research tools; and the role of the immune system in organ transplants, cancer and AIDS. Grades are based on weekly quizzes, two exams and a term paper on an approved topic. The course is appropriate for concentrations in biology, microbiology, and cell and molecular biology. Cost:3 WL:1 (Mann)

341. Parasitology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent). (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course concentrates on the biology of animal/animal interactions including parasitism, commensalism and mutualism. The focus is primarily evolutionary and ecological, with emphasis on the origins and development of such associations. The organismal approach will be stressed in studies of Protozoa, various helminth groups and arthropods, with examples including parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Discussions of host-parasite interactions will include co-evolutionary perspectives as well as traditional approaches. No specific background other than introductory biology is required, although courses in ecology and evolutionary biology will be helpful. Students will be evaluated on the basis of two hour-exams, a lecture final, a term paper, laboratory quizzes and a practical examination. This course consists of three lectures and one lab weekly. Cost:3 WL:3 (OConnor)

351. Vertebrate Biology and Structure. Biol. 152-154 or 195; or the equivalent. (7). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The course has multiple aims. The dissection in the laboratory introduces the student to the structural pattern, mainly of shark and cat, but also of a series of other vertebrates. It is intended to lead to a comparative understanding of the roles and evolution of structures in the major functional systems of protochordates and vertebrates. Lectures are designed to put these structural observations into a broad perspective by focusing on the function, origin, and evolution of chordate structures, with particular emphasis on those of vertebrates. The laboratory also includes demonstrations, film presentations, and a visit to the Natural History Museum. Cost:3-4 WL:1

355/Nat. Res. 337. Woody Plants I: Biology and Identification. Biology 152 or 195 or equivalent. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Woody plants are studied in their natural ecosystems including upland (oak-hickory, beech-sugar maple, lake plain), wetland (swamp, bog), and floodplain forests. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in the Saginaw Forest, Stinchfield Woods, Nichols Arboretum, and main campus. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology; woody plant biology, ecology, and diversity; variation and genetics; systematics of woody plants; ornamental plants; and winter conditions. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., China, and the tropics. Field trips are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 once a week. Michigan Trees (Barnes and Wagner) is the required textbook. Lecture material is based on the book, Forest Ecology (Spurr and Barnes). Grading is based on 60% on plant identification (field quizzes and exams and indoor identification exams); 40% on lecture material (two hour-exams). Cost:1 WL:2, at SNRE Office of Academic Programs, 1024 Dana. (Barnes and Wagner)

380. Oceanography: Marine Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or equivalent and at least one term of college chemistry or physics, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Marine ecology is a study of the organisms and processes of the ocean, including both pelagic and benthic communities. This course teaches biological aspects of oceanography at the organism level, and also applies ecological and evolutionary principles to the study of marine life. Lectures will introduce the major groups of marine organisms and will cover the interrelationships of marine organisms and their environments. Organisms and communities from the following habitats will be discussed: estuaries, the rocky intertidal, coral reefs, the coastal zone, the deep sea and the open ocean. The course will treat organisms as different as bacteria and whales. Fulfills the undergrad Biology concentration requirements for a course in Biological Evolution and Diversity, and is required for the Marine Biology option of the undergrad Oceanography concentration. Grading will be based on two one-hour exams plus a comprehensive final. Cost:2 WL:1 (Kling and Lehman)

381. General Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. (6). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the role of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, dynamics of single species populations, competitive, predator-prey, and mutualistic interactions, community organization, ecological succession, evolutionary aspects of ecology, and current applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 381 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There are three lectures a week and one discussion period. The laboratory meets one day a week for four hours at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, 1800 Dixboro Road. Field trips to outlying study areas are included. Free bus transportation between the Main Campus and the Botanical Gardens is provided. An independent project, several laboratory reports and two one-hour exams, plus a final examination, constitute the main basis of evaluation. Cost:3 WL:1 (Rathcke and Werner)

390. Evolution. Biology 152-154 or the equivalent. (4 in Ann Arbor; 5 at Biol. Station). (Excl).

This lecture course covers the fundamentals of evolutionary biology with a focus on living organisms. It includes a historical survey of the development of evolutionary theory from ancient philosophers to the present, and critical examination of phylogenetic systematics, natural selection, population genetics, molecular evolution, microevolution, and macroevolution. Weekly discussions will focus on primary literature. Two midterm tests and one cumulative final exam will test students' knowledge of lecture material. Writing assignment(s) based on readings from the primary scientific literature will be required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Tucker)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 311 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as TA's for Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 311). Each TA provides two mastery level questions for each course unit (30 total) from which the instructor constructs the final examination and midterm examination for Biology 311. TA's meet with the instructor for a two-hour class each week for lectures, presentations, and discussions of teaching and biochemistry. TA's also prepare a report on a recent advance in biochemistry which they present to their peers and the instructor. The major roles of the TA's are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the student requiring explanation supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and TA grade the quiz together. TA's learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. Cost:1 WL:3 (Osgood)

418. Endocrinology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. (3). (Excl).

This course is a comparative study of animal endocrine functions with emphasis on the evolution of hormones and hormonal control, the cellular origin and chemical nature of hormones, their physiological actions in organisms and the biochemical mechanisms of hormone action. The course will concentrate on the endocrine systems of vertebrates. Individuals interested in the human or clinical aspects of hormones would be better served by any of several courses offered by various units of the Medical School. Instruction in Biology 418 assumes a basic familiarity with General and Comparative Physiology. Training in chemistry through organic is essential and a course in biochemistry would be helpful. Cost:4 WL:1 (Denver)

422/Anatomy 422. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent), one year of physics, prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry. (3). (Excl).

This course deals primarily with the properties of individual nerve cells, and small groups of nerve cells. This provides the basis for understanding the processing of information by the nervous system, the mechanisms underlying learning and memory, and the biological basis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Topics to be covered include the cell biology of neurons and glia, the generation of electrical potentials, the transmission of information between cells, and the cellular basis of simple forms of learning. Considerable emphasis will be placed on understanding the molecules that endow the nervous system with these properties. In combination with Biology 425 this course represents a comprehensive introduction to neuroscience. Cost:3 WL:1 (Bodmer and Kuwada)

427. Molecular Biology. Biology 305 and Biology 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or equivalents. (4). (Excl).

Comprehensive coverage of the general principles governing the structures, synthesis, and functions of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the context of the cell. Emphasizes understanding methods and interpretation of data. Topics include DNA replication and transposition, chromosome incompatibility and segregation, transcription and translation, the processing of macromolecules, signal transfer, and regulation at various levels. Three lectures per week are supplemented by a 1.5 hour discussion section. There will be two examinations during the term and a final. Cost:4 WL:1 (Helling)

440/Nat. Res. 422. Biology of Fishes. 12 credits in biological courses. (3). (Excl).

Lectures cover many aspects of the biology of lower vertebrates known as fishes, including evolution, physiology, functional morphology, phylogeny, biogeography, ecology, and reproduction. The systematic position of fish among vertebrates is discussed and exemplary assemblages examined. Special attention is given to the effect of the physical properties of water on form, function, and modes of life of fishes. Evaluation of students is based on two take-home exams, a cumulative closed-book final exam, and class participation. All exams emphasize essay questions that will require a synthesis of class material, and logic examination of novel problems. Take-home exams may include numerical problems. (Taught by Webb in 1994; Fink in 1995). An optional lab (one credit) examines field methods, classification and identification of Michigan fishes. Cost:3 WL:4 (Webb and Smith)

458. Biology of the Algae. Biol. 152 or 195, or the equivalent, or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (5). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course studies the very diverse group of plants and photosynthetic protistans collectively known as "the algae," which includes the prokaryotic blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) and the eukaryotic green, golden, yellow-green, brown, and red algae as well as well as the euglenoids, dinoflagellates, and cryptomonads. The framework of the course is a systematic orientation, examining representative examples from the various algal groups, mostly from living material but also from prepared slides and preserved specimens. It treats both freshwater and marine types and includes identification, structure, reproduction, ecology, and stresses the interrelationships among the algae. A comparative approach is followed. The use of algae as research tools is stressed, where appropriate. Two lectures and two laboratory sessions per week are scheduled, and two field trips are planned. Text: Introduction to the Algae, Bold and Wynne, Prentice-Hall, 1985, 2nd edition. Cost:3 WL:3 (Wynne)

459. Systematic Botany. Biol. 152-154 or 195, (or the equivalent), or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Plant biodiversity taught with lectures, color projection slides, trips, specimens, living plants, and laboratories. Emphasis at level of orders, families, and genera, temperate and tropical, to familiarize students with all parts of the world. Focuses mainly on flowering plants but also gymnosperms and pteridophytes. Phylogeny provides the framework: Hypothetical ancestors and different lines are analyzed, e.g., pinks (Caryophyllidae), roses (Rosidae), trees (Hamamelidae), lilies (Liliidae) etc. Subjects like habitats, endangered species, geography, biosystematics, cladistics, floral biology are given special lectures. Plant biosystematics is essential to botanists but the course is needed also by conservationists, ecologists, zoologists, foresters, and ethnobotanists. Some students take the course simply because they enjoy plants. Two midterms, a final, and lab quizzes. Text: Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants, A. Cronquist, N.Y. Bot. Gard., 1988. Cost:2 WL:1 (Wagner)

461. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants. Biol. 154 or 255; or permission of instructor. (5). (Excl).

The course explores the evolutionary relationships of vascular plants through their morphology, anatomy and life cycles. Lectures will examine the characters used to determine evolutionary relationships among the major groups of vascular plants, both extant and extinct. Major groups covered are mosses, ferns, seed ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Laboratory sessions will familiarize participants with interpreting vegetative and reproductive organs in each group. Two lecture exams, two lab exams, one term paper. Cost:2 WL:3 (Burnham)

480. Mathematical Analogies in Evolutionary Biology. Two courses in biology; and Math. 116 or the equivalent. (4). (Excl).

This course is intended for seniors and graduate students with a serious interest in practicing research in natural history in the broadest sense, who would like to understand more about how to apply quantitative methods to describe nature, to formulate theory, and to test theory with experimental data. Knowledge of mathematics is not essential, but a strong desire (and some talent) to grapple with mathematical concepts will contribute to success. In lectures, ideas are presented and elaborated with examples and intuitive arguments. In lab/discussion section, applications of mathematical concepts are practiced using student participation, discussions of published articles, and computer programs. A term project provides each student with the opportunity to apply, in accordance with interest and strength of background, a quantitative method to an area in his/her research interest. All students are expected to do well. Please contact the professor during Spring, 1994, (using campus mail, c/o Biology, 1120 Nat Sci, zip 1048; or via e-mail @UM) to make an appointment to discuss your potential interest. Cost:1 WL:See professor; unlikely to close. (Estabrook)

489/Nat. Res. 430. Soil Properties and Processes. Introductory biology and chemistry. (3). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Soil as a central component of terrestrial ecosystems, with a particular emphasis on physical, chemical, microbiological processes as they are related to plant growth. Quantitative analysis and interpretation of field and laboratory data are stressed throughout the course. Temperate forest ecosystems are the primary focus of the course; however, numerous examples are drawn from boreal, temperate, and tropical ecosystems. Knowledge of plant ecology is beneficial and prerequisites include introductory biology and chemistry. Cost:4 WL:2 (Zak)

491. Principles of Systematics. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Biology 491 focuses on cladistics, the most widely accepted approach used to discover species history. All aspects of phylogenetic inference, the philosophical, theoretical and methodological, are reviewed in lecture. Major topics include parsimony, species concepts and speciation, monophyletic taxonomy, vicariance biogeography and conservation, adaptation, and coevolution. In the laboratory-discussion section of the course, relevant microcomputer algorithms are used to test hypotheses from the original literature. There are three essay (take-home) examinations, five laboratory exercises, a term paper, and an oral presentation of the term paper topic. There is no required text; however, all of the many handouts and the original literature that is reviewed constitute the required course pack. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kluge)

494. Evolution and Human Behavior. Introductory biology and upperclass standing. (4). (Excl).

This course explores the sense in which human behavior can appropriately be viewed as an outcome of the process of organic evolution, and the consequences of this proposition. The principles of modern evolutionary theory are discussed with special reference to their significance for topics like sexuality, mate choice and pair bonds, parental care, nepotism, social reciprocity, and senescence and the life pattern. Emphasis is on evolutionary process rather than pattern, thus on natural selection and how it works; but the course begins with lectures on the pattern of evolution of hominids and the historical geography of humans. Theories of cultural change and learning are discussed, and efforts are made to relate cultural patterns and findings of the social sciences to the human background in biological evolution. A special effort is made to consider difficult topics such as music, art, humor, ethics, and morality. Discussion sections are oriented toward animal behavior to complement the lectures and broad the course. Cost:2-4 WL:3, course does not close. (Alexander)

499. Dynamic Systems in Population and Community Ecology. A course in calculus and a course in ecology. (3). (Excl).

This course will first cover classical notions of dynamic systems theory (e.g., Rayleigh's model of musical instruments, Duffing's non-linear oscillator, the Van der Pol oscillator, Poincare's three-bodied problem) and elementary notions of dynamic systems in ecology (Lotka-Volterra-style equations of predation, competition, and mutualism, 1-D models of logistic and higher order maps). Second, the course will explore the more recent developments in dynamics, as applied to population and community ecology. Some of the topics include chaotic behavior of 1-D maps, strange attractors and chaotic behavior in classical systems, new analytical techniques for analyzing experimental data (e.g., Poincare sections, Lyapunov exponents), pattern in chaotic systems. Each student is expected to develop a model of an ecological system and explore whatever complicated dynamics are contained therein. Cost:1 WL:1 (Vandermeer)

515. Molecular Biology of Plants. Biol. 305, and 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces students to molecular processes in plant growth, development and function. Topics to be covered will include biogenesis of organelles, environmental sensing (biological clocks) and signal transduction. The format of the course includes lectures and discussion, as well as student presentations. The course is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Grades will be determined by two take-home exams and student participation in class. (Yocum and Olsen)

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