Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

A survey of European civilization its politics, institutions, intellectual life, economic development, and social change from the fall of Rome to the Thirty Years War and the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century. A textbook will provide a basic chronology, and a series of weekly readings in primary sources will give students some familiarity with the actual authors of the ideas and events that make up this history. Two lectures a week will focus on the central interpretive problems of each historical period. Two section meetings a week will be devoted to discussion with active participation by students of the assigned reading. There may be occasional quizzes. There will be three short essays on the assigned reading, a midterm, and a final. Emphasis is placed on learning methods of historical analysis and interpretation, not on rote memorization, but one goal of the course is to give students a general sense of the development of western culture in these centuries. (Tentler)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

This is an introduction to the civilizations of China, Japan, Korea, and Inner Asia. It aims to provide an overview of changing traditions from ancient to early modern times (ca. 1660 AD) by outlining broad trends which not only transformed each society, economy, and culture but also led to the development of this region into distinctly different modern nations. The development of state Confucianism, the spread of Buddhism, the functions of the scholar and the warrior, the impact of the military empires of Inner Asia, and the superiority of pre-modern Asian science and technology are some of the topics we will cover. In addition to the required textbooks, we will read contemporary accounts and view slides and films to acquire intimate appreciation of these cultures. Course requirements include successful completion of: quizzes given in sections; four major tests given in class on October 3 and 25, November 15, and December 8; one report/project (5 pp. plus bibliography and notes). Cost:2 WL:3 (Forage)

151/University Courses 172/Asian Studies 111. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

This course is an introduction to South Asian Civilization, which means that it will provide glimpses of the depth and complexity of the history and culture of "India" (which today consists of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka). The course will cover the Indus Valley Civilization, the Vedic Age, early Indian empires, medieval social transformations and the Mughal empire, British colonial conquest and rule and Indian nationalist social and political protest, as well as aspects of contemporary society, culture, and politics in postcolonial South Asia. The course will review this historical canvas in terms of the ways history and culture have become, indeed have always been, mixed up with politics in South Asian Civilization; thus we will use the contemporary politics and predicaments of South Asia as the basis for considering the meanings and politics of history itself. Course requirements include three short papers, a map quiz, and a final exam. (Dirks)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This course deals with the history of the part of North America that became the United States, from before European contact to the end of the American Civil War. Focal points are the interaction of native, European, and African people; the emergence of political structures and cultural patterns under British colonial rule; the nature and impact of the American Revolution; and the origins and nature of the Civil War. Two lectures and two discussion sections each week, at least one essay, one hour examination, and a two-hour final examination will emphasize the problems of explaining and understanding this formative period of American society. A comprehensive textbook plus extensive reading in primary evidence (eyewitness accounts), from Cotton Mather to Abraham Lincoln, provide the basis for study of the period. WL:2 (Shy)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 is designed to trace via talks, discussion sections and books America's history from 1865 to the present. The course will attempt to offer, with consistency, an analytical framework of usefulness to those trying to comprehend American society. Its principal themes will be those of small-town America and its ideological persistence; the rise of an opposing set of values embodied in bureaucratic institutions; and the continuing tension between local and national values in such issues as race, religion, women's rights, foreign policy, government regulation, etc. The talks and a significant number of the books will also attempt to convey the varieties of personal experience so important to this period. The course will meet four hours each week: two in lecture and two in a discussion section. Tentative marking requirements include a short paper, a one-hour midterm examination and a two-hour final examination. There are no history course prerequisites for History 161. (Linderman)

170/American Culture 170/University Courses 170/Women's Studies 210. Histories of "Witchcraft." First-year students only. (4). (Introductory Composition).

See American Culture 170. (Du Puis)

197. Freshman Seminar. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 European Thought in the 19th and 20th Centuries.
The topics to be considered will include, among others: Romanticism; Liberalism (its defenders and detractors); Nationalism; Intellectuals and Cultural Crises. It is recommended that students have a background in modern European history. The course will be conducted through lecture and discussion with papers and examinations required. Texts will include source material and contemporary responses to historical events. The purpose of the course will be to familiarize students with certain of the major cultural and political movements prominent in Europe during the past two centuries. Cost:3 WL:2 (Becker)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. There are two hour examinations (an optional paper may be written for extra credit) plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading. Cost:2 WL:1 (Humphreys)

210/MARC 210. Early Middle Ages, 300-1100. (3). (SS).

This course will survey the formation of Western European culture from late antiquity to the tenth century. It is intended as a broad introduction to the period and will trace demographic and economic decline and growth, changing social forms, and the development of European political, legal, and religious institutions. We will also examine early medieval culture, including popular religious life saints, relics and pilgrimages as well as early science and philosophy and the fine arts. The central theme running through the lectures and readings is the way in which two cultures the pagan culture of the Germanic north and the Christian culture of the Roman south slowly merged into one, creating a new social memory and cultural identity. There will be a midterm and a final examination as well as a short paper. Readings are drawn from both medieval sources (in translation) and the works of their modern interpretors. Although primarily a lecture course, there will be some opportunity for discussion of the readings in class. (Hughes)

214/French 214. Interpretations of French Society and Culture. (3). (Excl).

See French 214. (Spang)

220. Survey of British History to 1688. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the sweep of English history from Roman times until the Glorious Revolution. The first half of it is devoted to the Middle Ages and focuses on the formation of the English monarchy, the role of the church in politics and culture and basic social and economic structures. The second half treats the early modern period (c. 1450-1700) and concentrates on the growth of the state, the Protestant Reformation, the English Revolution and the social and economic changes that followed the Black Death and played themselves out during the reigns of the Tudor and Stuart monarchs. No prior knowledge of English history is assumed in this class, and it is intended to serve as the basis for more advanced work in British history and to provide background and comparisons for courses in English literature and European and American history. (MacDonald)

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (3). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of early Chinese history, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, new views on race and gender in the making of China, intellectual and scientific revolutions in the seventeenth century, and literature and society in premodern China. WL:1 (Chang)

251. Modern China. (3). (SS).

History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of the Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. Cost:2,3 WL:3 (A.Feuerwerker)

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (3). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. The course will study four different historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Native Americans, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries; and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. We will focus on American history, although comparisons will be drawn to other societies. The course is a basic introduction, however, first-year students must obtain permission of the professor to enroll. Classes are taught in lecture format, and will include a variety of audio-visual sources. Reading assignments will range from modern histories to poetry and old medical journals. There will be two essay-style examinations, and frequent short quizzes. This is a challenging and demanding course. Those who miss the first meeting without advance permission will be dropped from the course. Cost:1-4. Required purchases cost $15, but additional required reading assignments, available on reserve or for optional purchase, cost up to $110 additional if bought. WL:4 (Pernick)

285(University Courses 265). Science, Technology, and Society After The Bomb. (3). (HU).

The enterprise of science changed dramatically after WW II, both intellectually and socially. The consequences of being able to split the atom and, more recently, to engineer biological blueprints have made science literally a life and death activity that touches every human. This course will explore the growth and implications of scientific and technological development from the end of WWII to the present. There will be two lectures and one discussion per week. Students will work in small groups on one problem during the term, e.g. energy, pollution, global warming, health care issues. Each group will hand in a jointly written report at the end of term and present a class report. Three or four books will be assigned reading. Students will be expected to make use of the Message System and conferencing. Cost: Under $50 WL:1 (Steneck)

286/Religion 286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (3). (HU).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all majors, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantine's conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic & Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the 11th century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Attention is also given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam and a final are required. (J.Fine)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

318. Imperialism and After: Europe 1890-1945. (4). (SS).
Politics and Society in Modern Europe, 1890-1945.
This course examines social, cultural and political responses to the disruptive forces of industrial development, war, revolution and depression experienced from 1890 to 1945 in both western and eastern European societies. At the heart of the course lie such questions as: Who holds the political power and on what basis have they acquired this power? How are the political systems structured to exclude various social groups (women, ethnic minorities, the working class) and in what ways do the excluded organize to press on these systems? To what extent are 19th century elites able to resist the pressure for change? These questions will shape our approach to the distinctive issues of twentieth century European politics, including: the impact of two world wars on state and society, imperialism and the rise of European nationalist movements, the political mobilization of economically and disadvantaged groups (industrialized workers, women, peasants, disgruntled strata of the middle classes), and the emergence of fascism from the crises of liberalism and capitalism. (Downs)

321. Postwar Britain. Hist. 221 is recommended. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine Britain from the Great Depression, through World War II, the Cold War, the social and political challenges of the 1960s, the Conservative resurgence of the late 1970s, the Falklands war, and the fall of Margaret Thatcher. Special attention will be paid to the experience of war by civilian populations; the development of a "welfare state" and subsequent challenges thereto; Britain's decline as a world power; protest movements; the nuclear disarmament and peace movements from the late 50s/early 60s through the 80s; the influence of American culture on Britain; decolonization and the participation of Asians and Africans in British culture and politics; Welsh and Scottish nationalism; the Northern Ireland question; and on-going political and cultural debates about class, education, the media, sexuality and gender roles, and Britain as a multi-cultural society. Cost:2 WL:4 (Israel)

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

The wars of this century have been important experiences both for American society and for millions of individual Americans. This course examines those wars through literature, histories, films, lectures, and discussions in order to find patterns of change: changes in how America fights wars and changes in the society that results from them. It also examines changes in the personal perceptions of the experience of war: perceptions not only of the combat soldiers but also of the many others affected by wars. Among the readings are Gray, The Warriors, March, Company K, Sledge, With the Old Breed, and O'Brien, The Things They Carried. There will be a midterm and a final exam. Please register for only ONE lecture section and one discussion section. Cost:4 WL:1 (Collier)

368/Amer. Cult. 342/Women's Studies 360. History of the Family in the U.S. (3). (SS).

Perspective on the contemporary American family through study of its development over the course of four centuries. Topics include Western European, African and Native American origins, sex roles, child-rearing, sexuality, work patterns. Emphasis on class, racial, ethnic and regional variations. First semester 1600-1870; second semester 1870-1990. (Morantz-Sanchez)

371/Women's Studies 371. Women in American History Since 1870. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine how social constructions of gender, race, class, and sexuality have shaped women's lives in the U.S. from the Civil War to the present, and how some women have pushed at the boundaries of those constructions through, for example, changing patterns of work, leisure, education, and intimacy; through political activism; through labor organizing; through involvement in a variety of social movements; and through popular culture. We will emphasize the diversity of women's historical experiences by region as well as by social category, and will situate those experiences in the larger contexts of social, economic, and political change on local, national, and even global levels. Requirements include a midterm, a final, and a paper, as well as active participation in discussion sections. Films will be shown. Cost:2 WL:4 (Johnson)

378/Amer. Cult. 314. History of Asian Americans in the U.S. (4). (Excl).

See American Culture 314. (Nomura)

381. History of the Jews from the Moslem Conquests to the Spanish Expulsion. (3). (Excl).

This course will survey major trends in medieval Jewish society under both Islam and western Christendom. Broadly, the course will fall into three parts: the Jews of the Muslim world in the Geonic period, the rise and decline of Spanish Jewry, and the rise and decline of the Jews of northern Europe. It will look at the impact on Jewish society of the Crusades, the Reconquista, the emergence of the mendicant orders, the Black Death, and the Spanish expulsion. It will examine the interaction of Jewish society with the majority culture at various junctures, as well as changing cultural trends within Jewish society. The distinctive religious climate of the medieval period will serve as a unifying theme throughout. Requirements for the course: midterm and final examinations. Cost:2 WL:1 (Bodian)

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Politics and Culture in Weimar and Nazi Germany.
This course aims to acquaint students with the history and historiography of the most perplexing and controversial chapters of German history, the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. We will explore the relations and contradictions between the realm of state/parliament ("high politics") and mass politics, between "high culture" and popular cultural realms during the 1920s and 1930s. We will examine controversies and debates about the collapse of the Weimar Republic, the Nazi seizure of power, the nature of the Nazi state, and the origins of the Holocaust. The class will also discuss the place of Nazism and the Holocaust in the recasting of German national identity in the 1980s and 1990s. Requirements: no examinations; series of short papers and one long paper (15-20 pages) at the end of the term. A basic familiarity with the historical events of these periods is required. This course is highly recommended for students who have taken History 521, History 386, History 318, History 111 or comparable courses. History concentrators still in need of an ECB colloquium have priority in enrollment. Enrollment limited to 15. Permission of instructor required and may be obtained during office hrs. (Mon. 1:30-3:30; 4044 MLB). Cost:4 WL:3,2 (Canning)

Section 002 Law And Society in American History. This course deals with several major themes in American legal history from the Colonial period to the early twentieth century. The themes include: tensions between formal legal rules and widespread social attitudes in various settings, including the local community, the family, and the larger economic order; changes in concepts regarding the nature and source of law and the relationship between those concepts and the roles of legislation, judicial opinions and informal or "customary norms"; concepts of human behavior as they relate to legal and social ideas regarding both the theory of criminal responsibility and the practical uses of institutions to enforce the law and to "correct" offenders; the relationship between socio-economic development and legal change regarding issues of class, gender, and race; the various meanings of the "rights tradition" in America. These subjects will be pursued through analysis of a selection of recent books (paperbacks) and articles. Attention will be paid both to the substantive matters listed above and to the manner in which historians have formulated issues and employed evidence in setting forth arguments regarding specific historical contexts. Students will be expected to write at least 30 pages, including a term paper of their choosing. The term paper will be an analytical essay on one of the main themes of the course and will draw upon several of the works read for the course. Cost:4 (Green)

Section 003 Women in the Age of Democratic Revolution. This course will examine the role of women and gender in the democratic revolutions which swept America and western Europe in the late eighteenth century through both primary documents and secondary readings. The "Woman Question" was a central concern of both radicals and conservatives in this era, who vigorously debated women's right to vote, their domestic rights, and their right to act in the public sphere. In addition to studying the actual experiences of women during and after these wars, we will look at how contemporary writers such as Mary Wollstonecraft, Thomas Paine, Mercy Otis Warren, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau used gender imagery to construct a new vision of state and society. Students will be expected to write a long research paper at the end of the term, as well as several preliminary drafts. (Juster)

Section 004 American Performance and Urban Social Change: 1820-1920. This course surveys various forms of performance popular in American cities during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The "performances" studies range from entertainments which clearly distinguish actors and audiences to those which blur such distinctions in favor of alternative theatrical relations. The primary purpose of the course is to interpret these forms of performance as they reveal social interactions across class, race, ethnic and gender lines that took shape in changing urban environments of the century under study. Students will read and analyze histories as well as written and musical examples of melodrama, minstrelsy, musical comedy, ethnic theatre, burlesque, vaudeville, and dance halls. Texts include Grimsted, Melodrama Unveiled: American Theatre and Culture, 1800-1850; Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America; Peiss, Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York. Requirements include participation in the seminar discussions and weekly submission of written responses to the readings, two midterm papers, and a final paper. Cost:3 WL:4 (Oberdeck)

Section 005 Gender, State, and Family in Modern Europe. This course concerns the interplay between everyday lives and the state. We will examine recent scholarship dealing with how relations of gender shape and are shaped by social policies and issues of citizenship. In addition, we will consider the changing role of states in regulating family life. We will focus on such topics as the regulation of sexuality, gender and the welfare state, the impact of war and revolution, the control of private life under different political regimes, and the significance of sexual difference for citizenship and class formation. We will consider these issues by locating them in their particular national contexts (primarily Britain, France, and Germany, with some attention to Russia, Italy and Spain), and we will compare the significance of gender distinctions and conflicts, and family life in these different national and historical settings. The course will emphasize critical reading and writing skills. Students should be familiar with modern European history (based on History 111 or other appropriate courses). Enrollment is limited to history concentrators who plan to use the course to fulfill the upper-division ECB requirement. (Rose)

Section 007 History of the Jews in Germany, 1648-1945. This colloquium will deal with the major issues in the history of German Jewry from 1648 to 1945. It will deal first with the conditions of Jewish resettlement after the Thirty Years' War and the role of court Jews in the centralizing German states. It will examine the Enlightenment debate on the status of the Jews in the late eighteenth century and the related "Jewish Enlightenment" in Berlin. The dramatic changes in nineteenth-century German Jewish society ideological and social will be studied in light of the opportunities and pressures associated with the struggle for Emancipation. The reaction against Jewish Emancipation within German society and the rise of modern antisemitism will be examined up to the destruction of German Jewry under the Nazis. Cost:2 (Bodian)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. (4). (Excl). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.
Section 001 Modern Fundamentalist Movements.
Fundamentalist religious movements now thrive around the world in Europe, Islamic countries of North Africa and the Middle East, Israel, India, and other parts of Asia in addition to the United States, where the term originated. What do these movements have in common? What makes them successful? Why should they be so prominent at the end of the twentieth century? These sorts of questions will be explored in discussions of commonly assigned readings, in oral reports, and in two papers (one short and one long). (Grew)

Section 002 Medicine and Culture in America, From Pasteur to AIDS, 1870-1990. Since about 1870, unprecedented technical advances and dramatic cultural changes have repeatedly transformed the health of Americans and the power of the healing professions. This course will examine how changes in gender, race, ethnicity, economics, politics, and in the cultural meanings of disease and science, interacted with new technical discoveries to alter medicine, health, and society. While no background in history or medicine is required, previous course work in either would be helpful. Class will be discussion format, with occasional brief lectures. Students will be expected to read and discuss thoughtfully about 150 pages per week, drawn from a variety of different sources. A 15 page paper based on original historical research, a weekly journal, and a 5 page book review paper are required of each student. No written exams. This is a rewarding but very demanding course intended only for those who are able to sustain high levels of individual effort on a weekly basis. Those absent from the first class without advance permission WILL BE DROPPED from the course. Cost:1-5. Required purchases cost about $15 but additional required readings available on reserve may also be purchased for about $125. WL:4 (Pernick)

Section 005 Film, Fiction, and Roman History. Augustus was the first Roman emperor; his successors were known as the Julio-Claudian emperors. The Roman historians Tacitus and Suetonius described these emperors in their writings; modern authors have enacted their reigns in various novels, including Augustus by John Williams and I, Claudius by Robert Graves. The latter novel became the basis for the successful television mini-series on PBS. This course will use all these writings, both ancient and modem, as well as the television series to investigate both the beginnings of the Roman empire and its representations in our time. All classes will be discussions of books and videos; requirements will include participation in all discussions and a series of short papers, most of them fiction. No prerequisites, everyone welcome. Cost: 2, maybe 1 WL:1. (Van Dam)

Section 006 The 1960's: Politics and Culture. For Fall Term, 1994, this section is offered jointly with American Culture 496.001. (Wald)

Section 007 Asia Through Fiction. For Fall Term, 1994, this section is offered jointly with Asian Studies 441. (Murphey)

403. Problems in Roman History II. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Roman Society and Christian Heresies.
Variant forms of Christianity appeared already in the first century AD, and then multiplied rapidly; attempts at defining and imposing an orthodoxy only led to more quarrels. Some of these heresies flourished because of their attractiveness for various social groups in the Roman empire, such as women or non-elites; others because of their identification with various local cultures or peripheral regions; and still others because certain Roman emperors supported them. This course will investigate aspects of the Roman empire between ca. 100 and ca. 600 by examining various heresies, including Gnosticism, Arianism, Donatism, Priscilianism, Pelagianism and Monophysitism. Readings will include ancient texts in translation and modem research; most classes will be discussions of the readings; requirements will include participation in all discussions and the writing of papers or tests. No prerequisites, everyone welcome. Cost:2, maybe 1 WL:1 (Van Dam)

423. Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (3). (SS).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French revolution to the 1920's, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure of the role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write three essays on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided); there will be a take-home final examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew).

430. Byzantine Empire, 284-867. (3). (Excl).

A lecture course which provides a survey of the History of the later Roman Empire from the reforms of Diocletian that paved the way out of the crisis of the third century, through Constantine's move east and the conversion to Christianity (entering the Byzantine period), Justinian, Heraclius on through the Amorion Dynasty which came to a close with the murder of Michael the Sot in 867. The course will stress political history, giving considerable attention as well to religious history (conversion to Christianity, the great theological disputes over the relationship between God the Father and Jesus Christ as well as the relationship between the human and divine natures in Christ culminating in the Church councils of Nicea and Chalcedon, the rise of monasticism and Iconoclasm), administrative reforms (Diocletian's and Constantine's reforms, the reforms of the seventh century culminating in the Theme system), demographic changes and foreign relations (Goths, the Slavic and Bulgar invasions, relations with the Bulgars, relations with the Persians and Arabs in the East and later with the Franks and Charlemagne). No background is assumed. Requirements: A midterm written hour-exam. One ten page paper and a final examination. Paper topics are tailored to individual interests. (J.Fine)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (SS).

A history of Russia from Peter the Great to 1917, with emphasis on society transformations and continuities in elite and popular cultures, autocratic and opposition politics, economic and social structures. Lectures and discussion section. Students will read and interpret political documents and fiction, in addition to secondary works. Requirements: participation in discussion sections, two short essays, midterm exam, final exam. Cost:3 or 4 (Kivelson)

440/ABS 440/Anthro. 442. Ancient Mesopotamia. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

See Ancient and Biblical Studies 440. (Yoffee)

442/GNE 442. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior or senior standing, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Team taught by Professors Bonner (NES) and Lindner (History), this is the first course in a two-course introductory sequence (442 and 443) that covers Near Eastern history from the era of Muhammad to the present. Our purpose is to introduce you to (and give you some practice in) the methods of studying the Near East as well as to some of the content of Near Eastern history; we expect no previous background in the field. This course begins with the background and rise of Islam and ends in the heyday of the Ottoman Turkish and Safavid Persian empires, circa 1700. Although the basic organization of the course is chronological, we will discuss topics in such areas as politics and governance, religion (formal and "folk", including theology and mysticism), law, foreign relations and war, art and architecture, literature, economics, and social life. The classes will include lectures by (and probably discussions between) the instructors, and there will also be weekly class discussion of the assigned readings. In addition to the final examination, students will be expected to prepare two three-page exercises based on the readings, which will consist of modern scholarly works and translated medieval sources. WL:4 (Bonner and Lindner)

446/CAAS 446. Africa to 1850. (3). (SS).

The course is an introduction to the peoples and cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa. It begins with a survey of the origins of man and early African civilizations and concludes with the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. (Atkins)

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (3). (Excl).

The major theme of this course is "emancipation" of Southeast Asia, a historical confrontation between the societies of the region and the imagined global community of "developed" nations. Geographic coverage will include the principal countries of the mainland (Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) and the island world (Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and the Philippines). Lectures and reading assume no prior knowledge of the region. There will be a midterm, a final, and a term paper. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mrázek)

454. The Formation of Indian Civilization to 320 A.D. (3). (Excl).

India is among the world's oldest and most long lived civilizations. In this course we will examine its evolution, from the ancient civilizations of the Indus Valley (c. 2300-1700 B.C.) to the beginnings of the classical period. Topics will include the arrival of Indo-European languages, the origins of Hinduism and Buddhism, the formation of the Mauryan empire, relations of India with Greeks and Central Asian nomads, and the structure of family life and the caste system. This is a lecture course, and it presumes no prior study of India on the part of the participants (except the professor). Both undergrads and grad students are welcome. Cost:1 WL:1 (Trautmann)

461. The American Revolution. (3). (SS).

This course varies from term to term, but Fall 1994 it will focus on the period 1750-1800 in U.S. history, considering both the set of events known as the American Revolution and how American society changed in the latter half of the 18th century. Heavy reading, a 2-hour final, plus a term paper. Cost:2 WL:1 (Shy)

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups and women in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Please note that discussion sections have been added. Undergraduates electing this course must register for section 001 and one discussion section. Cost:3 WL:1 and 3 (S.Fine)

476/Anthro. 416. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (3). (SS).

See Anthropology 416. (Frye)

493/Econ. 493. European Economic History. Econ. 201 or 202. (3). (Excl).

See History 493. (Dye)

A course number in the 500s does not indicate a more difficult or advanced course than one in the 400s.

516. History of Ireland to 1603. (3). (HU).

This is a survey of political, social, and cultural history of Ireland from the earliest times to the destruction and close of the Gaelic order at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The course is conducted mainly by lecture in which, complementing the treatment accorded in textbooks, we will endeavor to realize the historical reality of a millenium of Irish Gaelic history, in itself and in relation to the rest of the medieval world. Two relatively brief papers and one extended one, two hour exams, and a final examination. There is no prerequisite for this course, only a willing and competent zeal for learning of a culture much more diverse from contemporary experience than you will readily imagine. Cost:3 WL:1 (McNamara)

551. Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (3). (Excl).

In this course, we shall seek the origins and lineaments of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, so powerfully rooted in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely in the preceding century and more for antecedents and predisposing social change. We shall examine the testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, trends in Confucian thought and the role of popular culture, nationalism and women's liberation, cultural iconoclasm and neotraditionalism, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Maoism and its debunking. Previous familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful but is not required. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write two short papers and take a final exam. Cost:2 WL:4 (Young)

552. Topics in the Early Modern History of Mainland Southeast Asia. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Mainland Circa 1400-1850.
This course offers a comparative history of mainland Southeast Asia, principally Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam, from the crucial transformations of the fifteenth century to the eve of colonial rule. Its focus is simultaneously religious, political, and economic, and its thrust is towards historiographic debate. How, for example, can we explain the religious revolutions of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries? Why the long-term trends to territorial expansion and cultural integration in each of the main polities? Why were responses to the European challenge of the nineteenth century so different in the three chief mainland states? And what unifying themes can we find across the mainland? Weekly discussion, two research papers, no exams. Open to any students with at least one course in Asian history. Cost:2 WL:3 (Lieberman, Whitmore)

558. U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (3). (Excl).

This course examines American foreign policy from the Revolution to the outbreak of World War I. Special attention is given to the origin of American diplomatic principles, the diplomacy of the American Revolution, the coming of the War of 1812, the conquest of North America, the War with Spain and the imperialist surge of 1898, and, finally, the incomplete American adjustment to its position as a new world power. Hour exam, term paper, final. Cost:1 WL:4 (Perkins)

563. Intellectual History of the United States Since 1865. (3). (Excl).

This course explores the intellectual discourse of Americans from the middle of the nineteenth century to the near present. Its focus will be on ideas about human nature, the structure of knowledge, morality, social organization, race, gender, and the responsibilities of the intellectual to society. Cost:3 WL:1 (Cándida Smith)

578/Latin American and Caribbean Studies 400/CAAS 478. Ethnicity and Culture in Latin America. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.

This course is jointly offered with Film and Video Studies 455.001 for Fall Term, 1994. (Hurtado)

591. Topics in European History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 Self-Consciousness and Antagonism.
This one-credit minicourse, meeting September 8-29, 1994, is intended for graduate students and will entail a close reading of Hegel's "Phenomenology of the Mind." Undergraduates may enroll with permission of instructor. For Fall Term, 1994, this course is offered jointly with Philosophy 515 and Institute for the Humanities 511.001. (Funkenstein)

592. Topics in Asian and African History. Upperclassmen and graduates. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 001 History Of Burma.
This course examines the history of Burma, now Myanmar, from earliest times to the present day. It is structured largely in terms of historiographic debates or problems for which alternative interpretations are available: What was the nature of classical civilization? Why did the classical civilization of Pagan decline? What was the role of maritime trade in subsequent development? Why was the colonial era so traumatic for Burma, and why did the Burmese fare so poorly in the modern economy? What are the sources of the army's strength conversely why has the democracy movement been emasculated and what does the future hold? Two research papers, regular participation in discussions, no formal exams. open to any students with at least one course in Asian history. Cost:2 WL:3 (Lieberman)

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