**Elementary Courses.** In order to accommodate
diverse backgrounds and interests, several course options are
available to beginning mathematics students. All courses require three years of high school mathematics; four years are strongly
recommended and more information is given for some individual
courses below. Students with College Board * Advanced Placement *
credit and anyone planning to enroll in an upper-level class should
consider one of the Honors sequences and discuss the options with
a mathematics advisor.

Students who need additional preparation for calculus are tentatively identified by a combination of the math placement test (given during orientation), college admissions test scores (SAT or ACT), and high school grade point average. Academic advisors will discuss this placement information with each student and refer students to a special mathematics advisor when necessary.

Two courses preparatory to the calculus, Math 105 and Math 110, are offered. Math 105 is a course on data analysis, functions, and graphs with an emphasis on problem solving. Math 110 is a condensed half-term version of the same material offered as a self-study course through the Math Lab and directed towards students who are unable to complete a first calculus course successfully. A maximum total of 4 credits may be earned in courses numbered 110 and below. Math 103 is offered exclusively in the Summer half-term for students in the Summer Bridge Program.

Math 127 and 128 are courses containing selected topics from geometry and number theory, respectively. They are intended for students who want exposure to mathematical culture and mathematical thinking through a single course. They are neither prerequisite nor preparation for any further course.

Each of Math 112, 115, 185, and 195 is a first course in calculus
and generally credit can be received for only one course from this list. Math 112 is designed for students of business and the
social sciences who require only one term of calculus. It neither
presupposes nor covers any trigonometry. The sequence Math 115-116-215
is appropriate for most students who want a complete introduction
to calculus. Math 118 is an alternative to Math 116 intended for
students of the social sciences who do not intend to continue
to Math 215. Math 215 is prerequisite to most more advanced courses
in Mathematics. Math 112 * does not provide preparation for
any subsequent course. *

Students planning a career in medicine should note that some medical
schools require a course in calculus. Generally 112 or 115 will
satisfy this requirement, although most science concentrations
require at least a year of calculus. Math 112 is accepted by the
School of Business Administration, but Math 115 is prerequisite
to concentration in Economics and further math courses are strongly
recommended.

The sequences 175-176-285-286, 185-186-285-286, and 195-196-295-296 are Honors sequences. All students must have the permission of an Honors advisor to enroll in any of these courses, but they need not be enrolled in the LS&A Honors Program. All students with strong preparation and interest in mathematics are encouraged to consider these courses; they are both more interesting and more challenging than the standard sequences.

Math 185-186 covers much of the same material as Math 115-215 with more attention to the theory in addition to applications. Most students who take Math 185 have had a high school calculus course, but it is not required. Math 175-176 assumes a knowledge of calculus roughly equivalent to Math 115 and covers a substantial amount of so-called combinatorial mathematics (see course description) as well as calculus-related topics not usually part of the calculus sequence. Math 175 and 176 are taught by the discovery method: students are presented with a great variety of problems and encouraged to experiment in groups using computers. The sequence Math 195-296 provides a rigorous introduction to theoretical mathematics. Proofs are stressed over applications and these courses require a high level of interest and commitment. The student who completes Math 296 is prepared to explore the world of mathematics at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level.

In rare circumstances and * with permission of a Mathematics
advisor * reduced credit may be granted for Math 185 or 195
after one of Math 112 or 115. A list of these and other cases
of reduced credit for courses with overlapping material is available
from the Department. To avoid unexpected reduction in credit, students should always consult an advisor before switching from
one sequence to another. In all cases, a maximum total of 16 credits
may be earned for calculus courses Math 112 through Math 296, and no credit can be earned for a prerequisite to a course taken
after the course itself.

Students with strong scores on either the AB or BC version
of the College Board * Advanced Placement * exam may be granted
credit and advanced placement in either the regular or Honors
sequences. A table explaining the possibilities is available from
advisors and the Department. The Department encourages strong
students to enter beginning Honors courses in preference to 116
or 215.

Students completing Math 215 may continue either to Math 216
(Introduction to Differential Equations) or to the sequence Math
217-316 (Linear Algebra-Differential Equations). Math 217-316
is * required * for all students who intend to take more
advanced courses in mathematics, particularly for those who may
concentrate in mathematics. Math 217 both serves as a transition
to the more theoretical material of advanced courses and provides the background required for optimal treatment of differential
equations.

More detailed descriptions of undergraduate mathematics courses
and concentration programs are contained in the brochures * Undergraduate
Programs * and * Undergraduate Courses * available from the Mathematics Undergraduate Program Office, 3011 Angell Hall, 763-4223.

NOTE: For most Mathematics courses the Cost of books and materials is approximately $50 WL:3 for all courses.

A * maximum total of 4 credits * may be earned in Mathematics
courses numbered 110 and below. A * maximum total of 16 credits *
may be earned for calculus courses Math 112 through Math 296, and no credit can be earned for a prerequisite to a course taken
after the course itself.

**105. Data, Functions, and Graphs. *** Students
with credit for Math. 103 can elect Math. 105 for only 2 credits.
(4). (Excl). (QR/1). *

This is a course on analyzing data by means of functions and graphs. The emphasis is on mathematical modeling of real-world
applications. The functions used are linear, quadratic, polynomial, logarithmic, exponential, and trigonometric. Algebra skills are
assessed during the term by periodic testing. Students completing
Math. 105 are fully prepared for Math. 115. Text: * Contemporary
Precalculus. * Students will need graphing calculators and should check with the Math Department office to find out what
is currently required.

**110. Pre-Calculus (Self-Paced). *** See Elementary
Courses above. No credit granted to those who already
have 4 credits for pre-calculus mathematics courses. (2). (Excl). *

There are no lectures or sections. Students enrolling in Math 110 must visit the Math Lab to complete paperwork and to receive course materials. Students study on their own and consult with tutors in the Math Lab whenever needed. Progress is measured by graded homework and by scheduled exams. More detailed information is available from the Math Lab (1520 East Engineering).

**112. Brief Calculus. *** See Elementary
Courses above. Credit is granted for only one course
from among Math. 112, 113, 115, 185 and 195. (4). (N.Excl). *

This is a one-term survey course that provides the basics of
elementary calculus. Emphasis is placed on intuitive understanding
of concepts and not on rigor. Topics include differentiation with
application to curve sketching and maximum-minimum problems, antiderivatives
and definite integrals. Trigonometry is not used. The text has
been Hoffman, * Calculus for the Business, Economics, Social, and Life Sciences * (4th ed.) This course does not mesh with
any of the courses in the other calculus sequences.

**115. Analytic Geometry and Calculus I. *** See
Elementary Courses above. Credit usually is granted
for only one course from among Math. 112, 115, 185, and 195. (4).
(N.Excl). (QR/1). *

**Background and Goals.**The sequence Math 115-116-215
is the standard complete introduction to the concepts and methods
of calculus. It is taken by the majority of students intending
to concentrate in mathematics, science, or engineering, as well
as students heading for many other fields. The emphasis is on
concepts and solving problems rather than theory and proof. All
sections are given two uniform exams during the term and a uniform
final exam.**Content.** The course presents the concepts
of calculus from three points of view: geometric (graphs), numerical
(tables), and algebraic (formulas). Students will develop their
reading, writing, and questioning skills.Topics include functions
and graphs, derivatives and their applications to real-life problems
in various fields, and definite integrals.Text: * Calculus *
by Hughes-Hallett and Gleason. Students will need graphing calculators
and should check with the Mathematics Department office to find
out what is currently required.

**116. Analytic Geometry and Calculus II. *** Math.
115. Credit is granted for only one course from among Math. 116, 186, and 196. (4). (N.Excl). (QR/2). *

**Background and Goals.** See Math 115. **Content.**
The course presents the concepts of calculus from three points
of view: geometric (graphs), numerical (tables), and algebraic
(formulas). Students will develop their reading, writing, and questioning skills.Topics include the indefinite integral, techniques
of integration, introduction to differential equations, infinite
series.Text: * Calculus * by Hughes-Hallett and Gleason.
Students will need graphing calculators and should check with the Mathematics Department office to find out what is currently
required.

**118. Analytic Geometry and Calculus II for Social Sciences.
*** Math. 115. (4). (N.Excl). *

Math 118, a sequel to Math 115, is a combination of the techniques and concepts from Math 116, 215, and 216 that are most useful in the social and decision sciences (especially economics and business). Topics covered include: logarithms, exponentials, elementary integration techniques (substitution, by parts and partial fractions), infinite sequences and series, systems of linear equations, matrices, determinants, vectors, level sets, partial derivatives, Lagrange multipliers for constrained optimization, and elementary differential equations. (Students planning to take Math 215 and 216 should still take 116, although one can pass from 118 to 215 with a bit of work and redundancy.) No credit for 118 after having taken 116 or 186.

**127. Geometry and the Imagination. *** Three
years of high school mathematics including a geometry course.
(4). (NS). (QR/1). *

This course introduces students to the ideas and some of the
basic results in Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry. Beginning
with geometry in ancient Greece, the course includes the construction
of new geometric objects from old ones by projecting and by taking
slices. The next topic is non-Euclidean geometry. This section
begins with the independence of Euclid's Fifth Postulate and with the construction of spherical and hyperbolic geometries in which the Fifth Postulate fails; how spherical and hyperbolic geometry
differs from Euclidean geometry. The last topic is geometry of
higher dimensions: coordinatization – the mathematician's tool
for studying higher dimensions; construction of higher-dimensional
analogues of some familiar objects like spheres and cubes; discussion
of the proper higher-dimensional analogues of some geometric notions
(length, angle, orthogonality, *etc.) *This course is intended
for students who want an introduction to mathematical ideas and culture. Emphasis on conceptual thinking – students will do hands-on
experimentation with geometric shapes, patterns and ideas. Grades
based on homework and a final project. No exams. Text: * Beyond the Third Dimension * (Thomas Banchoff, 1990).

**128. Explorations in Number Theory. *** High
school mathematics through at least Analytic Geometry. (4). (NS).
(QR/1). *

This course is intended for non-science concentrators and students
in the pre-concentration years with no intended concentration, who want to engage in mathematical reasoning without having to
take calculus first. Students will be introduced to elementary
ideas of number theory, an area of mathematics that deals with
properties of the integers. Students will make use of software
provided for IBM PCs to conduct numerical experiments and to make
empirical discoveries. Students will formulate precise conjectures, and in many cases prove them. Thus the students will, as a group, generate a logical development of the subject. After studying
factorizations and greatest common divisors, emphasis will shift
to the patterns that emerge when the integers are classified according
to the remainder produced upon division by some fixed number ('congruences').
Once some basic tools have been established, applications will
be made in several directions. For example, students may derive
a precise parameterization of Pythagorean triples a^{2 }+
b^{2 } = c^{2 }.

**147. Mathematics of Finance. *** Math. 112
or 115. (3). (Excl). *

This course is designed for students who seek an introduction to the mathematical concepts and techniques employed by financial institutions such as banks, insurance companies, and pension funds. Actuarial students, and other mathematics concentrators, should elect Math 424 which covers the same topics but on a more rigorous basis requiring considerable use of the calculus. Topics covered include: various rates of simple and compound interest, present and accumulated values based on these; annuity functions and their application to amortization, sinking funds and bond values; depreciation methods; introduction to life tables, life annuity, and life insurance values. The course is not part of a sequence. Students should possess financial calculators.

**175. Combinatorics and Calculus. *** Permission
of Honors advisor. (4). (N.Excl). (QR/1). *

**Background and Goals.** This course is an alternative
to Math 185 as an entry to the Honors sequence. The sequence Math
175-176 is a two-term introduction to Combinatorics, Dynamical
Systems, and Calculus. The topics are integrated over the two
terms although the first term will stress combinatorics and the
second term will stress the development of calculus in the context
of dynamical systems. Students are expected to have some previous
experience with the basic concepts and techniques of calculus.
The course stresses discovery as a vehicle for learning. Students
will be required to experiment throughout the course on a range
of problems and will participate each term in a group project.
Grades will be based on homework and projects with a strong emphasis
on homework. Personal computers will be a valuable experimental
tool in this course and students will be asked to learn to program
in either BASIC, PASCAL or FORTRAN. **Content.**
There are two major topic areas: enumeration and graph theory.
The section on enumeration theory will emphasize classical methods
for counting including (1) binomial theorem and its generalizations;
(2) solving recursions; (3) generating functions; and (4) inclusion
- exclusion principle. In the process, we will discuss infinite
series. The section on graph theory will include basic definitions
and some of the more interesting and useful theorems of graph theory. The emphasis will be on topological results and applications
to computer science and will include (1) connectivity; (2) trees, Prufer codes, and data structures; (3) planar graphs, Euler's
foumula and Kuratowski's Theorem; and (4) coloring graphs, chromatic
polynomials, and orientation. This material has many applications
in the field of computer science. Course pack.

**185. Honors Analytic Geometry and Calculus I. *** Permission
of the Honors advisor. Credit is granted for only one course from
among Math. 112, 113, 115, and 185. (4). (N.Excl). (QR/1). *

**Background and Goals.** The sequence Math 185-186-285-286
is the Honors introduction to the calculus. It is taken by students
intending to concentrate in mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as students heading for many other fields who want a somewhat
more theoretical approach. Although much attention is paid to
concepts and solving problems, the underlying theory and proofs
of important results are also included. This sequence is NOT restricted
to students enrolled in the LS&A Honors Program. **Content.**
Topics covered include functions and graphs, derivatives, differentiation
of algebraic and trigonometric functions and applications, definite
and indefinite integrals and applications. Other topics will be
included at the discretion of the instructor. Recent text(s): * Calculus with Analytic Geometry * (6th ed., Simmons).

**195. Honors Mathematics I. *** Permission
of the Honors advisor. (4). (N.Excl). (QR/1). *

**Background and Goals.** The sequence Math 195-196-295-296
is a more intensive Honors sequence than 185-186-285-286. The
material includes all of that of the lower sequence and substantially
more. The approach is theoretical, abstract, and rigorous. Students
are expected to learn to understand and construct proofs as well
as do calculations and solve problems. The expected background
is a thorough understanding of high school algebra and trigonometry.
No previous calculus is required, although many students in this
course have had some calculus. Students completing this sequence
will be ready to take advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate
courses. This sequence is NOT restricted to students enrolled
in the LS&A Honors Program. **Content.** Functions
of one variable and their representation by graphs; limits and continuity; derivatives and integrals with applications; parametric
representation; polar coordinates; applications of mathematical
induction. Recent text(s): * Calculus * (Spivak); * Calculus *
(vol. I, by Apostol); * Introduction to Calculus and Analysis *
(Courant and John).

**215. Analytic Geometry and Calculus III. *** Math.
116 or 186. (4). (Excl). (QR/1). *

**Background and Goals.** See Math 115. **Content.**
Topics include vector algebra and vector functions; analytic geometry
of planes, surfaces, and solids; functions of several variables
and partial differentiation; line, surface, and volume integrals
and applications; vector fields and integration; Green's Theorem
and Stokes' Theorem. There is a weekly lab using MAPLE.

**216. Introduction to Differential Equations. *** Math.
215. (4). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** For a student who has
completed the calculus sequence, there are two sequences which
deal with linear algebra and differential equations, 216-417 (or
419) and 217-316. The sequence 216-417 emphasizes problem-solving
and applications and is intended for students of engineering and the sciences. Math concentrators and other students who have some
interest in the theory of mathematics should elect the sequence
217-316. **Content.** After an introduction to ordinary
differential equations, the first half of the course is devoted
to topics in linear algebra, including systems of linear algebraic
equations, vector spaces, linear dependence, bases, dimension, matrix algebra, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors. In the second half these tools are applied to the solution of linear
systems of ordinary differential equations. Topics include: oscillating
systems, the Laplace transform, initial value problems, resonance, phase portraits, and an introduction to numerical methods. **This
course is not intended for mathematics concentrators, who should
elect the sequence 217-316.** Recent Text(s): * Differential
Equations: A First Course * (Guterman and Nitecki); * Theory
and Problems of Linear Algebra * (2nd ed., Schaum's Outline
Series, S. Lipschutz).

**217. Linear Algebra. *** Math. 215. No credit
granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Math. 417, 419, or 513. (4). (Excl). (QR/1). *

**Background and Goals.** See * Background and Goals * under Math 216. In addition, these courses are explicitly
designed to introduce the student to both the concepts and applications
of their subjects and to the methods by which the results are
proved. Therefore the student entering Math 217 should come with
a sincere interest in learning about proofs. **Content.**
The topics covered include: systems of linear equations, matrix
algebra, vectors, vector spaces, and subspaces; geometry of R
to * n * power, linear dependence, bases, and dimensions;
linear transformations; Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors; diagonalization;
inner products. Throughout there will be emphasis on the concepts, logic, and methods of theoretical mathematics. This corresponds
to most of chapters 1-8 of Nicholson. Recent text(s): * Elementary
Linear Algebra * (2nd ed., W.K. Nicholson).

**285. Honors Analytic Geometry and Calculus III. *** Math.
186 or permission of the Honors advisor. (4). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** See Math 185. **Content.**
Topics include vector algebra and vector functions; analytic geometry
of planes, surfaces, and solids; functions of several variables
and partial differentiation; line, surface, and volume integrals
and applications; vector fields and integration; curl, divergence, and gradient; Green's Theorem and Stokes' Theorem. Additional
topics may be added at the discretion of the instructor. Recent
Text(s): * Calculus with Analytic Geometry * (Simmons, 6th
ed.); * Vector Calculus * (Marsden and Tromba, 3rd ed.)

**289. Problem Seminar. *** (1). (Excl). May
be repeated for credit with permission. *

**Background and Goals.** One of the best ways
to develop mathematical abilities is by solving problems using
a variety of methods. Familiarity with numerous methods is a great
asset to the developing student of mathematics. Methods learned
in attacking a specific problem frequently find application in
many other areas of mathematics. In many instances an interest
in and appreciation of mathematics is better developed by solving
problems than by hearing formal lectures on specific topics. The
student has an opoportunity to participate more actively in his/her
education and development. This course is intended for superior
students who have exhibited both ability and interest in doing
mathematics, but it is not restricted to Honors students. This
course is excellent preparation for the Putnam exam. **Content.**
Students and one or more faculty and graduate student assistants
will meet in small groups to explore problems in many different
areas of mathematics. Problems will be selected according to the
interests and background of the students.

**295. Honors Analysis I. *** Math. 196 or permission
of the Honors advisor. (4). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This course is a continuation
of the sequence Math 195-196 and has the same theoretical emphasis.
Students are expected to understand and construct proofs. **Content.**
This course studies functions of several real variables. Topics
are chosen from elementary linear algebra: vector spaces, subspaces, bases, dimension, solution of linear systems by Gaussian elimination;
elementary topology: open, closed, compact, and connected sets, continuous and uniformly continuous functions; differential and integral calculus of vector-valued functions of a scalar; differential
and integral calculus of scalar-valued functions on Euclidean
spaces; linear transformations: null space, range, matrices, calculations, linear systems, norms; differential calculus of vector-valued
mappings on Euclidean spaces: derivative, chain rule, implicit
and inverse function theorems. Recent Text(s): * Vector Calculus *
(Marsden and Tromba, 3rd ed.); * Calculus in Vector Spaces *
(Corvin and Szczarba).

**316. Differential Equations. *** Math. 215
and 217, or equivalent. Credit can be received for only one of
Math. 216 or Math. 316, and credit can be received for only one
of Math. 316 or Math. 404. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This is an introduction
to differential equations for students who have studied linear
algebra (Math 217). It treats techniques of solution (exact and approximate), existence and uniqueness theorems, some qualitative theory, and many applications. Proofs are given in class; homework
problems include both computational and more conceptually oriented
problems. **Content.** First-order equations: solutions, existence and uniqueness, and numerical techniques; linear systems:
eigenvector-eigenvalue solutions of constant coefficient systems, fundamental matrix solutions, nonhomogeneous systems; higher-order
equations, reduction of order, variation of parameters, series
solutions; qualitative behavior of systems, equilibrium points, stability. Applications to various physical problems are considered throughout. This corresponds to much of Chapter 1 and sections
2.1-2.7, 2.15, 3.1-3.12, and selected sections of Chapter 4 of
Braun. Recent text(s): * Differential Equations and their Applications *
(Braun).

**362. Applications of Calculus and Linear Algebra. *** Math.
216 or 217. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This is an introduction
to applied mathematics, making use of calculus and linear algebra.
While the specific content is very much instructor dependent, the course will always focus on applications of mathematics in the natural or social sciences. Any knowledge required to understand the applications is taught in the course. The goal is to deepen the students' understanding of calculus and linear algebra and motivate them to pursue mathematics further. **Content.**
Instructor dependent. Examples of suitable topics are mathematical
biology or mathematical fluid dynamics. No background in the specific
application is needed, but often some high-school level knowledge
of physics will be helpful or even needed. (When in doubt, check
with the instructor!) Students will often use computers in this
course, but absolutely no previous experience with computers is
assumed. Recent text(s): * Mathematics in Medicine and the Life
Sciences * (Hoppensteadt and Peskin)

**371/Engin. 371. Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists. *** Engineering 103 or 104, or equivalent;
and Math. 216. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This is a survey course
of the basic numerical methods which are used to solve scientific
problems. Important concepts such as accuracy, stability, and efficiency are discussed. The course provides an introduction
to MATLAB, an interactive program for numerical linear algebra, as well as practice in FORTRAN programming and the use of a software
library subroutine. Convergence theorems are discussed and applied, but the proofs are not emphasized. **Content.** Floating
point arithmetic, Gaussian elimination, polynomial interpolation, spline approximations, numerical integration and differentiation, solutions to non-linear equations, ordinary differential equations, polynomial approximations. Other topics may include discrete Fourier
transforms, two-point boundary-value problems, and Monte-Carlo
methods. Recent Text(s): * An Introduction to Numerical Computation *
(Yakowitz and Szidarovsky).

**385. Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers. *** One
year each of high school algebra and geometry. No credit granted
to those who have completed or are enrolled in 485. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This course, together
with its sequel Math 489, provides a coherent overview of the
mathematics underlying the elementary and middle school curriculum.
It is is required of all students intending to earn an elementary
teaching certificate and is taken almost exclusively by such students.
Concepts are heavily emphasized with some attention given to calculation
and proof. The course is conducted using a discussion format.
Class participation is expected and constitutes a significant
part of the course grade. Enrollment is limited to 30 students
per section. Although only two years of high school mathematics
are required, a more complete background including pre-calculus
or calculus is desirable. **Content.** Topics covered
include problem solving, sets and functions, numeration systems, whole numbers (including some number theory), and integers. Each
number system is examined in terms of its algorithms, its applications, and its mathematical structure. The material is contained in Chapters
1-6 of Krause. Recent Text(s): * Mathematics for Elementary
Teachers * (Krause).

**412. Introduction to Modern Algebra. *** Math.
215 or 285; and 217. No credit granted to those who have completed
or are enrolled in 512. Students with credit for 312 should take
512 rather than 412. One credit granted to those who have completed
312. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This course is designed
to serve as an introduction to the methods and concepts of abstract
mathematics. A typical student entering this course has substantial
experience in using complex mathematical (calculus) calculations
to solve physical or geometrical problems, but is unused to analyzing
carefully the content of definitions of the logical flow of ideas
which underlie and justify these calculations. Although the topics
discussed here are quite distinct from those of calculus, an important
goal of the course is to introduce the student to this type of
analysis. Much of the reading, homework exercises, and exams consists
of theorems (propositions, lemmas, *etc.) *and their proofs.
Math 217 is strongly recommended as background. **Content.**
The initial topics include ones common to every branch of mathematics:
sets, functions (mappings), relations, and the common number systems
(integers, rational numbers, real numbers, complex numbers). These
are then applied to the study of two particular types of mathematical
structures: rings and groups. These structures are presented as
abstractions from many examples such as the common number systems
together with the operations of addition or multiplication, permutations
of finite and infinite sets with function composition, sets of
motions of geometric figures, and polynomials. Notions such as
generator, subgroup, direct product, isomorphism, and homomorphism
are defined and studied. Recent Text(s): * Abstract Algebra:
an Introduction * (Hungerford).

**413. Calculus for Social Scientists. *** Not
open to freshmen, sophomores or mathematics concentrators. (3).
(Excl). *

A one-term course designed for students who require an introduction to the ideas and methods of the calculus. The course begins with a review of algebra and then surveys analytic geometry, derivatives, maximum and minimum problems, integrals, integration, and partial derivatives. Applications to business and economics are given whenever possible, and the level is always intuitive rather than highly technical. This course should not be taken by those who have had a previous calculus course or plan to take more than one or two further courses in mathematics. The course is specially designed for graduate students in the social sciences.

**416. Theory of Algorithms. *** Math. 312 or
412 or CS 303, and CS 380. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** Many common problems
from mathematics and computer science may be solved by applying
one or more * algorithms * – well-defined procedures that
accept input data specifying a particular instance of the problem
and produce a solution. Students entering Math 416 typically have
encountered some of these problems and their algorithmic solutions
in a programming course. The goal here is to develop the mathematical
tools necessary to analyze such algorithms with respect to their
efficiency (running time) and correctness. Different instructors
will put varying degrees of emphasis on mathematical proofs and computer implementation of these ideas. **Content.**
Typical problems considered are: sorting, searching, matrix multiplication, graph problems (flows, travelling salesman), and primality and pseudo-primality testing (in connection with coding questions).
Algorithm types such as divide-and-conquer, backtracking, greedy, and dynamic programming are analyzed using mathematical tools
such as generating functions, recurrence relations, induction
and recursion, graphs and trees, and permutations. The course
often includes a section on abstract complexity theory including
NP completeness. A possible syllabus includes chapters 1-4 and part of 5 of Wilf. Recent Text(s): * Algorithms and Complexity *
(Wilf).

**417. Matrix Algebra I. *** Three courses beyond
Math. 110. No credit granted to those who have completed or are
enrolled in 217, 419, or 513. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** Many problems in science, engineering, and mathematics are best formulated in terms of matrices
- rectangular arrays of numbers. This course is an introduction
to the properties of and operations on matrices with a wide variety
of applications. The main emphasis is on concepts and problem-solving, but students are responsible for some of the underlying theory.
Diversity rather than depth of applications is stressed. This
course is not intended for mathematics concentrators, who should
elect Math 217 or 513 (Honors). **Content.** Topics
include matrix operations, echelon form, general solutions of
systems of linear equations, vector spaces and subspaces, linear
independence and bases, linear transformations, determinants, orthogonality, characteristic polynomials, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, and similarity theory. Applications include linear networks, least
squares method (regression), discrete Markov processes, linear
programming, and differential equations. A possible syllabus includes
most of Chapters 1-5 of Goldberg. Recent Text(s): * Linear Algebra
and its Applications * (Strang, 3rd ed.); * Matrix Theory
with Applications * (Goldberg).

**419/EECS 400/CS 400. Linear
Spaces and Matrix Theory. *** Four terms of college mathematics
beyond Math 110. No credit granted to those who have completed
or are enrolled in 217 or 513. One credit granted to those who
have completed Math. 417. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** Math 419 covers much
of the same ground as Math 417 but presents the material in a
somewhat more abstract way in terms of vector spaces and linear
transformations instead of matrices. There is a mix of proofs, calculations, and applications with the emphasis depending somewhat
on the instructor. A previous proof-oriented course is helpful
but by no means necessary. **Content.** Basic notions
of vector spaces and linear transformations: spanning, linear
independence, bases, dimension, matrix representation of linear
transformations; determinants; eigenvalues, eigenvectors, Jordan
canonical form, inner-product spaces; unitary, self-adjoint, and orthogonal operators and matrices, applications to differential
and difference equations. This corresponds to Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5 and parts of 4, 6, and 7 of Friedberg et. al. Recent Text(s): * Linear Algebra * (Friedberg, Insel, and Spence, 2nd ed.); * Matrix Algebra * (Winter).

**424. Compound Interest and Life Insurance. *** Math.
215 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This course is intended
as preparation for the Society of Actuaries exam 140 and for subsequent
courses in actuarial mathematics. It stresses concepts and calculations
including use of spreadsheet software. **Content.**
The course covers compound interest (growth) theory and its application
to valuation of monetary deposits, annuities, and bonds. Problems
are approached both analytically (using algebra) and geometrically
(using pictorial representations). Techniques are applied to real-life
situations: bank accounts, bond prices, *etc. *The text is
used as a guide because it is prescribed for the Society of Actuaries
exam; the material covered will depend somewhat on the instructor.
Recent Text(s): * Theory of Interest * (Kellison, 2nd ed.)

**425/Stat. 425. Introduction to Probability. *** Math.
215. (3). (N.Excl).
Sections 001 and 002. * See Statistics
425.

* Section 003 and 004. * **Background
and Goals.** This course introduces students to useful
and interesting ideas of the mathematical theory of probability
and to a number of applications of probability to a variety of
fields including genetics, economics, geology, business, and engineering.
The theory developed together with other mathematical tools such
as combinatorics and calculus are applied to everyday problems.
Concepts, calculations and derivations are emphasized. The course
will make essential use of the material of Math 116 and 215. **Content.**
Topics include the basic results and methods of both discrete
and continuous probability theory: conditional probability, independent
events, random variables, jointly distributed random variables, expectations, variances, co-variances, central limit theorem.
Different instructors will vary the emphasis. The material corresponds
to most of Chapters 1-7 and part of 8 of Ross with the omission
of some sections of 1.6, 2.6, 7.7-7.9, and 8.4-8.5 and many of the long examples. Recent Text(s): * A First Course in Probability *
(Ross, 3rd ed.)

**427/Social Work 603. Retirement Plans and Other Employee
Benefit Plans. *** Junior standing. (3). (Excl). *

Employee benefit plans are a major aspect of compensation and personnel policy in practically every firm. This course will provide an overview of the range of employee benefit plans, the considerations (actuarial and others) which influence plan design and implementation practices, and the role of actuaries and other benefit plan professionals and their relation to decision makers in management and unions. Particular attention will be given to government programs which provide the framework, and establish requirements, for privately operated employee benefit plans. Emphasis will be placed upon continuing concepts rather than current details; the information sources used by practitioners to stay abreast of this constantly changing area will be noted. Relevant mathematical techniques will be reviewed, but they are not the focus of this course. (Young)

**431. Topics in Geometry for Teachers. *** Math.
215. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This course is a study
of the axiomatic foundations of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry.
Concepts and proofs are emphasized; students must be able to follow
as well as construct clear logical arguments. For most students this is an introduction to proofs. A subsidiary goal is the development
of enrichment and problem materials suitable for secondary geometry
classes. **Content.** Topics selected depend heavily
on the instructor but may include classification of isometries
of the Euclidean plane; similarities; rosette, frieze, and wallpaper
symmetry groups; tesselations; triangle groups; finite, hyperbolic, and taxicab non-Euclidean geometries. This corresponds to Chapters
1-11, 13, and 14 of * Transformation Geometry: an Introduction
to Symmetry *(Martin) together with * Taxicab Geometry *
(Krause).

**433. Introduction to Differential Geometry. *** Math.
215. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This course is about the analysis of curves and surfaces in 2- and 3-space using the
tools of calculus and linear algebra. There will be many examples
discussed, including some which arise in engineering and physics
applications. Emphasis will be placed on developing intuitions
and learning to use calculations to verify and prove theorems.
Students need a good background in multivariable calculus (215)
and linear algebra (preferably 217). Some exposure to differential
equations (216 or 316) is helpful but not absolutely necessary.
**Content.** Topics covered include (1) curves: curvature, torsion, rigid motions, existence and uniqueness theorems; (2)
global properties of curves: rotation index, global index theorem, convex curves, 4-vertex theorem; (3) local theory of surfaces:
local parameters, metric coefficients, curves on surfaces, geodesic
and normal curvature, second fundamental form, Christoffel symbols, Gaussian and mean curvature, minimal surfaces, classification
of minimal surfaces of revolution. This corresponds to most of
chapters I-IV of Millman and Parker. If time permits, additional
topics might be chosen from chapters V and VI. Recent Text(s): * Elements of Differential Geometry * (Millman and Parker); * Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces * (DoCarmo).

**450. Advanced Mathematics for Engineers I. *** Math.
216, 286, or 316. (4). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** Although this course
is designed principally to develop mathematics for application
to problems of science and engineering, it also serves as an important
bridge for students between the calculus courses and the more
demanding advanced courses. Students are expected to learn to
read and write mathematics at a more sophisticated level and to
combine several techniques to solve problems. Some proofs are
given and students are responsible for a thorough understanding
of definitions and theorems. Students should have a good command of the material from Math 215, and 216 or 316, which is used throughout the course. A background in linear algebra, e.g. Math 217, is
highly desirable. **Content.** Topics include a review
of curves and surfaces in implicit, parametric, and explicit forms;
differentiability and affine approximations; implicit and inverse
function theorems; chain rule for 3-space; multiple integrals;
scalar and vector fields; line and surface integrals; computations
of planetary motion, work, circulation, and flux over surfaces;
Gauss' and Stokes' Theorems, derivation of continuity and heat
equation. Some instructors include more material on higher dimensional
spaces and an introduction to Fourier series. This corresponds
to Chapters 2, 3, 5, 7, and 8 and sometimes 4 of Marsden and Tromba.
Recent Text(s): * Vector Calculus * (Marsden and Tromba, 3rd ed.); * Boundary Value Problems * (Powers, 3rd ed.)

**451. Advanced Calculus I. *** Math. 215 and one course beyond Math. 215; or Math. 285. Intended for concentrators;
other students should elect Math. 450. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This course has two
complementary goals: (1) a rigorous development of the fundamental
ideas of calculus, and (2) a further development of the student's
ability to deal with abstract mathematics and mathematical proofs.
The key words here are "rigor" and "proof";
almost all of the material of the course consists in understanding
and constructing definitions, theorems (propositions, lemmas, *etc.), *and proofs. This is considered one of the more difficult
among the undergraduate mathematics courses, and students should
be prepared to make a strong commitment to the course. In particular, it is strongly recommended that some course which requires proofs
(such as Math 412) be taken before Math 451. **Content.**
The material usually covered is essentially that of Ross' book.
Chapter I deals with the properties of the real number system
including (optionally) its construction from the natural and rational
numbers. Chapter II concentrates on sequences and their limits, Chapters III and IV on the application of these ideas to continuity
of functions, and sequences and series of functions. Chapter V
covers the basic properties of differentiation and Chapter VI
does the same for (Riemann) integration culminating in the proof
of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Along the way there are
presented generalizations of many of these ideas from the real
line to abstract metric spaces. Recent Text(s): * Elementary
Analysis: The Theory of Calculus * (Ross).

**454. Boundary Value Problems for Partial Differential
Equations. *** Math. 216, 286 or 316. Students with credit
for Math. 354, 455 or 554 can elect Math. 454 for 1 credit. (3).
(Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This course is devoted
to the use of Fourier series and other orthogonal expansions in the solution of boundary-value problems for second-order linear
partial differential equations. Emphasis is on concepts and calculation.
The official prerequisite is ample preparation. **Content.**
Classical representation and convergence theorems for Fourier
series; method of separation of variables for the solution of the one-dimensional heat and wave equation; the heat and wave
equations in higher dimensions; spherical and cylindrical Bessel
functions; Legendre polynomials; methods for evaluating asymptotic
integrals (Laplace's method, steepest descent); Fourier and Laplace
transforms; applications to linear input-output systems, analysis
of data smoothing and filtering, signal processing, time-series
analysis, and spectral analysis. This corresponds to Chapters
2-6 of Pinsky or much of Chapters 1-6 of Powers. Recent Text(s): * Introduction to Partial Differential Equations * (Pinsky); * Boundary Value Problems * (Powers).

**462. Mathematical Models. *** Math. 216, 286
or 316; and 217, 417, or 419. Students with credit for 362 must
have department permission to elect 462. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** The focus of this course
is the application of a variety of mathematical techniques to
solve real-world problems. Students will learn how to model a
problem in mathematical terms and use mathematicals to gain insight
and eventually solve the problem. Concepts and calculations, including
use of spreadsheets and programming, are emphasized, but proofs
are included. **Content.** Construction and analysis
of mathematical models in the natural or social sciences. Content
varies considerably with instructor. Recent versions: Use and theory of dynamical systems (chaotic dynamics, ecological and biological models, classical mecdhanics), and mathematical models
in physiology and population biology. Recent text(s): * Mathematical
Models * (Haberman; * Mathematical Models in Biology *
(Edelstein-Keshet).

**471. Introduction to Numerical Methods. *** Math.
216, 286, or 316; and 217, 417, or 419; and a working knowledge
of one high-level computer language. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This is a survey of the basic numerical methods which are used to solve scientific
problems. The emphasis is evenly divided between the analysis
of the methods and their practical applications. Some convergence theorems and error bounds are proved. The course also provides
an introduction to MATLAB, an interactive program for numerical
linear algebra, as well as practice in computer programming. One
goal of the course is to show how calculus and linear algebra
are used in numerical analysis. **Content.** Topics
include computer arithmetic, Newton's method for non-linear equations, polynomial interpolation, numerical integration, systems of linear
equations, initial value problems for ordinary differential equations, quadrature, partial pivoting, spline approximations, partial differential
equations, Monte Carlo methods, 2-point boundary value problems, Dirichlet problem for the Laplace equation. Recent Text(s): * Elementary
Numerical Analysis: an Algorithmic Approach * (Conte and DeBoor); * Numerical Analysis * (Burden and Faires, 4th ed.); * Numerical
Methods * (Dahlquist, Björck, and Anderson).

**481. Introduction to Mathematical Logic. *** Math.
412 or 451 or equivalent experience with abstract mathematics.
(3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** All of modern mathematics
involves logical relationships among mathematical concepts. In this course we focus on these relationships themselves rather than the ideas they relate. Inevitably this leads to a study of the (formal) languages suitable for expressing mathematical ideas.
The explicit goal of the course is the study of propositional
and first-order logic; the implicit goal is an improved understanding
of the logical structure of mathematics. Students should have
some previous experience with abstract mathematics and proofs, both because the course is largely concerned with theorems and proofs and because the formal logical concepts will be much more
meaningful to a student who has already encountered these concepts
informally. No previous course in logic is prerequisite. **Content.**
In the first third of the course the notion of a formal language
is introduced and propositional connectives ('and', 'or', 'not', 'implies'), tautologies and tautological consequence are studied.
The heart of the course is the study of first-order predicate
languages and their models. The new elements here are quantifiers
('there exists' and 'for all'). The study of the notions of truth, logical consequence, and provability lead to the completeness
and compactness theorems. The final topics include some applications
of these theorems, usually including non-standard analysis. This
material corresponds to Chapter 1 and sections 2.0-2.5 and 2.8
of Enderton. Recent Text(s): * A Mathematical Introduction to
Logic * (Enderton); * Mathematical Logic * (Ebbinghaus, Flum, and Thomas).

**490. Introduction to Topology. *** Math. 412
or 451 or equivalent experience with abstract mathematics. (3).
(Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This course is an introduction
to both point-set and algebraic topology. Although much of the
presentation is theoretical and proof-oriented, the material is
well-suited for developing intuition and giving convincing proofs
which are pictorial or geometric rather than completely rigorous.
There are many interesting examples of topologies and manifolds, some from common experience (combing a hairy ball, the utilities
problem). In addition to the stated prerequisites, a course containing
some group theory (Math 412 or 512) and advanced calculus (Math
451) are desirable although not absolutely necessary. **Content.**
The topics covered are fairly constant but the presentation and emphasis will vary significantly with the instructor. Point-set
topology, examples of topological spaces, orientable and non-orientable
surfaces, fundamental groups, homotopy, covering spaces. Metric
and Euclidean spaces are emphasized. This corresponds to Chapters
0-9, 11-19, and 21-26 of * A First Course in Algebraic Topology *
(Kosniowski).

**497. Topics in Elementary Mathematics. *** Math.
489 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated
for a total of six credits. *

**Background and Goals.** This is an elective
course for elementary teaching certificate candidates that extends
and deepens the coverage of mathematics begun in the required
two-course sequence Math 385-489. Applications and problem-solving
are emphasized. The class meets 3 times per week in recitation
sections. Grades are based on class participation, two one-hour
exams, and a final exam. **Content.** Selected topics
in geometry, algebra, computer programming, logic, and combinatorics
for prospective and in-service elementary, middle, or junior high
school teachers. Content will vary from term to term. Recent text(s): * Mathematics for Elementary Teachers * (Krause).

**525/Stat. 525. Probability
Theory. *** Math. 450 or 451; or permission of instructor.
Students with credit for Math. 425/Stat. 425 can elect Math. 525/Stat.
525 for only 1 credit. (3). (Excl). *

**Background and Goals.** This course is a thorough
and rigorous study of the mathematical theory of probability.
There is substantial overlap with Math 425, but here more sophisticated
mathematical tools are used and there is greater emphasis on proofs
of major results. Math 451 is preferable to Math 450 as preparation, but either is acceptable. **Content.** Topics include the basic results and methods of both discrete and continuous
probability theory. Different instructors will vary the emphasis
between these two theories. The material corresponds to all 9
chapters of * Introduction to Probability Theory * by Hoel, Post, and Stone together with some additional more theoretical
material or chapters 1-8 of * A First Course in Probability *
by Ross.

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