Courses in Philosophy (Division 442)

Philosophy is about as broad a subject as one can find in a university curriculum. It addresses a wide array of questions, some quite familiar (Does God exist? Why be moral? What is art?), other less so (What is a thing? Is space a substance?). Moreover, it falls within philosophy to examine the methods and practices of virtually all academic disciplines. For this reason, a person can study philosophy in ways involving the styles and techniques of thought of most other disciplines. Philosophy also examines the practices of other activities, such as the fine arts, that are sometimes thought of as different from typical academic disciplines. Philosophy includes the examination of its own methods, and its own history.

The Department teaches a number of courses that do not carry prerequisites: (A) general introductions designed to acquaint students with a representative sample of philosophical problems (181, 202, 231, 232, and 297); (B) introductions that focus on a particular branch of philosophy or area of human concern e.g., human nature, law, religion designed for students who, having no previous background in philosophy, want to study these areas in a philosophical way (152, 359, 365); and (C) introductions to logic and reasoning (180, 201, 203).

(A) The general introductions deal, for example, with questions concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, the self and the mind, freedom, morality, society, and religion, but they differ in their instructional formal and staffing. Philosophy 202 is taught by advanced graduate students in sections of approximately 25 students. Philosophy 181 is taught by more experienced Lecturers or other faculty, in a combination lecture/discussion format, limited to 50 students. In Philosophy 231 and 232, a faculty member delivers a lecture two hours per week, and students divide into groups of approximately 25 for discussion sections, led by graduate students, that meet one (231) or two (232) hours per week. Finally, Philosophy 297, "Honors Introduction," is taught by a faculty member to groups of 25-30 students.

(B) Fall courses not carrying prerequisites that focus on a specific area of human concern or philosophical thought include "Philosophy of Human Nature" (152), "Law and Philosophy', (359), and "ProblemS of Religion" (365). These courses do not require previous work in philosophy. Philosophy 152 is taught by a member of the faculty, in a combination lecture/discussion format, limited to 50 students. In Philosophy 359 and 365, a faculty member delivers a lecture two hours per week, and students divide into groups of approximately 25 for discussion sections led by graduate students.

(C) Among the introductions to logic, Philosophy 180 is a facultytaught introduction that makes extensive use of computerized exercises and tutorials (thereby also providing an introduction to MacIntosh computers), with an enrollment of 75-125 students. Philosophy 201 is principally an introduction to reasoning and informal logic; 203 is an introduction to formal or symbolic logic. Both 201 and 203 are taught by advanced graduate student teaching assistants in sections of approximately 25 students.

Philosophy 414, "Mathematical Logic," will be offered in Winter, 1995.

A number of Fall 300-level courses (319, 345, 361, 371, and 388) require only a single philosophy introduction as a prerequisite.

Students who seek additional information about the Department's curriculum may request a copy of "The Undergraduate Program in Philosophy." This brochure contains information intended for students interested in taking philosophy courses, whether or not they are considering a Philosophy concentration.

152. Philosophy of Human Nature. Students are strongly advised not to take more than two Philosophy Introductions. (3). (HU).

We will consider various claims about the nature of human beings. In asking about the "nature" of a sort of thing, one can ask about (1) "essence" what makes something be of that sort? or about (2) "composition" what are things of that sort made of? or about (3) "unmodified state" - is this stuff (say, some water) natural or "processed"? So, first, what makes something a human being? Second, what are human beings made of all natural ingredients, or supernatural souls? Third, what capacities, limitations, and purposes do human beings have inately? Do we have the free will to modify them? We will also glance at related moral issues. Facts about human essence may affect abortion and euthanasia, and facts about human composition may affect our importance. Facts about human competition may affect policies on education, genetic research, and sexual orientation, and may shape our conception of a fulfilling life. Cost:2 WL:4 (Lormand)

180. Introductory Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).
Section 001.
This is a course designed to improve critical reasoning skills and provide an introduction to formal logic. We will analyze the reasoning in passages drawn from college-level texts in various fields, learn some formal systems for representing and criticizing such reasoning, and master the logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments. This section of Introductory Logic will be based on computerized exercises and tutorials. Students will do weekly assignments at public computing sites. No prior experience with computers is needed. Cost:1 WL:4 (Velleman)

Section 002. This course is an introduction to informal logic, and to some of the main elements of formal logic. The course examines some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning, logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments, and provides an introduction to elementary formal (symbolic) logic. The course gives some attention to issues in branches of philosophy germane to logic, for example, the theory of knowledge, philosophy of language, and metaphysics. There will be lectures, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and a variety of exercises. The course is limited to approximately 50 students, which should permit opportunity for discussion. Texts and methods of evaluation to be determined. WL:4

181. Philosophical Issues: An Introduction. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 202, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

This course examines some of the main problems of philosophy, such as: How do we know that anything exists, other than ourselves? Are minds immaterial spirits, or are minds brains and hence nothing but complex physical objects? If human actions are causally determined by heredity and environment, is there any free will or moral responsibility? Is abortion, or euthanasia, or suicide, morally permissible? Is the nature and extent of our moral obligations determined by our feelings, self-interest, social convention, Divine commands, or something else? What are the different kinds of social, political, and economic organization, and what reasons are there for preferring one to another? How should one live one's life? What is the meaning of life, and what does this question mean? Are there good reasons for believing that God exists? Students will write papers discussing these topics. WL:4

196. Freshman Seminar. Freshman standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Philosophy and Work.
This seminar will be an effort to show that philosophical thinking can throw surprisingly helpful light on a variety of issues that surround the nature and meaning, but also the history, and perhaps most importantly the current crisis of work. The principal authors we will read together are Hegel (who advanced the idea that the the performance of certain kinds of work and in a sense nothing less than that - can bring us closer to self-realization, and thus to the achievement of dignify and self-respect), Karl Marx (whose ideas are familiar), Max Weber (who wrote the classical work on The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism), and Nietzsche (who developed the implications of many of Hegel's starting points into a broader and more fullfledged re-thinking of our values). In the last few weeks of the seminar we will make an effort to develop from the insights philosophy provides a set of practical proposals: on one level these will address the current crisis of work, on another they are meant to point the way towards a culture more humane, more intelligent, more cheerful, more sensuous and more flamboyant than the one in which we presently languish. WL:4 (Bergmann)

201. Introduction to Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 180 or 201. (3). (N.Excl).

This course aims to give students a thorough understanding of the fundamental forms of reasoning and rational argument, and to improve critical reasoning skills that could be of use in a wide range of disciplines and careers. The course examines some of the problems and fallacies which arise in informal reasoning and logical concepts used in the analysis and criticism of arguments. Some elements of formal (symbolic) logic might be introduced. Though students will be expected to master some technical detail, the course emphasizes informal logical techniques applicable to problem solving and argument in any area of inquiry. Both deductive and inductive patterns of argument will be examined. The small section's size (usually about 25 students) is conducive to informality and considerable student participation. There will also be lectures, demonstrations of problem-solving techniques, and a variety of exercises. Normally, there are weekly assignments, and short, periodic quizzes. WL:4

202. Introduction to Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 231, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

The purpose of this course is to familiarize students with philosophical thinking on the great questions that have moved people throughout history, and to discuss possible solutions to them. The course is taught in independent sections (of approximately 25 students) by advanced graduate students, who select topics and readings for their sections. Some sections examine the systems of such major historical figures as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Hegel, and Nietzsche; others focus on writings of twentieth century philosophers, such as Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. For a list of questions from which topics are typically chosen, see the description for Philosophy 181. The text is either a book of readings or a set of larger selections from separate editions of well-known philosophical works. Requirements usually include a number of short, critical papers on topics treated in the course. WL:4

203. Introduction to Symbolic Logic. Credit is granted for only one of Phil. 203 or 296. (3). (N.Excl).

Common sense classifies arguments as good or bad according to a variety of formal and informal criteria. Roughly speaking, we count an argument good if it makes plausible assumptions which exhibit its conclusion as likely to be true. Though the common sense classification is familiar and useful, sometimes we want something more precise and more amenable to systematic investigation. Thus we idealize from the intuitive notion of a "good" argument and call an argument valid if it is impossible for its assumptions to be true without its conclusion being true as well. Logic can now be defined as the study of validity. As it turns out, this study is best pursued by constructing artificial languages designed to replicate in purer form the logically relevant features of natural languages like English. Symbolic logic, the subject of this course, is the study of validity by reference to these formal languages. Students meet in sections of about 25 students each. Each section meets three hours per week and has a lecture/discussion format, with considerable student participation. Course requirements and grading vary from instructor to instructor, but normally there are weekly homework assignments and periodic quizzes.

230/Buddhist Studies 230/Asian Studies 230/Rel. 230. Introduction to Buddhism. May not be included in a concentration plan in philosophy. (4). (HU).

See Buddhist Studies 230. (Gómez)

231. Introduction to Philosophy: Problems and Principles. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 202, 232, 234, or 297. (3). (HU).

This is a first course in philosophy assuming no background in the subject; it is open to students from all areas of the University at any stage in their studies. The course has two main goals. First, to give you a sense of what philosophers think about and why. This will be done through consideration of several historically important issues: the existence of God, skepticism about the external world, knowledge of the future, personal identity, and freedom vs. determinism. The second goal is to develop the philosophical skill, and more generally the critical and argumentative skills, of those enrolled. Philosophy 231 and 232 share a common lecture for two meetings per week. Philosophy 231 carries three hours of credit, has one discussion meeting per week, and requires two short papers. Philosophy 232 carries four hours of credit, has two discussion meetings per week, and requires three short papers. Both 231 and 232 require a final exam. The course has two texts: Anthony Weston, A Rulebook for Arguments, (Hackett Publishing Company) and Joel Feinberg's anthology Reason and Responsibility (Dickenson Publishing Co.) Cost:2 WL:4 (Haslanger)

232. Problems of Philosophy. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 202, 231, 234, or 297. (4). (HU).

See Philosophy 231. (Haslanger)

297. Honors Introduction to Philosophy. Honors students or permission of instructor. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 181, 202, 231, 232, or 234. (3). (HU).
Section 001.
This course will examine some of the major philosophical problems: the existence of God, the nature and limits of human knowledge, the idea of freedom, the basis for ethical judgments, and the grounds of legitimate political authority. The readings will consist of a series of primary sources. Works by such philosophers as Plato, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Mill, Marx, and Camus will be included. Class sessions will follow a lecture and discussion format, and students will be evaluated on the basis of 3-4 papers. No prerequisites. (Lipschutz)

Section 002. The course is an introduction to philosophy for Honors undergraduates through the study of three classic, but accessible, texts: Hume's First Inquiry, J.L. Austin's Sense and Sensibilia, and Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. No previous acquaintance with philosophy is required. The mode of instruction will be lectures, but with plenty of time for questions and discussion. Students will be expected to produce three short papers, and to sit a midterm class test and a final exam. Cost:1 WL:4 (Rumfitt)

Section 003. This will be an Honors introduction to a few diverse contemporary philosophical problems. Extensive, careful reading will be required. There will be little lecturing, and we will expect to benefit from active discussion on the part of everyone. The other requirements for the course are four short papers (c. 5 pages), a midterm, and a final exam. WL:4 (Gibbard)

Section 004. This course will introduce students to philosophy through an examination of some major philosophical issues and problems. These will be discussed with reference either to the systems of such major historical figures as Plato, Aristotle, Decartes, Hume, and Kant, or to the work of such twentieth century philosophers as Bertrand Russell, A.J. Ayer, Ludwig Wittgenstein, or some combination of these approaches. For a list of questions from which topics are typically chosen, see the description for Philosophy 181. Requirements will include a number of short, critical papers. There will be significant opportunity for discussion. WL:4

319. Philosophy of the Arts. Philosophy 202 or equivalent. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Philosophy 419. (3). (Excl).

The central theme of the course will be emotional engagement and disengagement in art. From the beginnings of philosophical reflection on art, claims about its power to engage the emotions have been central to disputes about its distinctive values and dangers. What should we make of such claims? What happens to familiar human emotions when they get taken up into art? If art is often said to move or engage us, it is just as often said to bring us to a stop, to disengage us, to remove us (however briefly) from currents of emotion and desire that carry us along in the rest of our lives. What is to be made of this second class of claims? And how can the same works inspire both talk of engagement and talk of disengagement? In this course we'll look at several historically influential accounts of art's emotional powers. We'll investigate how various arts and artistic traditions differ in the ways they inspire and use audience emotion. We'll study the conceptual logic of important critical concepts such as identification, alienation, expression, and empathy. And we'll apply what we learn to some of the moral and political issues posed by art's emotional powers. Written work for the course will be three short papers, due at intervals during the term. Class discussion will be strongly encouraged. WL:4 (Hills)

334. Post-Biblical Jewish Philosophy. (3). (Excl).

A study of central philosophical problems discussed in the major work of medieval Jewish philosophy, Moses Maimonides' "Guide of the Perplexed." Special attention will be paid to Maimonides' Greek, Arabic and Rabbinic influences, as well as to his esotericism. Topics may include: reason and revelation, anthropomorphism and divine attributes, arguments for divine existence, creation and the eternity of the world, prophecy, providence and the contemplative versus the practical life. Readings from Aristotle, Saadia, Alfarabi, Maimonides, Spinoza, and others. Three 10-15 page papers. Classes will combine lecture and discussion, with participation strongly encouraged. Cost:2 WL:l (Franks)

345. Language and Mind. One philosophy course. (3). (Excl).

This course is an advanced introduction to some problems shared by philosophy of mind and philosophy of language. The theme will be the general nature of intentional action, and the more particular characteristics of those actions in the course of which we speak to one another, write to one another, etc. The course will involve the study of a number of classic texts in philosophy of mind and philosophy of language, notably J.L. Austin's How To Do Things With Words, J.R. Searle's Speech Acts, G.E.M. Anscombe's Intention, and the papers on intending and meaning by Paul Grice. While these texts are not easy, we will discuss them carefully, and every effort will be made to avoid unnecessary technicalities. The mode of instruction will be lectures, but with plenty of time for questions and discussion. Students will be expected to produce two 12-page papers, and to sit a final examination. Cost:2 WL:1 (Rumfitt)

359. Law and Philosophy. (4). (HU).

This course analyzes legal institutions with methods developed in various fields of philosophy, including ethics, political theory, the philosophy of language, the philosophy of mind, epistemology, and logic. Topics studied in this course may include: the nature of law, the source of legal authority, the moral obligation to obey the law, methods of legal interpretation, equality and discrimination, democracy and voting rights, the tension between property rights and distributive justice, the tension between social control and liberty (including specific liberties, such as free speech), the justification for punishing lawbreakers (or for imposing specific punishments, such as the death penalty), and the conditions of criminal responsibility (or specific applications of them, such as the defense of insanity). Readings may be drawn from historical figures (Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel); from contemporary legal philosophers (H.L.A. Hart, Ronald Dworkin, Joel Feinberg, Jean Hampton); from texts in legal history, criminology, or sociology; and from statutes and court decisions. WL:4 NOTE THE TIME SCHEDULE ERROR: LECTURE SECTION 001 WILL MEET MW 2-3 AND DISCUSSION SECTION 002 (ANDERSON) IS CHANGED TO MEET MW 3-4. (Anderson)

361. Ethics. One Philosophy Introduction. (4). (HU).

This is a course in Philosophical ethics. We will be concerned to see whether there is anything one can say in a principled way about what is valuable, worth wanting for its own sake, and what is morally obligatory, what it would be wrong not to do. But we shall also be concerned with philosophical questions about ethics metaethical questions, as they are called. Here we will ask, not only what is valuable, but what is value? And what is it for an action to be wrong? What are rightness and wrongness themselves? And we shall examine the relation between these fundamental philosophical questions of metaethics and substantive ethical questions. The core of the course will be an examination of three central traditions in moral philosophy in the west, typified by Aristotle, Imannuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill. We will also do a section focussed on metaethics with readings from classical and contemporary sources, including the existentialists. And we shall end the course by considering a recent critique of traditional moral philosophy raised by writers inspired by the work of the psychologist Carol Gilligan on gender and moral development, who would stress the role of personal relationships in ethics. Lecture and discussion. Two papers of 5-7 pages in length, a midterm, and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:1 (Darwall)

365/Rel. 365. Problems of Religion. (4). (HU).

Topics to be covered: arguments for and against the existence of God; problems about God's nature; miracles and revelation; death and immortality; faith and reason; and the relation between religion and morality. WL:4 (Curley)

371. Existentialism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (HU).

No other philosophic movement has raised issues and questions as evocative and mortal as has been done by Existentialism. Solitude, Anguish, Authenticity, The Death of God, Self-deception, Nausea, The Will to Power, The Absurd, Fascism, Nihilism, and in spite of that the birth of a new Humanity and Culture! We will try to understand what authors like Dostoevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Kafka, Hesse, Rilke, Gide, Malraux, Heidegger, Sartre, Camus and Handke wrote and thought about these matters. The course will require hard work and hard thinking. If you feel very frail you probably should not take it. Two papers and a final examination. (Bergmann)

388/Class. Civil. 388. History of Philosophy: Ancient. One Philosophy Introduction. A knowledge of Greek or Latin is not required. (4). (HU).

This course is a survey of philosophical thought through the Hellenistic period. Though the course focuses on the philosophical systems of Plato and Aristotle, some attention might be paid to Pre-socratic thinkers, Epicurus, the Stoics, and the Sceptics. Stress is laid not only on the the doctrines of these philosophers, but also on their arguments for holding them. Requirements will include a number of critical papers. Students who wish more detailed information should contact the Department prior to registration. WL:1

401. Undergraduate Honors Seminar. Open to Honors concentrators in Philosophy and others by permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This seminar will cover three broad philosophical topics, which will be chosen by the students from a list provided by the instructor. The course will be run like a graduate seminar. It requires 50-60 pages of reading per week, and each student will be asked to write three short (5-7 page) essays, and one long (15-20 page) term paper, In addition, everyone will give one or two in-class presentations (depending on enrollment), and comment on the same number of presentations by fellow students. This course is open to Honors philosophy concentrators, and to others by permission of instructor. WL:4 (Joyce)

403/Amer. Cult. 403/Rel. 403. American Philosophy. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

This course will deal with American philosophy from its beginnings in Jonathan Edwards and Ralph Waldo Emerson to twentieth century philosophers. The emphasis of the course will be on the classical pragmatists: Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. Among the texts will be James' Pragmatism and Dewey's Reconstruction in Philosophy and The Public and Its Problems. The section on contemporary philosophy will includes readings from W.V.O. Quine, Hilary Putnam, and Richard Rorty. Two term papers will be required, one handed in at approximately the middle of the term and theother handed in at the last class of the term. Cost:2 (Meiland)

405. Philosophy of Plato. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

Philosophy 405 provides a survey of the philosophical views of Plato, or focuses on some major aspect of Plato's philosophical systems, for example, his epistemology and metaphysics, or his ethics and political philosophy. Students who wish more detailed information should contact the Department prior to registration. WL:4

406. Aristotle. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

Philosophy 406 provides a survey of the philosophical views of Aristotle, or focuses on some major aspect of Aristotle's philosophical systems, for example, his epistemology and metaphysics, or his ethics and political philosophy. Students who wish more detailed information should contact the Department prior to registration. WL:4

409. Philosophy of Language. One Philosophy Introduction or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

An introduction to the philosophy of language, focusing on problems about meaning, truth, and reference in linguistic communication, and how these issues bear on the relations among mind, language and the world. The term will be divided into sections on reference, descriptions, truth conditions and semantics, propositional attitudes and utterance pragmatics. Readings will be selections from Frege, Quine, Grice, and Kripke, among others. The course will provide a background in the language-oriented arguments and techniques relevant to recent philosophical work in nearly all areas, and to formal work in linguistics. Students with no exposure to symbolic logic may need to do some background reading. Two exams, two papers, and one problem set. Combined lecture/discussion. WL:4 (Crimmins)

419. Philosophy of the Arts. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Phil. 319. Will not satisfy 400-level course requirement for concentration in philosophy. Not open to philosophy graduate students. (3). (Excl).

See Philosophy 319. (Hills)

423. Problems of Space and Time. One Logic Introduction and either one other philosophy course or 12 credits of science; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Traditional philosophical questions about the nature of time and space have been strikingly influenced in the twentieth century by the results of contemporary physical science. At the same time, the important current physical theories of space and time rest explicitly or implicitly on deep-rooted philosophical assumptions. The purpose of this course is to study the mutual interaction between science and philosophy as illustrated in problems about space and time. Typical topics to be considered include the status of knowledge about the structure of space and time, substantial versus relational theories of space-time, spatio-temporal order and causal order, and the so-called problem of the direction of time. This course can best be appreciated by students who have either a background in philosophy especially logic and philosophy of science, metaphysics, epistemology or background in physical science or mathematics. An attempt is made in the course to introduce the fundamental ideas of both philosophy and science at a level which can be understood by those without extensive background so students need not be proficient in both science and philosophy to benefit from the course. The primary text is L. Sklar, Space, Time and Spacetime. There are additional readings from such authors as Reichenbach, Poincare, Grunbaum, Smart, Wheeler, and others. Cost:2 WL:1 (Sklar)

428/Pol. Sci. 428/Asian Studies 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See Political Science 428. (Lieberthal)

437/MHM 437. Philosophy of Music. An introductory course in philosophy; or previous course work in music; or permission of the instructor. (3). (Excl).

A philosophical investigation of the nature and significance of music. What kind(s) of value does music have, and how is it important? Does its value lie merely in its structure, in the notes themselves? Does music have "meanings" of some sort? What is it for music to be expressive? What kinds of feelings or emotions does music evoke in listeners? Does it portray or represent feelings? Is music ever a source of knowledge or understanding or insight? Can it have (good or bad) moral effects on people? What are musical performances, and how do good performances differ from merely "correct" ones? What sorts of entities are musical works, and how are they related to performances and to musical scores? What is the role of music in song, opera, theater, film, dance? What functions does it serve in religious or cultural or social or political contexts? WL:4 (Walton)

442. Topics in Political Philosophy. Phil. 363, 366, or 441; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will trace the development of the ideal of democratic government in the early modern period, beginning with Machiavelli ( The Discourses), through Spinoza (The Theological-Political Treatise), and concluding with Rousseau (The Discourse on the Origins of Inequality and The Social Contract ). WL:4 (Curley)

461. Continental Rationalism. One Philosophy Introduction. (3). (Excl).

A detailed critical introduction to some main themes in the philosophical writings of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz. These themes will include: the roles of "reason" and "sense" in the conduct of inquiry; causation, causal explanation, and the order of nature; the God of the ontological argument; bodies and their motions; thinking things and their ideas; freedom and contingency; and "passion management" as a distinctive new approach to the problems of ethics. Written work for the course will be three papers of about ten pages each, due at intervals during the term. Class discussion will be strongly encouraged. WL:4 (Hills)

466. Topics in Continental Philosophy. One of Philosophy 371, 375, 385, or 389, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A study of central texts in the development of German Idealism and Romanticism from Kant to Hegel. Topics include: the implications of Kant's Copernican revolution, skepticism about metaphysics, the possibility of a philosophical system, the autonomy of reason and the externality of the world, philosophical and literary criticism, philosophy and poetry. Readings from Kant, Fichte, Schelling, the Schlegels, Hegel and others. Three 10-15 page papers. Classes will combine lecture and discussion, with participation strongly encouraged. Cost:2 WL:1 (Franks)

468/Chinese 468. Classical Chinese Thought (To A.D. 220). Upperclass standing; no knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

See Chinese 468. (Munro)

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