Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS). (BS).

The course explores the biological basis for variation in human morphology, physiology, and behavior across different modern populations around the world, and through human evolutionary history. Major topics discussed are evolutionary theory, genetics, human adaptation, primate and human behavior, and the human fossil record. No special knowledge is required or assumed. Cost:2 WL:2 (Strassmann)

168. First Year Seminar in Primate Field Studies. (3). (NS). (BS).

A seminar designed for incoming freshmen. Students will be introduced to science as a mode of inquiry by applying Darwin's theory of natural selection to the behavior of nonhuman primates. Emphasis will be given to long-term field studies of primates in the wild. One three-hour discussion/lecture. Class participation, weekly writing assignments, and a term paper required. (Mitani)

364. Nutrition and Evolution. Sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS).
Section 001 Nutrition and Evolution.
Study of the evolutionary basis of contemporary nutritional patterns, the short and long-term effects of industrialization on human biology during development and adulthood. (Frisancho)

365. Human Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4). (NS). (BS).

Human evolution has been a biological process with both social and physical aspects. Through lectures, discussion section, laboratory and reading, the interrelated process of behavioral and physical change is outlined for the human line. Emphasis is placed on evolutionary mechanisms, and context is provided through an understanding of the pre-human primates. The human story begins with origins and the appearance of unique human features such as bipedality, the loss of cutting canines, the appearance of continual sexual receptivity, and the development of complex social interactions. An early adaptive shift sets the stage for the subsequent evolution of intelligence, technology and the changes in physical form that are the consequence of the unique feedback system involving cultural and biological change. The "Eve" theory and other ideas about the origin of races and their development and relationships are discussed in this context. Class participation and discussion are emphasized and there is a required discussion/ laboratory section for elaboration of lecture topics and supervised hands-on experience with primate skeletal material and replicas of human fossils. Student evaluations are based on three examinations, laboratory quizzes, and a laboratory exam. Cost:2 WL:2,4 (Wolpoff)

368/Psych. 437. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS). (BS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order The major focus of the course will be the behavior or prosimians, monkeys and apes in the wild. Special attention will be given to primate ecology and long-term field studies. Social organization, kinship systems, sexual behavior, vocal communication, competition, and other topics will be described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, and serves as an introduction to Anthropology 369 (Primate Social Relationships) and 568 (Primate Behavioral Ecology). Three lecture hours, and one discussion weekly. Two midterms, a term paper and a final exam. WL:1 (Mitani)

462. Ecological and Genetic Variation in Human Populations. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The first part of this course will outline the forces or factors determining the growth rates of human population and especially the role of infectious disease. The second part will emphasize the genetic adaptations due to malaria and then explore the implications of these associations for other genetic variation. The course grade is based on a midterm and final examination. Cost:1 WL:2,3,4 (Livingstone)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).
Section 001.
This course will introduce students to the four major subfields of anthropology: cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and biological anthropology. In the process, we will focus on how each of these subfields helps to explain the cultural, social, and physical aspects of human diversity. An explicit part of this process is exploring how sociocultural differences like gender, and racial and ethnic identity are constructed, and the roles these differences may play in our lives. The first part of the course is devoted to outlining some basic questions that will be addressed throughout the term: What is "culture"? Is there a distinctively human nature? What is the basis of human social groupings, such as culture, race, ethnicity, and class? What kinds of evidence are useful in addressing issues involving human diversity? The subsequent parts of the course will approach specific topics within the discipline both as subjects in their own right and as means to getting answers to these questions. (Brawn)

Section 150. This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution, and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps a short paper. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Peters-Golden)

Section 200 Honors Introduction to Anthropology. This seminar introduces anthropology's modes of inquiry and its four subfields (biological, archaeological, cultural and linguistic anthropology), through the examination of subjects which have been central to the discipline's development, such as race, gender, sexuality, and conflict. The course seeks to develop the capacity for informed and critical thinking about evolution and adaptation, human nature and cultural diversity, and to suggest how anthropology can help us understand contemporary issues. It presents students with unifying principles of analysis which link the subfields, as well as with debates through which Anthropology continues to change. The course allows students to explore certain subjects in greater depth. We will use a variety of materials and activities, and students are expected to participate actively in class. There will be an exam and two papers, supplemented by short writing exercises. (Skurski)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

The purpose of this course is to acquaint students with the great variety existing in human culture and society so that they can place their own particular way of life in proper perspective. Its subject matter is world ethnology with special emphasis on social organization and economy. Lectures and readings are organized according to complexity of society; the course begins with hunters and gatherers, progresses through various tribal and peasant societies, and concludes with contemporary industrial nations. The approach is comparative. Lectures are supplemented by weekly discussion sections augmented by a variety of readings, primarily ethnographic in nature, and by frequent showings of ethnographic films. Course requirements include a midterm examination, a final examination, and a paper applying principles learned in the course to some aspect of the student's own life. Both examinations consist primarily of essay questions. This course is intended for non-concentrators. Cost:3 WL:4

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of anthropological archaeology with a general survey of world prehistory. Discussion of method and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in anthropological archaeology. The survey of world prehistory will focus on four major topics: (1) the emergence in Africa of the first proto-humans, between two and six million years ago; (2) the appearance of the first anatomically and behaviorally "modern" humans; (3) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the development of the first village farming communities; and (4) the rise of more complex stratified "state-level" societies. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators. There will be three one-hour lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements: three in-class hourly exams and a final examination, plus 3-4 take-home exercises that give students firsthand experience with the analysis and interpretation of archaeological data. Required readings: Archaeology, by David Hurst Thomas, and Images of the Past, by G. Feinman and D. Price. Cost:3 WL:2 (Sinopoli)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

315. Native American Peoples of North America. (4). (SS).

Native American communities, often deeply rooted in traditional places and voices despite relocations and losses of native languages - all involve strong family ties and histories of local and regional power struggles. In this course, we look at cross cultural dynamics and tribal identities in political encounters between Native American peoples and various others: developers, environmentalists, educators, other governmental authorities, poets, and social scientists, to name a few. Key issues include land rights, family relations, alcoholism, and freedom of religion. A recurrent question: what are the limits and possibilities of self-definition for Native American peoples, in what circumstances? Finally, we look at contemporary Native American fiction, non-fiction, and film documentaries as cultural forces which challenge Western constructions of who Native American peoples are. I teach using a series of critical frames as well as storytelling, traditional anthropological methods and "postmodern" deconstruction. Grades will be based on three analytical papers. WL:1 (Bierwert)

403. Japanese Society and Culture. Anthro. 101, 222, or any Japan course. (4). (Excl).

This is a multi-media lecture course designed to introduce and explore salient and inter-related themes, patterns, and practices in post-WW2 Japanese society and culture. Our overall aim is to explore the ways in which Japanese women and men, girls and boys (from punks and theater fans to police officers and office workers) learn, unlearn, reproduce, and resist everyday practices and state policies. We will examine critically parochial stereotypes of Japan of both Japanese and non-Japanese invention. There will be about 5 required texts, a reading packet, two short papers, and an essay final exam. (Robertson)

405. Peoples and Cultures of India. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

Following a survey of the peoples and cultures of South Asia - which will include the Indian sub-continent and Sri Lanka - the course will focus on five culturally salient phenomena: person, family, caste, religion, and ethnicity. A course pack in addition to several monographs will constitute the required reading for the course. A paper, a midterm and a final examination will be required of all students. The course will be structured on a lecture-seminar format. Cost:3 WL:4 (Daniel)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of the Near East culture area, from Morocco to Afghanistan, with the emphasis on Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies of the region. The rise of Islam is first looked at from an anthropological perspective, and three broad ways of life are then discussed: nomadic, peasant and urban. The conceptual and historical relations between these are examined with reference to the writings of Ibn Khaldun and to such events as the Wahhabi movement in Saudi Arabia. In the second half of the course some cultural themes are discussed that recur throughout the area: the rhetoric of honor and shame, the "modesty" of women and the values of Islam. An attempt is made to set nationalism and fundamentalism in their cultural context. This is a lecture course. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short term paper for graduate students. Readings are drawn from classics such as Doughty and Snouck-Hurgonje, as well as from recent anthropology. (Messick)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures, I. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films and videos on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: FOUR 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize READING and LECTURE materials; participation in CLASS discussions; regular class attendance. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

416/Hist. 476. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (4). (SS).

See History 476. (Scott)


330. Culture, Thought, and Meaning. (4). (HU).

In this course the three interrelated concepts of Culture, Thought and Meaning will be explored through reading theory, ethnographies and novels. The origins and the evolution of the term culture and the varieties of senses it has come to acquire from cultural parades on Main Street, to the "high culture" of the opera house to the relativistic notion of culture in anthroplogoy - will be examined. Is Thought limited to the brain or is it found in the wider cosmos, among bees, or even in the formation of crystals? And what is the meaning of meaning? Is it limited to language or does it extend to wider systems of signification, including the affective side of human experiences that cannot be expressed in words? These are few of the questions that will be pursued in this course. (Lewis)

447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of Homo sapiens. It reviews the theories of Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss and others who have attempted to comprehend that origin and development. The course will trace the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? Is racism, like modernity and its other social problems, a characteristic of civilization? These are some of the questions with which students will wrestle. The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, function and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why is law obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs; women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal, or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers, or three 6-8 page student papers. Lecture/discussion format. Cost:1 WL:3 (Owusu)

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 002 Cultures of Colonialism.
This course offers an overview of anthropological approaches to the colonial encounter, focusing on the cultural representation and political economy of European rule in Asia, Africa and South America. It will focus on the historical processes by which the categories of COLONIZER and COLONIZED have been created and contested by looking at the gender politics, racial thinking and class visions which those categories implied. We will explore the changing interface between anthropological knowledge and colonial power by tracing the participation of anthropologists in the colonial enterprise and their post-colonial treatments of that history. Attention will be given to how colonial relations of control and resistance have shaped the contemporary landscape of the THIRD WORLD today. Grades will be based on class participation and preparation, weekly commentaries and a set of critical essays or research paper. Cost:2 WL:2 (Stoler)

Section 003 Language and Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective. This course will introduce students to an anthropological perspective on the relationship between language and gender. We will analyze how language both emerges from and reproduces gender ideologies and gendered practices in all societies. Women and men as gendered subjects communicate (and miscommunicate) with members of their own and the opposite sex; what patterns are visible in their communication styles, what are the causes and consequences of these patterns, and how do their meanings differ across cultures? We will also consider how other aspects of an individual's identity, such as race, ethnicity, class, age, and sexual orientation, articulate with gender in linguistic interactions. Students will be required to complete three exercises, all of which involve linguistic analysis and the writing of essays. In these exercises, as well as in the midterm and final exams, emphasis will be placed on the ability to write clearly and concisely. Students will engage in small-group work during class and will be expected to participate in class discussions. (Ahearn)

429. Television, Society, and Culture. (3). (Excl).

Television has been compared to a new religion, cultivating homogeneity, uniting adherents in a common set of images and symbols. Television executives, commentators and reporters have become "key gatekeepers" assuming roles played historically by political and religious leaders. TV has been labeled "narcoticizing" and faulted for diverting attention from serious social issues and replacing effective thought and action with passive absorption in portrayals. Television has been said to reinforce existing hierarchies and impede social reform. It also stimulates participation in a worldwide cash economy, and TV's worldwide spread has raised concerns about cultural imperialism. Ethnocentrism is common in the evaluation of television and its effects. Understanding of TV impact can be broadened through a cross-cultural approach to this medium, which, specific content and programming aside, must be recognized as one of the most powerful information disseminators, socializing agents and public-opinion molders in the contemporary world. This seminar will consider cross-cultural diversity in TV and will assess the medium's various social, cultural, and psychological dimensions and effects. Students, who will include seniors, concentrators and graduate students in American Culture, Communication, Anthropology, and other related fields will each investigate an aspect of television. Students will be responsible for attending class, organizing and participating in discussions of particular readings, and presenting, orally to the class and in writing, a term paper based on research concerning some aspect of TV impact. Cost:3 WL:1,3 (Kottak)

448/Rel. 452. Anthropology of Religion: Ritual, Sanctity and Adaptation. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course is primarily concerned with the nature of religion and, secondarily, with religion's place in the human mode of adaptation. Using comparative ethnographic materials drawn from both tribal and complex societies it seeks to illuminate universal aspects of such concepts as the sacred, the numinous, the divine and the holy and to show how these concepts are generated in ritual. In the last part of the course the place of religion in the adaptations of particular societies will be considered and the ways in which it can become maladaptive will be approached. Grades will be based on two take-home essays of 1500-2500 words, one given at midterm the other final. Junior standing or permission of instructor required. The class is usually 1/4 1/3 Grad student 1/4 3/4 Undergrad. Separate voluntary discussion groups are conducted for graduate and undergraduates for one additional credit hour. WL:2 (Rappaport)

451/CAAS 459. African-American Religion. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the nature of religion in the lives of humans, within the framework of culture, and as a pervasive social institution. It will focus on the special case of the intensive and involved character of religion in the history and the lives of Afro-Americans. These special uses of religion create special problems. We will analyze those problems. The course is open to all students and it requires no special background or preparation. There will be two examinations and two short written assignments. Class participation and attendance are required. The required texts are: Afro-American Religious History, M.Sernett; Community in a Black Pentecostal Church: An Anthropological Study, M.D. Williams; The Human Dilemma, M.D. Williams. The course objectives are to: (1) Introduce the subject of religion as a social institution, as a pervasive component of culture, and as a contemporary adjustment and adaptation to peculiar social problems, (2) Demonstrate how an anthropological analysis can be used to understand religion in contemporary society, (3) Develop skills in critical thinking and analysis, (4) Present the relationship between culture, institutions, religion, subculture, and the nature of man (humans), and (5) Enable students to understand the religious institutions of humans generally and Afro-Americans specifically. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)

546/Music 547. Ethnomusicology. (3). (Excl).

See Music History and Musicology 547. (Monson)


473/Ling. 473. Ethnopoetics: Cross-Cultural Approaches to Verbal Art. Two courses in anthropology, linguistics or literature, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

How do we listen to the verbal arts of nonwestern peoples without imposing our preconceived folk ideas about form, performance, authorship, and textuality? And if we do manage to hear and study these arts in their own "terms," can we translate and represent them without making a caricature of these sources? This course will consider efforts by anthropologists, linguists, poets, folklorists, and literary theorists to address these questions at several levels: (1) working our methodologies which allows us to see the poetics in others' arts, (2) critically assessing the methodologies, and (3) exploring theories about differences between oral literatures and written traditions as well as the cultural shaping of literatures. We will also consider what ways this work contributes to reshaping anthropology itself. (Bierwert)

474/Ling. 410. Language and Discrimination: Language as Social Statement. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410. (Lippi-Green)

475. Ethnography of Writing. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Considering genres that range from constitutions to contracts, and from literatures to list, this course looks at writing as a cultural phenomenon. The approach is contextual and historical, situating specific forms of writings in relation to class, gender, and ethnicity, and with respect to pre-colonial, colonial, and nation state settings. While western-modeled and evolutionary approaches are criticised, the tools of a cultural analysis of writing are advanced. This approach draws on recent departures in linguistic anthropology, adapts ideas from literary criticism, and integrates indigenous theories about texts. Ethnographies of writing are anchored in detailed studies set in places such as schools, courts, political arenas, literary circles, and ordinary life. Topics will include the relation of the spoken and the written, script versus print, authors and authority, advents of literacy and colonial writing. (Mesick)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 417. (Milroy)

478/Ling. 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 442. (Milroy)


385. The Archaeology of Early Humans. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

This course will introduce students to the many exciting new discoveries in the archaeology of our earliest human ancestors, tracing what we know of human cultural and biological evolution from the first appearance of upright, small-brained, tool-making humans, 2.0 to 2.5 million years ago, to the appearance of fully modern humans in the last 30,000 to 40,000 years. The course will be divided into two segments. The first briefly surveys the techniques and methods used by archaeologists to find ancient archaeological sites, and how they go about studying the fossil human remains, animal bones, and stone tools from these sites to learn about ancient lifeways. This section also looks at how studies of living primates in the wild, such as chimpanzees, as well as modern hunter-gatherers, such as the Bushmen and Australian Aborigines, can help us to interpret the distant past. The second segment of the course turns to the actual archaeological record, looking at some of the most important finds from Africa, Asia, and Europe. In this segment, the course follows the accelerating developmental trajectory of our ancestors from the simplest tool-makers, who lacked any sign of art or religion, to humans much like ourselves, who began to bury their dead with clear displays of ritual and who adorned the walls of their caves and their own bodies with art. The course is oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators in anthropology. Requirements include two in-class hourly exams and a final examination. Required readings: to be announced. Cost:2 WL:2 (Speth)

387. Prehistory of North America. Anthro. 101 or 282. (3). (Excl).

Humans have inhabited North America for over 10,000 years. This class surveys the varied adaptations and lifeways of these peoples and explores how and why they changed through time. Because this class seeks to reveal culture history, as determined through archaeology, our coverage will include a discussion of Native American, and European interaction during the 16th through 19th centuries. In general the focus of the course will be on North America north of modern Mexico. It is suggested that students planning to enroll in Anthropology 387 take Introduction to Archaeology, or Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. Instruction will be by lecture supplemented by slides and films. Some artifacts will be used for illustrative purposes. Evaluation will be based on examinations. Cost:2 WL:2 (Speth)

483. Near Eastern Prehistory. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course traces the evolution of culture and society in Israel, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, and Iran, from the earliest evidence for humans in the region (over 1,000,000 years ago) until the rise of Mesopotamian civilization (around 2500 B.C.) Topics include the origins of agriculture and animal domestication, the establishment of village and town life, and the rise of cities in the Tigris-Euphrates lowlands. Cost:1 WL:3 (Flannery)

488. Prehistory of Mexico. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course covers the Prehispanic culture sequence for Mesoamerica outside the Maya region. It begins with the first evidence for humans in late Pleistocene Mexico, and proceeds to a discussion of Archaic hunting-and-gathering period of 8000-2000 B.C. The origins of agriculture during this preceramic period are documented, as well as the rise of sedentary agricultural villages by 1500 B.C. The course then considers the evolution of ranked societies during the Formative (1500 B.C.-A.D. 100) and of urban stratified societies during the Classic (A.D. 100-800). The evolution of Mexico's ethnohistorically documented Postclassic societies - the Toltec, Aztec, Mixtec, Zapotec, Huastec, and Tarascans is then traced up to Spanish Conquest of A.D. 1519. There will be three lectures a week, accompanied by reading of a course pack of relevant journal articles and book chapters. Cost:2 WL:1 (Parsons)

593. Archaeological Systematics. Senior concentrators, graduates, with permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

The structure of archaeological research. Philosophical foundations of archaeology, systematic approach, the archaeological record viewed in an ecological context.

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration advisor.
Section 001- Honors Ethnology.
This Honors course sequence in cultural anthropology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in cultural anthropology and have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week in seminar to read and discuss a selection of significant monographs and papers in ethnology, and a selection of writings on fieldwork methods and research strategies in ethnology. This seminar provides background for the students to define their own senior Honors thesis project. By the end of the term, the students will have decided on a project, and begun preliminary work on it. In consultation with the Honors advisor the student may request any member of the Anthropology Department to serve as a main thesis advisor or second reader. In the Winter term, the students will convene periodically in seminar with the Honors advisor to discuss their research projects and get feedback from the group, as well as staying in contact with the Honors advisor and second reader. By the end of the term, each student should have completed the research and write-up for their thesis so that they can make a formal summary presentation of it for the group. Original field research or library work may be used for Honors projects. (Lockwood)

Section 002 Honors Archaeology. This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. This seminar provides background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Ford)

496. Museum Techniques in Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (1-3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit for a total of 6 credits for Anthro 496 and 497.

The goal of this course is the introduction of museum collection management and exhibition. It will acquaint students with the ethics of collecting anthropological artifacts and archaeological objects, their proper storage, conservation, computer cataloging, procedures for lending and borrowing, and methods for exhibiting the collection. The course serves as an introduction to museum employment as a career and to general knowledge about the "behind the scene" operations in a museum. Lectures will be complemented by tours to laboratories, storage areas, and a student organized exhibit. Students will write short critiques of museum exhibits and complete a final examination. No prerequisites are required. (Ford)

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