Courses in History (Division 390)

100-Level Courses are Survey Courses and Introductory Courses for Freshmen and Sophomores

110. Medieval, Renaissance, and Reformation Europe. (4). (SS).

What civilization did our European ancestors create? How did they render it so powerful? And why is it so different from its neighbors? This course, with lectures, slides, cinema, and class discussion, addresses these matters topically. You may expect to read and view a number of original sources (biographies, travel accounts, monumental art, and doodles) in order to study the rise and rivalry of Christianity and Islam; changing notions of the hero from swordsman to scientist; comparative treatments of minorities (Jews) and majorities (women); the relationship between church and state; the management of loyalty and love; shipping, printing, and technological superiority; why Columbus reached Japan and Galileo discovered Neptune; the relation between art and autobiography; and other topics that illustrate European history without excessive boredom. There will be two hour examinations in addition to the final. Cost:2 WL:4 (Lindner)

121/Asian Studies 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

This is an introduction to the civilizations of China, Korea and Japan. It aims to provide an overview of changing traditions from ancient to early modern times (ca. 1650 AD) by outlining broad trends which not only transformed the society, politics, economy and culture of each country but also laid the ground for future shaping of this region into three distinctly different modern nations. Development of state Confucianism, the spread of Buddhism, growing gender disparities, functions of scholars and samurai, the superiority of premodern Asian science and technology, and meanings of peasant rebellions are some of the topics we will cover. In addition to the textbook, we will read contemporary accounts and view films and slides to acquire intimate appreciation of these cultures. There are no prerequisites for enrollment. Course requirements include attendance at lectures, participation in discussion sections, and successful completion of quizzes given in sections, two examinations, and one report/project. Cost:2 WL:3 (Chang)

151/UC 172/Asian Studies 111. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

This course is an introduction to South Asian Civilization, which means that it will provide glimpses of the depth and complexity of the history and culture of "India" (which today consists of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka). The course will cover the Indus Valley Civilization, the Vedic Age, early Indian empires, medieval social transformations and the Mughal empire, British colonial conquest and rule and Indian nationalist social and political protest, as well as aspects of contemporary society, culture, and politics in postcolonial South Asia. The course will review this historical canvas in terms of the ways history and culture have become, indeed have always been, mixed up with politics in South Asian Civilization; thus we will use the contemporary politics and predicaments of South Asia as the basis for considering the meanings and politics of history itself. Course requirements include three short papers, a map quiz, and a final exam. (Trautmann)

160. United States to 1865. (4). (SS).

This course will focus on changing notions of what America, both as a society and as a polity, stands for. It will turn first to the sources of the growing American self-consciousness in the 18th century; will describe the vision embraced by the founding fathers; will explain the forces which produced a mutation in that vision, creating Jacksonianism; will develop the seeds of self-destruction in the Jacksonian creed; will explain the sources of the suicide of Jacksonian America and the birth of the industrial faith; and will seek to define the residuum which each of these historical movements contributed to modern America. There will be a midterm and final examination. Weekly assignments will amount to perhaps 150 to 200 pages, and will be drawn both from primary sources and from secondary comments. Though designed as a survey, the course presupposes some vague familiarity with the structure of American history; and will therefore desert the strictly narrative, for emphasis on certain episodes and movements which possess symbolic value. Cost:5 WL:4 (Thornton)

161. United States, 1865 to the Present. (4). (SS).

History 161 has three basic objectives. First, we expect you to gain a better understanding of some of the social, cultural, political, economic, and demographic forces that have shaped the American experience since the Civil War. Lectures, discussion sections, and readings will focus on transformations in the labor force and workplace; the significance of race, ethnicity, gender and class in defining American identities; changes in family life and community networks; and the shifting scope of the public and private sectors. Second, the staff wants you to refine basic reading and writing skills that can be applied throughout your undergraduate education. There will be a midterm and final examination and several short papers. Finally, the course is designed to give you some historical direction as you think about where you are heading and why. Cost:4 WL:2 (Achenbaum)

171/German 171/UC 171. Coming to Terms with Germany. (4). (HU).

See German 171. (Eley, Amrine)

196. Freshman Seminar. (3). (SS).
Section 001 Consuming the World and the World of Consumption.
This course will examine consumerism in the U.S. and Europe in the 20th Century. It shall cover a range of issues from the commercial dynamics of popular culture (flappers to "mall rates") to global warming. Topics under scrutiny will include fashion and the body as commodity, pop and ethnic music as modes of protest against and integration with "high" culture, the automobile as liberator and oppressor, censorship and prohibition as means of advertisement, and the rise of throwaway culture. We shall use approaches that embrace cultural studies, economic analysis, ecological sensitivity, and the politics of difference. The key questions shall be how consumerism arose historically as the defining essence of "Americanism" (even in Europe!) and whether it has rendered authenticity impossible or allowed new, more genius voices to be heard. TTh 1:30-1. (Frost)

197. Freshman Seminar. (3). (HU).
Section 001 The Salem Witchcraft Outbreak of 1692.
For Fall Term, 1995, this section is offered jointly with Women's Studies 150.001. (Karlsen)

Section 002 20th Century European Intellectual History. The topics to be discussed, among others, will include: The Rise of the Avant-Garde and Modernism in Art and Literature; Science/ Technology and the Challenge to Religious Faith; Growth of Irrationalism and the Rise of Authoritarian Ideology; the Impact of Revolutionary Ideas on Intellectual Life; the Challenge to Liberalism; the Intellectual Aftermath of the Second World War and the Origins of Post-Modernism. It is recommended that the students have a background in modern European history. The seminar will be conducted through lecture and discussion with a midterm and final exam. Texts will include source material and contemporary responses to historical events. The purpose of the course will be to familiarize students with major cultural and intellectual movements in modern Europe. Cost:3 WL:2 (Becker)

Section 003 The Crusades. This seminar examines the interactions between Europeans and Middle Eastern peoples of various backgrounds in the "Holy Land" between the 11th and 14th centuries. It is based on an intensive reading of medieval accounts and it develops basic historical techniques for research in and analysis of primary sources. It requires the pursuit of a main research project, culminating in a paper of about 15 pages; 3 short reviews on class readings; completion of weekly reading assignments of about 150 pages. MW 2:30-4. (Squatriti)

200-Level Courses are for Sophomores and Upper Class Students

200. Greece to 201 B.C. (4). (HU).

This course presents a survey of history from human beginnings through Alexander the Great. Primary emphasis is on the development of civilization in its Near Eastern and Greek phases. Students need no special background except an ability to think in broad terms and concepts. In view of the extent of historical time covered in the course, a general textbook is used to provide factual material. There are two hour examinations (an optional paper may be written for extra credit) plus a final examination. Discussion sections are integrated with lectures and reading. Cost:2 WL:1 (Humphreys)

210/MARC 210. Early Middle Ages, 300-1100. (4). (SS).

This course will survey the formation of Western European culture from late antiquity to the tenth century. It is intended as a broad introduction to the period and will trace demographic and economic decline and growth, changing social forms, and the development of European political, legal, and religious institutions. We will also examine early medieval culture, including popular religious life saints, relics and pilgrimages as well as early science and philosophy and the fine arts. The central theme running through the lectures and readings is the way in which two cultures the pagan culture of the Germanic north and the Christian culture of the Roman south slowly merged into one, creating a new social memory and cultural identity. There will be a midterm and a final examination as well as a short paper. In addition to the lectures, discussion sections will address a series of early medieval sources, read in translation. (Squatriti)

218. The Vietnam War, 1945-1975. (4). (SS).

This course examines the wars that were fought in and around Vietnam from 1945 to 1975, with primary emphasis on the period of heavy American involvement from the mid-1950's. The course seeks to explain the origins, strategy, and impact of U.S. intervention. At the same time the course will explain the motivation of the Vietnam Communists and of their domestic opponents. Thus the Vietnam war will be analyzed both as the longest and most controversial foreign war in American history, and as the climax to an Asian social revolution. Meets three times a week for 50 minutes, plus one 50-minute discussion section. Midterm and final exam. Cost:3 WL:4 (Lieberman)

220. Survey of British History to 1688. (4). (SS).

This course introduces students to the sweep of English history from Roman times until the Glorious Revolution. The first half of it is devoted to the Middle Ages and focuses on the formation of the English monarchy, the role of the church in politics and culture and basic social and economic structures. The second half treats the early modern period (c. 1450-1700) and concentrates on the growth of the state, the Protestant Reformation, the English Revolution and the social and economic changes that followed the Black Death and played themselves out during the reigns of the Tudor and Stuart monarchs. No prior knowledge of English history is assumed in this class, and it is intended to serve as the basis for more advanced work in British history and to provide background and comparisons for courses in English literature and European and American history.

250. China from the Oracle Bones to the Opium War. (3). (HU).

This course consists of a survey of early Chinese history, with special emphasis on the origins and development of the political, social, and economic institutions and their intellectual foundations. Special features include class participation in performing a series of short dramas recreating critical issues and moments in Chinese history, slides especially prepared for the lectures, new views on race and gender in the making of China, intellectual and scientific revolutions in the seventeenth century, and literature and society in premodern China. WL:1 (Chang)

251. Modern China. (3). (SS).

History 251 examines the transformation of modern China from 1800 to the present; i.e., from the late Qing empire to the post-Mao era in contemporary China, by means of lectures, reading, and discussion. The main events of 19th and 20th century China and their various interpretations are explored: Chinese state and society at the end of the 18th century; the Opium wars and the establishment of a foreign presence; 19th century rebellions and their consequences; imperialism and reform; the republican revolution; nationalism and social revolution in the 1920's; the development of the Communist movement; war and civil war in the 1930's and 1940's; the People's Republic of China since 1949. About 150 pages of reading a week from text, monographs and translations of contemporary materials. A course paper is required. Midterm and final examinations. Cost:2,3 WL:3 (A.Feuerwerker)

284. Sickness and Health in Society: 1492 to the Present. (3). (SS).

From devastating infectious epidemics to the quiet suffering of malnutrition, health problems have both affected and reflected the evolution of modern society. The course will study four different historical periods, exploring such issues as: the effects of individual habits, environmental conditions, and medical innovation on public health; the role of ethics, economics, and politics in medical decision making; the changing health problems of the disadvantaged, including Native Americans, women, Blacks, immigrants, and workers; the changing meaning of concepts like "health," "disease," "cause," and "cure"; the dissemination and impact of medical discoveries; and the changing organization and power of the healing professions. We will focus on American history, although comparisons will be drawn to other societies. The course is a basic introduction, however, first-year students must obtain permission of the professor to enroll. Classes are taught in lecture format, and will include a variety of audio-visual sources. Reading assignments will range from modern histories to poetry and old medical journals. There will be two essay-style examinations, and frequent short quizzes. This is a challenging and demanding course. Those who miss the first meeting without advance permission will be dropped from the course. Cost:1-4. Required purchases cost $15, but additional required reading assignments, available on reserve or for optional purchase, cost up to $110 additional if bought. WL:4 (Pernick)

285. Science, Technology, and Society After The Bomb. (3). (HU).

The enterprise of science changed dramatically after WWII, both intellectually and socially. The consequences of being able to split the atom and, more recently, to engineer biological blueprints have made science literally a life and death activity that touches every human. This course will explore the growth and implications of scientific and technological development from the end of WWII to the present. There will be two lectures and one discussion per week. Students will work in small groups on one problem during the term, e.g. energy, pollution, global warming, health care issues. Each group will hand in a jointly written report at the end of term and present a class report. Three or four books will be assigned reading. Students will be expected to make use of e-mail and conferencing. Cost: Under $50 WL:1 (Steneck)

286/Religion 286. A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century. (3). (HU).

This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 4th through the 18th century. A broad survey course aimed at undergraduates of all concentrations, there are no prerequisites; the course focuses on both Church history and theology. It begins with Constantine's conversion and traces the growth of the church, the rise of monasticism, the creation of the creed (the Councils of Nicea and Chalcedon), and the secession of the Eastern churches (Coptic & Syriac), the role of religious pictures and the iconoclast dispute and relations with the West (Rome) which were frequently strained before the official break in the 11th century. We cover the conversion of the Slavs and the eventual formation of independent Slavic national churches. We treat the fall of the Byzantine and Medieval Slavic states to the Turks and the position of the Orthodox under the Turks. Attention is also given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the Great. Readings are varied. There is no textbook. A relevant paper of the student's choice, an hour exam and a final are required. (J.Fine)

300-Level Courses and Above are for Juniors and Seniors

307/ACABS 322/Rel. 359. History and Religion of Ancient Judaism. May be elected independently of Hist. 306. (3). (HU).

See Ancient Civilizations And Biblical Studies 322. (Boccaccini)

318. Imperialism and After: Europe 1890-1945. (4). (SS).
Politics and Society in Modern Europe, 1890-1945.
This course examines social, cultural and political responses to the disruptive forces of industrial development, war, revolution and depression experienced from 1890 to 1945 in both western and eastern European societies. At the heart of the course lie such questions as: Who holds the political power and on what basis have they acquired this power? How are the political systems structured to exclude various social groups (women, ethnic minorities, the working class) and in what ways do the excluded organize to press on these systems? To what extent are 19th century elites able to resist the pressure for change? These questions will shape our approach to the distinctive issues of twentieth century European politics, including: the impact of two world wars on state and society, imperialism and the rise of European nationalist movements, the political mobilization of economically and disadvantaged groups (industrialized workers, women, peasants, disgruntled strata of the middle classes), and the emergence of fascism from the crises of liberalism and capitalism. (Porter)

321. Postwar Britain. Hist. 221 is recommended. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine Britain from the Great Depression, through World War II, the Cold War, the social and political challenges of the 1960s, the Conservative resurgence of the late 1970s, the Falklands war, and the fall of Margaret Thatcher. Special attention will be paid to the experience of war by civilian populations; the development of a "welfare state" and subsequent challenges thereto; Britain's decline as a world power; protest movements; the nuclear disarmament and peace movements from the late 50s/early 60s through the 80s; the influence of American culture on Britain; decolonization and the participation of Asians and Africans in British culture and politics; Welsh and Scottish nationalism; the Northern Ireland question; and on-going political and cultural debates about class, education, the media, sexuality and gender roles, and Britain as a multi-cultural society. Cost:2 WL:4 (Israel)

332/REES 395/Pol. Sci. 395/Slavic 395/Soc. 392. Survey of Russia: The Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the Successor States. (4). (SS).

See REES 395.

366. Twentieth-Century American Wars as Social and Personal Experience. (4). (HU).

The wars of this century have been important experiences both for American society and for millions of individual Americans. This course examines those wars through literature, histories, films, lectures, and discussions in order to find patterns of change: changes in how America fights wars and changes in the society that results from them. It also examines changes in the personal perceptions of the experience of war: perceptions not only of the combat soldiers but also of the many others affected by wars. Among the readings are Gray, The Warriors, March, Company K, and O'Brien, The Things They Carried. There will be pop quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam. Please register for only ONE lecture section and one discussion section. Discussion sections will not meet until after the first lecture. Cost:4 WL:1 (Collier)

368/Amer. Cult. 342/Women's Studies 360. History of the Family in the U.S. (3). (SS).
Section 001 History of the Family in the United States, 1880 to the Present.
This course aims to help students gain a perspective on the contemporary family by studying the development of this important institution in the American past. Particular emphasis will be placed on changing attitudes towards and experiences of sex roles, sexuality, childrearing, work patterns, and relationships between men, women and children. We will explore race, ethnicity, and class, cover economic developments as well as shifting conceptions of the role of the state, and ask about the impact of these factors on family life. We will want to examine how much the family has changed over time and try to project, on the basis of historical evidence, whither the family is going. (Morantz-Sanchez)

370/WS 370. Women in American History to 1870. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the history of American women - as a group, as individuals, and as members of different classes, and racial, regional and ethnic communities. Using work, politics, and sexuality as organizing concepts, it focuses particularly on the significance of gender in determining women's experiences from the early seventeenth century to 1870. Special attention is paid to initial and continuing encounters of Native Americans, Euro-Americans, and African-Americans; to evolving constructions of "womanhood" and their significance for different groups of women; to the meaning of religious movements, wars, economic transformations, and demographic shifts for women's individual and collective efforts to determine the course of their own histories. (Karlsen)

377/Amer. Cult. 312. History of Latinos in the U.S. (3). (Excl). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).

This course is an exploration of the history and culture of Latinos in the United States from the colonial era to the present. We will examine the diversity among groups that make up the Latino population of the United States, paying particular attention to the three largest subgroups of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban origin. Topics will include the varied experiences of colonialism and immigration; the role of race prejudice and discrimination in shaping social mobility; cultural transformation and regional variations in language, religion and music; gender as a central variable in defining issues of identity and opportunity; and the birth of a Latino civil rights movement. (Koreck)

383. Modern Jewish History to 1880. (3). (Excl).

This lecture course offers a survey of Jewish history in western and eastern Europe, America, and the Middle East from the mid-seventeenth century to the 1870's. It deals first with the emergence of western European Jews from cultural and social isolation, with their acquisition of the full rights of citizenship, and with their efforts to modernize Jewish ritual and belief. The focus then shifts to eastern Europe, where traditional values and patterns of behavior persisted until the end of the nineteenth century. The lectures on eastern Europe will focus on the religious and social character of Jewish life in Poland and Russia, the development of Hasidism, and the first glimmerings of enlightenment (haskalah) in the mid-nineteenth century. The course will conclude with a look at the growth of the Jewish community in America before the mass migration from eastern Europe and, turning elsewhere in the diaspora, with a brief survey of the Jewish communities of North Africa and the Middle East. There will be a midterm, two four-page assignments, and a comprehensive final. Cost:2 WL:1 (Bodian)

391. Topics in European History. (3). (Excl). May be elected for credit twice.
Section 003 The Illusion Ministry: Nazi Film and German Society. No German required.
For Fall Term, 1995, this section is offered jointly with German 330.001. (Spector)

396. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (SS). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators needing ECB requirement and by override only. Apply for overrides at 4633 Haven Hall Monday, March 27, 1-5 p.m. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meeting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action at CRISP to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.

Section 001 Medicine and Health in American Culture, 1875-1995. Since about 1875, unprecedented technical advances and dramatic cultural changes have repeatedly transformed the health of Americans and the power of the healing professions. This course will examine how changes in gender, race, ethnicity, economics, politics, and in the cultural meanings of disease and science, interacted with new technical discoveries to alter medicine, health, and society. While no background in history or medicine is required, previous course work in either would be helpful. Class will be discussion format, with occasional brief lectures. Students will be expected to read and discuss thoughtfully about 150 pages per week, drawn from a variety of different sources. A 15 page paper based on original historical research, a weekly journal, and two 5 page book review papers are required of each student. No written exams. Those absent from the first class without advance permission WILL BE DROPPED from the course. Cost:1-5. Required purchases cost about $15 but additional required readings available on reserve may also be purchased for about $125. WL:4 (Pernick)

Section 002 Social History of the U.S. Civil War. Although much has been written about the political and military aspects of the Civil War, scholars have almost completely ignored the social history of that conflict. This undergraduate research and writing seminar will try to advance our limited knowledge of this area by having the participants do original research on the social aspects of that struggle on the homefront and on the battlefield. After some introductory readings about the Civil War, each student will select a research topic. The course is designed to teach students how to do original research and to write a comprehensive research paper. The instructor and a graduate student assistant will work with the students on a series of short written assignments in preparation for their final paper. The final paper for the course will be approximately 30-50 pages long and will be based upon primary and secondary sources about the social history of the Civil War. WL:2 (Vinovskis)

Section 003 Empire and Identity in Modern European History. This seminar will consider topics in the following broad areas: the politics and economics of empire; the interaction of the scientific and the imperial projects, including the development of the sciences of race and culture; the place of law and other instruments of power in conceptualizing, legitimating, and enforcing imperial rule; the interactions of race, class, and gender in forming and operating notions of self and other; differing historical and conceptual foundations for a critique of empire. (Burney)

Section 004 Comedy in Christian Contexts. Religious satire, parody, and irony in Renaissance, Reformation, and contemporary literature. G.K. Chesterton said that humor was intrinsic to Christianity. Why that is so and how it is manifested in the Protestant as well as the Catholic traditions is the subject of this course, which attempts to broaden the earlier "Comedy in Catholic Contexts" given in Winter 1992 as a part of Comedy Semester. The two periods are chosen for their differences, and we shall pay some attention to the comparison of comedy in an age of faith (and controversy over faith) with comedy in an era of religious skepticism or indifference. Certain to be included in the reading are Boccaccio, Erasmus, Luther, J. F. Powers, Thomas Kenneally, and John Updike. Other authors, and possibly anonymous pamphlets and works, will be chosen with care over the summer. There will be three essays of 4-6 pages whose submission in a preliminary and then a final draft is a requirement. A fourth essay of 8-12 pages may be submitted in a preliminary draft. Quizzes (but no examinations) are always a possibility. Participation in weekly discussion will be part of the final grade. (Tentler)

Section 005 Gender, State, and Family in Modern Europe. This course concerns the interplay between everyday lives and the state. We will examine recent scholarship dealing with how relations of gender shape and are shaped by social policies and issues of citizenship. In addition, we will consider the changing role of states in regulating family life. We will focus on such topics as the regulation of sexuality, gender and the welfare state, the impact of war and revolution, the control of private life under different political regimes, and the significance of sexual difference for citizenship and class formation. We will consider these issues by locating them in their particular national contexts (primarily Britain, France, and Germany, with some attention to Russia, Italy and Spain), and we will compare the significance of gender distinctions and conflicts, and family life in these different national and historical settings. The course will emphasize critical reading and writing skills. Students should be familiar with modern European history (based on History 111 or other appropriate courses). (Rose)

Section 006 World War II in Asia. This course will focus on the East Asian belligerents in World War II their understanding of the issues leading to war and their responses to each other and to non-Asian participants in the politics of the area in the 1930s and 1940s. In an effort to comprehend World War II as a part of Asian history, we shall examine the manner in which the war was fought, including issues of atrocities and racism, and the role of the war in reshaping politics and society in East Asia. Previous knowledge of modern East Asian history would be useful. The weekly reading assignments, to be discussed in class, will be drawn from narrative accounts, analytic essays, and documents of the period. Students will be required to submit several papers, including rewritten versions. Grades will be based on these papers and class participation. WL:2 (Young)

397. History Colloquium. History concentrators are required to elect Hist. 396 or 397. Only 12 credits of History 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, and 399 may be counted toward a concentration plan in history. (4). (HU). May be elected for a total of 12 credits.

Enrollment limited to history concentrators and by override only. Apply for overrides at 4633 Haven Hall Monday, March 27, 1-5 p.m. Students may be dropped for non-attendance at the first meeting of History 396 or 397. All students must take action at CRISP to make sure that their official schedule of courses matches the courses they are attending.

Section 001 Mariners, Renegades, and Castaways: Atlantic Dissenters in the Age of Empire. This course explores the changing, turbulent world of the seventeeth- and eighteenth-century. It examines some of the social and economic consequences of the expansion of Europe throught the eyes of marginal individuals and social groups religious dissenters and urban workers in Europe, sailors and pirates on the high seas and ashore, witches in New England, Native Americans in North America, rebellious Africans elsewhere in the "New World" who attempted from their different corners of the Atlantic basin to resist dominant modes of authority and to shape alternative visions of society in the period from the English Civil War through the French Revolution. Under difficult circumstances and with varying degrees of "success," these people of divergent backgrounds, cultures, and aspirations grappled with many of the important issues which continue to occupy us today the responsibility of the individual to the group and the citizen to the state, and the relationship between workers and employers, between men and women, and among peoples of disparate cultures. Our central challenge will be twofold: both to understand our subjects within the context of social changes affecting the entire Atlantic world, and to understand tham as well on their own terms a difficult mission. Students will be encouraged and expected to think creatively, to make connections to make connections and find threads of continuity among linking events and people separated by time and space. Finally, the group will examine and asses critically how successful recent social historians and others have been in accomplishing these same goals. (Scott)

Section 002 Inventing the Renaissance. The common image of the Italian Renaissance as the moment of radical rupture from a European "dark ages" to the modern era is relatively young. Why did it take a half-millennium until the last half of the nineteenth century for this image of the Renaissance to arise, for its history to be written? The place of the Renaissance in the modern European imagination is the subject of this colloquium, which will span disciplines from art to history and national traditions from German to Spanish. The modern European stake in the period identified with its own "(re-)birth" may ultimately have more to say about our own times than the turn from the middle ages. Students will write one essay examination and a final paper, and will be evaluated on active class participation. (Spector)

402. Problems in Roman History I. (3) (Excl).
Section 001 The End of the Roman Republic.
By the late second century B.C., Roman imperialism had begun to transform Roman society in Italy. Great aristocrats became increasingly powerful and wealthy, and ordinary people resorted to riots at Rome. This course will focus on the century between the Gracchi and Marcus Antonius. Readings will include Plutarch's lives, Cicero's speeches, Sallust's histories, Julius Caesar's commentaries on his military campaigns, and representative modern scholarship. All classes will be discussions based on readings; grade will be determined by participation in discussions and a series of papers. No prerequisites; everyone welcome. Cost: 2, maybe 1 WL:1 (Van Dam)

412/MARC 414. Social and Intellectual History of the Florentine Renaissance. (3). (Excl).

How did a medieval city of bankers and cloth merchants become, in the fifteenth century, the center of an original humanist culture that offered Europeans new ways of seeing and portraying themselves and their society from artistic perspective to the writing of history? The course will trace the history of renaissance Florence not only as a chronicle of its development but also as the process by which it self-consciously constituted itself as a society and a history. Among the topics taken up will be the reshaping of the city, both physically and constitutionally; the transformation of the Medici from bankers to humanist rulers of the city; the development of humanism into an enabling code for civil life; the new valuation of wealth and the civic use of magnificence (from palaces to wedding and funeral processions); social organization and changing attitudes toward the disempowered (slaves, Jews, the poor, women); and forms of religious expression, from confraternal devotions and processions to the fire and brimstone of prophetic preachers (e.g., Savonarola). Considerable use will be made of original sources (Historical, literary, and visual). This is designed as a lecture course, but there will be ample time allotted for discussion. (Hughes)

414/MARC 428. Northern Renaissance and Reformation. (3). (Excl).

The intellectual history of Europe from the late middle ages to the Counter Reformation, with special emphasis on religious thought, social criticism, and political theory in their institutional, political, and cultural contexts. The reading will include a textbook, but most of the assignments will be in primary sources. The interpretation of these primary sources is the interpretation of these sources that is the principal focus of the course. Some of the major authors and texts include Thomas à Kempis, Erasmus, Thomas More, Machiavelli, Luther, Calvin, Loyola, Montaigne, Galileo, and selections from Catholic and Protestant creeds and catechisms (e.g., the decrees of the Council of Trent). There will be three short essays on the assigned reading, a mid-term, and a final. (T.Tentler)

423. Social History of Europe in the 19th Century. (3). (SS).

A comparative treatment of the major changes in European society from the French revolution to the 1920's, the course treats such topics as the family and the roles of women, the composition and activities of the different social classes, changes in popular and formal culture, the effects of industrialization and urbanization, the development of such new institutions as the newspaper and public schools, and the changing structure of the role of government. Lectures and some common readings provide a basis for class discussion, in addition students write two short and two ten-page papers on topics of their choosing (a wide range of suggested topics and readings is provided); there will be a take-home final examination. Thus students are encouraged to build upon their own interests and background toward the common concerns of the course. Although there are no formal prerequisites, students taking the course should generally have done some college work in one of the following areas: European history, the social sciences, the literature or art of the nineteenth century. (Grew)

431(531). History of the Balkans Since 1800. (3). (Excl).

The course treats the region now comprising Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece and Albania from roughly 1800 to the present. It stresses the various peoples' struggle for independence from Ottomans and Hapsburgs, the development of nationalism, the crisis of 1875-78, Macedonia, the Balkan wars, World War I, creation of Yugoslavia, inter-war problems, World War II and resistance movements, Tito's Yugoslavia. (J.Fine)

433. Imperial Russia. (4). (SS).

A history of Imperial Russia from Peter the Great to World War I, with emphasis on the problems of modernization, political institutions, economic development, and the revolutionary movement. Lectures, supplemented by discussion section. (Rosenberg)

442/APTIS 461. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

Team taught by Professors Bonner (NES) and Lindner (History), this is the first course in a two-course introductory sequence (442 and 443) that covers Near Eastern history from the era of Muhammad to the present. Our purpose is to introduce you to (and give you some practice in) the methods of studying the Near East as well as to some of the content of Near Eastern history; we expect no previous background in the field. This course begins with the background and rise of Islam and ends in the heyday of the Ottoman Turkish and Safavid Persian empires, circa 1700. Although the basic organization of the course is chronological, we will discuss topics in such areas as politics and governance, religion (formal and "folk," including theology and mysticism), law, foreign relations and war, art and architecture, literature, economics, and social life. The classes will include lectures by (and probably discussions between) the instructors, and there will also be weekly class discussion of the assigned readings. In addition to the final examination, students will be expected to prepare two three-page exercises based on the readings, which will consist of modern scholarly works and translated medieval sources. WL:4 (Bonner & Lindner)

453. Modern Southeast Asian History. (3). (Excl).

The major theme of this course is "emancipation" of Southeast Asia, a historical confrontation between the societies of the region and the imagined global community of "developed" nations. Geographic coverage will include the principal countries of the mainland (Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) and the island world (Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and the Philippines). Lectures and reading assume no prior knowledge of the region. There will be a midterm, a final, and a term paper. Cost:2 WL:4 (Mrázek)

456. Mughal India. (3). (Excl).

This course covers the history of the Mughal Empire in India from 1525 to 1856. It examines the military, economic, social, and cultural underpinnings of this Muslim-ruled state, which formed the background and context for the rise of modern Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. Attention will be paid to the institutions of rule established by the Great Mughals, but also to the social history of the period, including peasant rebellions, village and urban life, Muslim movements, and Hindi-Muslim relations. The impact of Western trading companies, the rise of the British East India Company, and the supplanting of Mughal rule by British rule will be analyzed. The history of post-Mughal successor states, such as Awadh, which entered into a subsidiary alliance with the British, will also be examined. The course requires a midterm, a final, and a 10-page term paper. (Cole)

466. The United States, 1901-1933. (4). (SS).

The course is concerned with the progressive era, the era of World War I, the 1920's, and the Great Depression. The emphasis is on political history and foreign relations, but considerable attention is given to social, cultural, and economic factors and to the position of minority groups and women in American society. There is no textbook for the course, but several paperbacks are assigned. Course requirements include a midterm, a final examination, and a paper. History 466 is a lecture course. Please note that discussion sections have been added. Undergraduates electing this course must register for section 001 and one discussion section. Cost:3 WL:1 and 3 (S.Fine)

476/Anthro. 416. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (4). (SS).

This course will examine the colonial period in Latin American history from the initial Spanish and Portuguese contact and conquest to the nineteenth-century wars of independence. It will focus on the process of interaction between Indians and Europeans, tracing the evolution of a range of colonial societies in the New World. Thus we will examine the indigenous background to conquest as well as the nature of the settler community. We will also look at the shifting uses of land and labor, and at the importance of class, race, gender, and ethnicity. The method of instruction is lecture and discussion. Each student will write a short critical review and a final paper of approximately 10 to 12 pages. There will be a midterm and a final. Readings will include works by Inga Clendinnen, Nancy Farris, Karen Spalding and Charles Gibson, as well as primary materials from Aztec and Spanish sources. The text will be Burkholder and Johnson, Colonial Latin America. (Scott)

Section 004 Language Across the Curriculum Section. Students who enroll in this section should also enroll in University Course 490, a one-credit course which will count towards a certificate in advanced second-language competence. Students will complete extra reading and writing assignments in Spanish and discussion will be conducted in both Spanish and English. Please note meeting time for this section is longer. This is for undergraduates. Students should have 4th term Spanish competency.

A course number in the 500s does not indicate a more difficult or advanced course than one in the 400s.

516. History of Ireland to 1603. (3). (HU).

This is a survey of political, social, and cultural history of Ireland from the earliest times to the destruction and close of the Gaelic order at the beginning of the seventeenth century. The course is conducted mainly by lecture in which, complementing the treatment accorded in textbooks, we will endeavor to realize the historical reality of a millennium of Irish Gaelic history, in itself and in relation to the rest of the medieval world. Two relatively brief papers and one extended one, two hour exams, and a final examination. There is no prerequisite for this course, only a willing and competent zeal for learning of a culture much more diverse from contemporary experience than you will readily imagine. Cost:3 WL:1 (McNamara)

551. Social and Intellectual History of Modern China. (3). (Excl).

In this course, we shall seek the origins and lineaments of the Chinese revolution in a variety of social and intellectual movements. In exploring this cataclysmic event, so powerfully rooted in modern Chinese history, we shall search widely in the preceding century and more for antecedents and predisposing social change. We shall examine the testimony of conservative as well as revolutionary, of Confucianist as well as Marxist. Among the topics will be: secret societies and religious cults, trends in Confucian thought and the role of popular culture, nationalism and women's liberation, cultural iconoclasm and neotraditionalism, Marxism and the Chinese peasant, Maoism and its debunking. Previous familiarity with the broad outline of events will be useful but is not required. Readings will be drawn from analytical literature and translated documents. Participants will be asked to write two short papers and take a final exam. Cost:2 WL:4 (Young)

558. U.S. Diplomacy to 1914. (3). (Excl).

This course examines American foreign policy from the Revolution to the outbreak of World War I. Special attention is given to the origin of American diplomatic principles, the diplomacy of the American Revolution, the coming of the War of 1812, the conquest of North America, the War with Spain and the imperialist surge of 1898, and, finally, the incomplete American adjustment to its position as a new world power. Hour exam, term paper, final. Cost:1 WL:4 (Perkins)

569/LHC 412 (Business Administration). American Business History. Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). (Excl).

A study of the origins, development, and growth of business. The course traces the beginnings of business enterprise in Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-Civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the anti-trust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920s, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, postwar business developments, and current business trends. (Lewis)

582. History of Criminal Law in England and America. (3). (Excl).

This course traces the history of the criminal justice in England and America from the medieval period to modern times. It deals with political and social theories regarding the institutions and ideas of the criminal law and with the relationship between society and legal norms. Among the subjects included in the scheme of the course are: the history of the criminal trial jury, its relationship to other institutions of the criminal law and its role with respect to the interaction of social attitudes and the formal processes of the criminal law; the use of the criminal law for counteracting disintegration of basic social institutions; political trials; theories of punishment; the development in the United States of constitutionally protected rights of defendants in criminal cases. This course is intended for students interested in Anglo-American history, for those interested in government and law, for those interested in the history of the relationship between social institutions and theories of criminal sanctions and for those interested in the origins and development of the central ideas and institutions of American constitutional and legal history. Course requirements: twelve-pg., take-home, midterm essay based in part on documents, and a final examination. (Green)

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