Asian Languages and Cultures

Courses in Buddhist Studies (Division 332)

230/Asian Studies 230/Phil. 230/Rel. 230. Introduction to Buddhism. (4). (HU).

Lecture and discussion of readings introducing the religious traditions that derive from the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha. The core of the course are two extensive units: "The Story of Buddhism as Legend and History," and "Questions and Meanings: Symbol, Doctrine, Ritual and Experience." The first of these units traces the history of Buddhist beliefs and practices from their origins in India to later developments in Tibet and East Asia. The second unit addresses issues of doctrine and philosophy (e.g., enlightenment and Nirvana), practice (e.g., meditation, ritual), and society (e.g., women and Buddhism, Buddhism and war). Additionally, the course explores the origins of Western notions about "Buddhism," and the connection between modern academic studies of Buddhism and traditional Buddhist scholarship. No previous background is required. Grade will be based on two take-home examinations and a final. Cost:3 WL:1 (Gómez)

405. Classical Tibetan. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is designed to train students of Buddhist Studies in the basic skills necessary for reading Tibetan literature; it is not a class in spoken (colloquial) Tibetan. The plan of the course assumes that the students' primary interest is in the study of Buddhist literature. Accordingly, much time will be spent in reading Buddhist literature (autochthonous as well as in translation from Indic languages). (Lopez)

488. Tibetan Buddhism. Buddhist Studies 230 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course will survey the development of Buddhism in Tibet, from the eighth century to the present. Since Buddhism entered Tibet from India, the course will begin with an introduction to those doctrines and practices of Indian Buddhism that would come to hold an important place in the Tibetan tradition. The course will go on to examine the process of transmission of Buddhism from India to Tibet, and will then consider the rise of the major sects of Tibetan Buddhism, comparing their approaches to a wide range of issues of Buddhist philosophy and practice. Uniquely Tibetan institutions, such as that of the reincarnate lamas (including the Dalai Lamas), will be studied in detail. The course will conclude with an examination of the Tibetan diaspora, beginning with 1959, and the problems of preserving a religious tradition in exile. The format will be one of lecture and discussion. Students will write several short papers, a research paper, and take a final examination. Cost:4 WL:3 (Lopez)

Courses in Chinese (Division 339)

Language Courses

101. Beginning Chinese. (5). (LR). Laboratory fee ($10) required.

Chinese 101 is an introductory course in speaking, understanding, reading and writing Chinese. The student is expected to achieve control of the sound system, basic sentence patterns and basic vocabulary of Standard Mandarin Chinese. Starting the 5th week, we will learn to read and write the characters. In Chinese 101, the major emphasis is on speaking and aural comprehension. We recommend that students listen to the tapes one hour per day. We meet one hour each day. Tuesdays and Thursdays are lectures; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays are recitations. Students are required to register for both a lecture section and a recitation section. Attendance is taken everyday and no audits are allowed. Textbooks: (a) John DeFrancis, Beginning Chinese (Yale Univ. Press) (b) John DeFrancis, Beginning Chinese Reader, Part I and II (Yale Univ. Press). Materials covered (Fall Term): Beginning Chinese, Lessons 1-13. Beginning Chinese Reader, Lessons 1-12. Note: students who can speak Chinese already are not allowed to take Chinese 101, and should take Chinese 301 instead. Cost:2 WL:1 (Tao)

378. Advanced Spoken Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of four credits.

This course is designed as a spoken language supplement to the post-second year Chinese reading courses. The prerequisite is two years of modern Mandarin Chinese (UM courses Chinese 101 through 202, or equivalent courses at another institution). The purpose of Chinese 378 is to continue building on the foundation of spoken competence laid down in first- and second-year Chinese by providing two hours a week for students to talk, talk, and talk. This is accomplished through presentation of brief speeches and discussions on topics selected by the class. The role of the instructor, who serves as a coordinator for the class, is not to teach students how to speak Chinese, but to encourage and coach them in speaking Chinese. Vocabulary lists will be provided before and after each discussion session. The grade will be determined by students' attendance, participation in discussion, oral presentations, and vocabulary quizzes. This course is not for native speakers, auditors, or sit-ins. One will not achieve much in this course if he/she tends to habitually cut class, or is a bored listener or a passive talker. Cost:1 WL:1 (Liang)

405. Third-Year Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (5). (Excl).

This course is a continuation of Second Year Chinese. In it the four basic skills reading, writing, listening and speaking - are stressed. Students will be expected to learn to read various styles of modern Chinese, including essays and journalistic material, etc. Students will participate in discussions based on the reading material. The textbook is A Chinese Text for a Changing China. (Liang)

Literature Courses/Culture Courses

250. Undergraduate Seminar in Chinese Culture. No knowledge of Chinese language is required. (3). (HU). May be repeated with department permission.
Section 001 Gender, Sexuality, and Identity: Women in Chinese Literature.
The representation and construction of women in China's long history has undergone many dynamic changes. Through examples of literature past to present we will examine women's place in the male-dominated Confucian system, the femme fatale in the master historical narrative, conventions of female impersonation, women as projections of male desire: erotic objects or the cause of transgression against the moral order. We will consider how women have sought to express themselves within the system's constraints, the creation of women's communities, and even in one area using a "women's script" unknown to men. In the 20th century women are first "discovered" to have been prime victims of oppression as writers advocate social reform, then appropriated as "liberated" subjects by the Communist revolution. Meanwhile women writers have been searching for their own voice; their struggle for subjectivity and identity posing powerful challenges to the Maoist hegemonic discourse. We will also explore how issues of gender and sexuality intersect with cultural identity in works by Chinese-American woman writers. Readings will include traditional and modern poetry and fiction, selections from the great 18th century novel Dream of the Red Chamber, stories by Ding Ling, Xiao Hong, Maxine Hong Kingston (The Woman Warrior ), Amy Tan (The Joy Luck Club), and others. Towards the end of the course we will look at representations of women in Chinese films: Raise the Red Lantern, Farewell My Concubine, Ju Dou, The Girl from Hunan. Requirements: 3 or 4 several short papers and a final exam. No prerequisites. Cost:2 WL:1 (Y. Feuerwerker)

Section 002. This first-year seminar course will focus on "Love and Desire in Traditional Chinese Drama." Students will be introduced to traditional Chinese stagecraft through videotapes and in-class demonstrations and learn about the development of Chinese drama from its beginnings to its fate in modern China. Through the careful reading and discussion of a few major plays in a variety of dramatic genres we will investigate how traditional Chinese drama, as a largely public art, tried to satisfy both the demands of love and those of society. Requirements will include several brief papers, a final exam, and active class participation. Texts will include Master Tung's Western Chamber Romance, The Story of the Western Wing, The Peony Pavilion, and the Peach Blossom Fan. Romeo and Juliet will be read for comparative purposes. Cost:3 WL:1 (Rolston)

451. Literary Chinese. Chinese 202 or 362. (4). (Excl).

Through the use of Shadick's A First Course in Literary Chinese and selected handouts, the styles of written Chinese of imperial China from prose to poetry are selectively introduced. Class is taught in small recitation groups requiring constant preparation by the student. Quizzes, tests, and hand-in exercises on a weekly basis, plus a final exam, are used to measure progress. Emphasis is on understanding of the texts, as well as the ability to render them clearly into English. This course is the first half of a two-term sequence. Cost:3 WL:1 (Forage)

468/Phil. 468. Classical Chinese Thought (To A.D. 220). Upperclass standing; no knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

Chinese 468 focuses on the major philosophical schools of the Chou-Han period, which was roughly equivalent in time and intellectual fertility to the classical ages of Greece and Rome. Among these schools, special consideration is given to the Confucian and Taoist schools, since the doctrines associated with these were the sources of the two major philosophical traditions in China for the next 2000 years and affected very significant cultural developments in the arts, religion, science, and politics. The course concentrates on Chinese ethics and political philosophies (with notable exceptions in the case of certain Taoist thinkers) and on the theories of human nature that were associated with them. Among the more interesting political theories discussed are those pertaining to social control or the most desirable and effective ways of mobilizing the population for goals determined by the rulers. Chinese philosophers have been somewhat unusual in occupying political office and in having an opportunity to test their ideas in practice. This fact has affected the character of Chinese philosophy from the beginning, and it makes the study of Chinese political philosophy especially intriguing. There is some background consideration of the social and living conditions of the periods in which the various philosophies emerged. No knowledge of Chinese is required. Readings are in translation. All students are required to prepare a critical review essay of a secondary-source book dealing with one or more of the schools studied. Other course requirements include a midterm and a final examination.

471. Classical Chinese Literature in Translation. No knowledge of Chinese required. (3). (HU).

Largely through lectures, this course will examine the highlights of early Chinese literature from antiquity to the 13th century. We will begin with The Book of Changes, The Book of Songs, and a few ancient philosophical texts (which are written in brilliant literary styles) from the millennium before Christ, the millennium in which China made an astonishing "philosophic breakthrough" in its civilization. We will then undertake to follow the development of the various forms of poetry, fiction, and other kinds of prose during the subsequent centuries. The principal aim is to enable students to become familiar with, and also to be able to enjoy, these masterpieces of literature that illustrate the range and depth of the Chinese imagination, the inner life of the individual as well as the outer social and political life of China through the ages. Three 5-page papers and a final exam are required. Sample readings include Cyril Birch, ed., Anthology of Chinese Literature, Vol. I; two major texts in Taoist mysticism: Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching and the "Inner Chapters" of the Chuang Tzu; Burton Watson, The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry; and other materials in a course pack. (Rolston)

476/RC Hums. 476/Asian Studies 476. Writer and Society in Modern China. (4). (HU).

This is an invitation to study examples of twentieth-century Chinese literature, a literature produced during a period of historical upheaval and itself a battleground for political, cultural, and aesthetic issues. But we also want to understand and appreciate the artistry and diversity of these literary works. We will examine: external "reality" as projected by our texts; ideological pressures of a shifting political context; the influx of western influences and the breakdown of tradition; changing views of gender and sexuality; the role and selfconception of the writer as avant-garde rebel, historical witness, social critic, or political martyr, particularly in confronting the oppressed "other" as woman or peasant. What is the purpose or meaning of writing? Given the often fatal risks involved, why write? Readings will include stories by Lu Xun, Family (Ba Jin), Rickshaw (Lao She), "Miss Sophie's Diary" (Ding Ling), etc., examples of Communist "revolutionary literature," some stories from Taiwan. The second half of the term will deal with post-Mao works, as writers "rethink" themselves and the Communist revolution, search for cultural roots, explore issues of sexuality and subjectivity, experiment with new techniques. We will look at parallel developments in the visual arts and in the "new cinema" through such films as Yellow Earth, Red Sorghum, etc. Class format: lecture/discussion. Requirements: three short papers, a final exam. No knowledge of Chinese required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Y. Feuerwerker)

588. Sinological Tools and Methods. Chinese 452 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

An introduction to the materials and techniques for reading and research in premodern history, literature, and thought. Emphasis is placed on guiding students through the transition from reading supervised and glossed texts to independent reading, with recourse to commentaries and lexical aids essential for the interpretation of primary sources. Principles of traditional Chinese bibliography outline the survey of a broad range of textual materials, including histories, encyclopediae, collectanea, gazetteers, digests, and collected works. Beyond improvement of technical skills, the course seeks to achieve an overall understanding of traditional sources and efficient access to their contents, the types of research they will support, and the state of the art in various Sinological fields. WL:1 (Dewoskin)

Courses in Japanese (Division 401)

Language Courses

101. Beginning Japanese. (5). (LR). Laboratory fee ($7) required.

This course is designed to develop all the four language skills in Japanese; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. "Knowing it" is never sufficient. Students must be able to use the language they have learned. Students are required to practice with audio tapes a minimum of two hours for each class hour (10 hours per week). Recitation sessions are conducted entirely in Japanese; no English is permitted. Recitation sessions emphasize speaking and reading in Japanese contexts at normal speed with near native pronunciation, accent, intonation, rhythm and appropriate body language. Katakana, Hiragana, and some Kanji are introduced. Grammatical explanations and discussions involving the use of English are specifically reserved for lectures. The textbooks are Japanese: The Spoken Language Part I and its supplement, Japanese Typescript by Eleanor Hartz Jorden and Mari Noda. Reading Japanese by Eleanor Hartz Jorden and Hamako Ito Chaplin is also used for reading and writing. Cost:2 WL:1

201. Second-Year Japanese. Japanese 102 or equivalent. (5). (LR). Laboratory fee ($9) required.

Further training is given in all the language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) for students who have acquired a basic language proficiency. The aim of the oral component is to provide the student with the speaking and comprehension skills necessary to function effectively in more advanced practical situations in a Japanese-speaking environment. In the reading and writing component, the emphasis is on reading elementary texts, developing an expository style, and writing short answers/essays in response to questions about these texts. Discussions on the social and cultural use of language are provided. Students are required to practice a minimum of two hours for each class hour (12 hours per week). Recitation sessions are conducted entirely in Japanese; no English is permitted. Recitation sessions emphasize speaking/reading in Japanese contexts at normal speed with near-native pronunciation, accent, intonation, rhythm, and appropriate body language. Analyses, explanations, and discussions involving the use of English are specifically reserved for lectures. Texts: Eleanor Harz Jorden and Mari Noda, Japanese: The Spoken Language, Part II; Eleanor Harz Jorden and Hamako Ito Chaplin, Reading Japanese. Cost:2 WL:1

225(250). Calligraphy. Japanese 101 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. (1). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of three credits.

In this course students will start to learn the basic skills of Japanese Calligraphy. Students who have taken the course previously will be permitted to enroll in the course and will learn intermediate or advanced calligraphy. Tools will be available for renting; however, students are encouraged to purchase their own calligraphy sets (approximately $20.00). Students are also required to pay a paper fee of approximately $10.00. Contact the department at 764-8286 regarding the first meeting date. Cost:1 WL:1

405. Third-Year Japanese. Japanese 202 or equivalent. (5). (Excl). Laboratory fee ($9) required.

Advanced training is given in all the language skills. Practice in the use of spoken Japanese is contextualized within simulated Japanese social settings. A variety of selected modern texts (essays, fiction, and newspapers) are read with emphasis on expository style. The goal is to produce self-sufficient readers who can read and discuss most texts with the aid of a dictionary. Students are required to practice with audio/visual tapes a minimum of two hours for each class hour (10 hours per week). Recitation sessions emphasize speaking/reading in Japanese contexts at normal speed with near-native pronunciation, accent, intonation, rhythm, and appropriate body language. Analyses, explanations, and discussions involving the use of English are specifically reserved for lectures with a native English speaker. Texts: Eleanor Harz Jorden and Mari Noda, Japanese: The Spoken Language, Part III; Eleanor Harz Jorden and Hamako Ito Chaplin, Reading Japanese; selected reading materials for Third-Year Japanese. Cost:2 WL:1

413. Accelerated Readings in Japanese. Japanese 102 or 361 or equivalent. (5). (Excl).

This course is for individuals wishing to use Japanese documents in their research on China. It may not be taken while enrolled in 2nd- or 3rd-year Japanese. Completion of 1st-year Japanese is preferred, but can be waived with permission of the instructor. In 15 weeks all basic Japanese grammar is reviewed, various readings are introduced, and use of dictionaries and other research aids is stressed. Later in Japanese 414, advanced grammar, enhanced speed and comprehension are the focus. Those students who have previously studied Japanese at higher levels and who wish to sharpen their reading skills are invited to enroll in Japanese 414 in the winter after consultation with the instructor. (Langlois)

416. Communicative Competence for Japan Oriented Careers. Japanese 406, 411 or equivalent, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course stresses the effective use of the Japanese spoken language in contexts likely to be encountered by a career-oriented professional in Japan. Topics include: Organization, Business Travel, Meetings, Bureaucracy, Distribution, Expansion, Annual Reports, Business Ritual and Socializing. In addition, the course will include practice in rapid reading and transcription/dictation of moderately difficult texts, newspaper articles, and news broadcasts. Cost:2 WL:2

445. Readings in Technical Japanese. Japanese 406, 421, 411, or permission of instructor. A maximum of 10 credits may be elected through Japanese 421, 445, and 446. (4). (Excl).

Japanese 445, the first term in a two term sequence of Readings in Technical Japanese, is designed to train Fourth-Year level Japanese language students to read technical materials written for a Japanese audience. Readings will consist of articles and reports taken from publications in fields where Japanese conduct leading-edge research. Students will also be introduced to the uses of computer word processing in Japanese, the way to access Japanese scientific and technical information using computer databases, technical dictionaries, and indexes. Class attendance is mandatory. Students are required to prepare for recitations and for frequent quizzes. A short paper in Japanese will be assigned. There will be a midterm and a final. (Unedaya)

Literature Courses/Culture Courses

401. Japanese Literature in Translation: Classical Periods to 1600. A knowledge of Japanese is not required. (3). (HU).

A survey of Japanese literature from the eighth century through the sixteenth. All assigned readings are in English translation, and no previous knowledge of Japan or the Japanese language is required. Special attention is given to the great works of the Japanese literary tradition, including the Man'yoshu, the eighth century anthology of native poetry; The Tale of Genji, the novel of court life from the early eleventh century; diaries and essays from the Heian period (ca. 800-1200); the epic war tales of the thirteenth century; and some of the major noh plays of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. This course, together with Japanese 402, its sequel, are recommended to all students with a general interest in literature or in Japanese culture. Classes are in a lecture and discussion format, with ample opportunity for questions from students. The course has a midterm and a final examination, emphasizing essay questions. Also, one short paper 10 pages is required. (Danly)

407. Advanced Readings in Modern Japanese Literature. Japanese 406. (3). (Excl).

This course introduces the student to modern Japanese fiction (largely short stories) and other materials written by outstanding writers for a mature Japanese audience. The emphasis is upon a literary approach, using close reading and translation, in class, of Japanese texts. Occasional papers and written translations are required. The pace of reading is intended to help the student build up reading speed and comprehension. The course will also teach the student how to use dictionaries and other basic research aids effectively. Cost:1 WL:1 (Ito)

461. Social Science Readings in Japanese. Japanese 406. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course helps students to develop reading skills necessary to conduct research in Japanese social science topics. Readings are assigned from newspapers, books, and journals in a variety of fields. The emphasis is on the reading skills and on the acquisition of "kango" vocabulary which arise in understanding these readings. Class attendance is mandatory. Homework includes a minimum of four hours of preparation per class hour. Students are expected to prepare for the readings and for frequent quizzes so that they can participate actively in discussion in Japanese in class. In addition, the course will include transcription/ dictation/discussion of the update NHK news broadcasts on various topics. Japanese essays will be assigned. Cost:3 (if you purchase the dictionaries) WL:1

475. Japanese Cinema. A knowledge of Japanese is not required. (2). (Excl). Special fee (not to exceed $20) required.
Section 001 Films of Akira Kurosawa.
For Fall Term, 1995, this course is offered jointly with English 417.004. (Howes)

Courses in Korean (Division 409)

101. Beginning Korean. (5). (LR).

Students who intend to continue Korean already begun at home or school must take a placement test to determine the course level at which they will start their college Korean instruction. Students who began Korean at another college or university also take the placement test. The recitation section 006 is open to students who have no Korean background whatsoever or are of non-Korean origin. As the first half of the beginning-year course in spoken and written Korean, it provides hard training for all the five language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and Chinese characters. Class meets 5 hours a week 2 hours of lecture, 2 hours of aural/oral practice, and 1 hour of Chinese characters and free conversation. Students are also required to do additional hours of work for listening practice on their own in the language lab, and watching 4 video tapes incorporated. Daily attendance is emphasized, and weight will be placed on class performance, seven homework assignments (or in-class quizzes), Chinese character assignments, three midterms, and a final written and oral exam. The textbooks for the course are (1) Myongdo's Korean I by A.V. Vandesande, and seven lessons (from Lesson 1 to Lesson 7) will be covered, and (2) Chinese Characters in Manuscript by Korean Program at the UM. Those who successfully finish the course will gain sustained control of basic conversation skill and write their name in Chinese characters. Cost:2 WL:1 (Cho)

201. Second Year Korean. Korean 102 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

The recitation section 005 is open to students who do not have enough knowledge of beginning Korean, or are of non-Korean origin. This is the first half of the intermediate-level Korean, emphasizing the aural/oral skill, and minimizing grammatical chores. Class meets 5 times a week 2 hours of lecture, 2 hours of aural/oral practice, and 1 hour of Chinese characters and free conversation. Students are also required to do additional hours of work for listening practice on their own in the language lab, and watching 4 video tapes. Daily attendance is expected. Through lectures, students will learn relatively complex structural patterns of Korean, and get acquainted with various aspects of Korean culture and society. Based on the knowledge obtained through lectures, recitation classes will help the students develop an ability to carry on survival level of conversation. In evaluation, weight will be placed on oral participation, seven homework assignments (or in-class quizzes), Chinese character assignments, a short essay, three midterms, and a final written and oral exam. The textbooks for the course are (1) Myongdo's Korean 2 by A.V. Vandesande, and seven lessons (from Lesson 16 to Lesson 22) will be covered, and (2) Chinese Characters in Manuscript by Korean Program at the UM. Those interested in taking this course are recommended to see the instructor before registration. Cost:2 WL:1 (Cho)

401. Third Year Korean. Korean 202 or equivalent. (5). (Excl).

This is an advanced-level Korean, helping the students improve their skills, both spoken and written, up to advanced level. Class meets 3 times a week 2 hours of lecture, 2 hours of aural/oral practice, and 1 hour of Chinese characters. In lecture classes, students will build up their vocabulary and heighten reading ability. The reading materials will inform the students of various cultural aspects of Korea. Through bi-weekly writing assignments, the students will also learn more accurate syntax, pragmatic ways of expression, and logical ways of thinking in Korean. In recitation classes, strengthened aural/oral training will be given. The students will tell a short story, have free-group discussion, be acquainted with Korean drama, news, newspaper, and learn songs. Evaluation will be based on attendance, homework assignments, written exams, class activities, writing journal, a one-minute speech, and various oral performances. The major textbooks will be (1) Hangugo 3 by Korea University, and nine lessons (from Lesson 1 to Lesson 9) will be covered, and (2) Chinese Characters in Manuscript by Korean Program at the UM, and ten lessons will be covered. Cost:1 WL:1 (Cho)

Courses in South and Southeast Asia (S&SEA) (Division 483)

S&SEA Language Courses

101. Beginning Thai. (5). (LR).

Standard Thai, the language of Thailand, is typical of several Asian languages in its grammar and tonal pronunciation. Focus of the course is the use of language in everyday situations. Upon successful completion of the two-term sequence, students will be able to conduct conversation dealing with several survival concerns, e.g., introduction, ordering food, transportation, banking, post-office trip, shopping, etc. From the first day of class, students will learn Thai scripts and will be able to read course materials and short passages in Thai at the end of the term. Writing assignments are also assigned. Thai cultures will be offered both in the content of the language lessons and supplementary presentations. This class is not for students who can speak Thai already. Cost:1 WL:4 (Montatip Brown)

103. Beginning Indonesian. (5). (LR).

Indonesian is the national language of Indonesia, a country noted for its rich and deep cultural heritage as well as for its remarkable cultural diversity. With its 180,000,000 speakers, Indonesian is the sixth most prevalently spoken of world languages. The relatively simple syntactic and grammatical structures which characterize Indonesian make it an accessible language for native speakers of English. The elementary course comprises a two-term sequence designed to provide the student with a basic working knowledge of the Indonesian language. The course aims at the acquisition of the four basic language skills listening, speaking, reading, and writing in modern Indonesian. The class emphasizes aural-oral exercises and practice and the learning of culture throughout the course. The text used is keyed to a set of tapes for use in the language lab and concentrates on practical knowledge of the language. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, homework assignments, tests, and a final exam. Cost:2 WL:4 (Sudarsih)

107. Beginning Tagalog. (4). (LR).

Tagalog is the national language of the Philippines. Elementary Tagalog is a two-term sequence designed to give the student who has little or no knowledge of Tagalog the necessary basis for learning to speak it and to have an acquaintance with the cultural context in which it functions. Tagalog is particularly interesting in the way it has integrated the broad influences of both Spanish and English into its own syntactic and semantic systems. The oral approach is greatly emphasized in the classroom, using questions and answers and short dialogues to develop active use of the language in the most natural way possible. This is complemented by the use of taped lessons in the Language Laboratory and short films in Tagalog. There are frequent short quizzes, homework, and a final examination. At the end of the first year, the student should be able to handle brief exchanges in common social situations and to read and write simple Tagalog. For the student specializing in Philippine studies, learning Tagalog is a must. For the student specializing in language studies, a number of linguists of note have found Tagalog structure highly instructive in understanding certain aspects of language. For the student with Philippine affinities, learning Tagalog provides a bond of understanding and for some, a link to one's roots. For the student who has neither a Philippine connection nor a specialist interest in language, learning Tagalog can be rewarding as it provides an experience of new modes of expression and new ways of looking at the world around us and within ourselves. Cost:1 WL:1 (Weller)

109. Beginning Sanskrit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 369. (3). (LR).

This course will work toward developing a proficiency with the basic tools necessary to read and write Sanskrit, the classical language of India. Lessons will include study of the script (Devanagari), elementary grammar and vocabulary. The grade will be based on completion of regular homework assignmentst, weekly quizzes, a midterm and a final examination.

111. Beginning Punjabi. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in S&SEA 371. (4). (LR).

This course offers an introduction to spoken and written Punjabi, a major language of northern India and of Pakistan, with some 80 million speakers. The course will include reading and writing (Gurmukhi script) as well as the spoken language. Students will be encouraged to begin basic conversation in class. The written aspects of language will be introduced through graded readings and written exercises. The emphasis will be on basic constructions, composition, vocabulary development, and conversational skills. Particular attention will be paid toward developing a basic practical proficiency in the language. Students will be introduced to the rich cultural heritage of the Punjab. A video film will be shown to examine the spoken language of the Punjab. Throughout the course the students will be encouraged to communicate in Punjabi language. There will be two tests: a midterm worth 20% and a final worth 30%. In addition there will be homework assignments worth 30%. The remaining 20% of marks will be allotted to oral communication, dictation and instructor's own evaluation. Midterm test: October 21, 1995. There will be a final exam in December. Texts: Ujjal Singh Bahri, Introductory Course in Spoken Punjabi, Bahri Publications, New Delhi, 1993. Harjit Singh Gill and Henry A. Gleason, Jr., A Reference Grammar of Punjabi, Patiala, 1969. Hardev Bahri, Teach Yourself Punjabi, Punjabi University, Patiala, 1973. A course pack will be available from Dollar Bill Copying, 611 Church Street. (Singh)

115(381). Beginning Vietnamese. (5). (LR).

This course is designed for the students with no knowledge of the Vietnamese language as well as those with some knowledge but desire to develop the four basic language skills listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The format will be as follows: four class hours a week will be focused on the aural-oral approach, in reading, dialogue form, translation, question-and-answer on the content of the texts. One class hour will be devoted to quizzes or tests. In addition, there will be home assignments and works in the lab. Classes will be largely conducted in Vietnamese to help the students acquire sufficient automaticity and fluency in spoken Vietnamese. Course evaluation will be graded on classroom performance, class attendance, home assignments, and a final examination. WL:3 (Nguyen)

201. Intermediate Thai. S&SEA 102 or equivalent. (5). (LR).

This course continues and extends the four skills students developed in Thai 101-102. Reading and discussions as well as written assignments about Thai cultures in comparison with American cultures will be covered. Class is conducted largely in Thai. Students are required to actively participate in class. Cost:1 WL:4 (Montatip Brown)

203. Intermediate Indonesian. S&SEA 104. (5). (LR).

The course is the first half of a two-term sequence aimed at increasing the student's proficiency in the four basic language skills listening, speaking, reading, and writing in modern Indonesian. Although increasing emphasis is given to the development of reading and writing skills, listening and speaking constitute an integral part of the course which is conducted entirely in Indonesian. Vocabulary building and instruction in matters of cross-cultural sensitivity are of great import. The primary text used is keyed to a set of tapes for use in the language lab and concentrates on practical knowledge of the language. Supplementary materials introduce the student to reading modern Indonesian literature. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, homework assignments, tests, and a final exam. Cost:3 WL:4 (Sudarsih)

207. Intermediate Tagalog. S&SEA 108 or equivalent. (3). (LR).

This course is designed for the student who has some knowledge of Tagalog and who wishes to develop some fluency in spoken Tagalog and to be acquainted with Tagalog literature. It is part of a two-term sequence which is essentially a continuation of what has been learned in the first year but there will be more emphasis on reading and writing. Students who have not taken Elementary Tagalog (South and Southeast Asia 107/108 may take this course if they pass an evaluation test to be given by the instructor. The format will be as follows: two class hours a week will be devoted to readings and grammar review and one class hour a week will be devoted to guided conversation. Readings will be assigned and these will provide the framework for the discussion of grammatical points and question and answer sessions in Tagalog on the content. There will be written assignments and a final examination. By the end of the second year, students should have acquired sufficient competence to handle longer conversations, write letters, dialogues and brief essays, read certain plays, and newspapers and magazines. Cost:2 WL:1 (Weller)

215(481). Intermediate Vietnamese. S&SEA 116. (5). (LR).

This course is a continuation of Beginning Vietnamese 115 & 116. It is designed for the students who have some knowledge of spoken and written Vietnamese, but wish to develop the four basic language skills listening, speaking, reading, and writing - learned in "Beginning Vietnamese." Students who have not taken Vietnamese 115 & 116 may take this course if they pass an evaluation test. The course will meet five hours a week, with primary emphasis on reading and writing. Classes will be largely conducted in Vietnamese and students will be encouraged to communicate in the target language. Course grade will be based on classroom performance, class attendance, homework assignments, and a final examination. Cost:1 WL:3 (Nguyen)

301. Reading and Writing for Native Speakers. Native speaking ability in a South/Southeast Asian language and permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This is the first half of a two-term sequence designed for Vietnamese students who have some knowledge of the spoken language, but no or little reading and writing ability. This course covers S&SEA # 115-116 in one term. The sequential course (S&SEA # 302) will cover S&SEA #215-216 in the winter term. The course meets four hours a week, with primary emphasis on reading and writing. Course evaluation will be graded on classroom attendance and performance, homework assignments and a final examination. Native Vietnamese speakers are encouraged to take this course rather than S&SEA # 115-116. See the instructor for placement test before registration. Cost:2 WL:3 (Nguyen)

403. Advanced Indonesian. S&SEA 204. (4). (Excl).

The course is the first half of a two-term sequence aimed at the further development of the student's proficiency in the four basic language skills listening, speaking, reading and writing - in modern Indonesian. The course work is designed to improve the student's command of basic grammatical structures as well as to build advanced vocabulary. Socio-cultural orientation will increase the student's familiarity with the important socio-linguistic aspects of Indonesian language use. The course stresses active manipulation of a practical vocabulary for both formal and informal language situations. Readings further the student's exposure to modern Indonesian literature. Evaluation is based on classroom performance, homework assignments, tests and a final exam or project. Cost:2 WL:4 (Florida)

415(597). Advanced Vietnamese. S&SEA 216 or 302. (4). (Excl).

This course is the first half of a two-term sequence designed to improve the student's proficiency in reading and writing, and to increase conversational vocabulary used in formal and informal situations. The course meets four hours a week, with primary emphasis on composition writing and discussion of selected reading materials. A wide range of reading materials, from excerpts of books and newspapers to folk stories and poetry, will provide the students opportunities to get acquainted with various socio- cultural aspects of Vietnam. Course evaluation will be graded on classroom attendance and performance, homework assignments and a final examination. WL:3 (Nguyen)

Culture Courses

225/Religion 225. Hinduism. (3). (HU).

Hinduism is a major world religion practiced by over a billion people, primarily in South Asia, but it also was the precursor of Buddhism, and along with Buddhism it had a major impact on the civilizations in East and Southeast Asia. We will cover its origins and development, its literature, its belief and practices, its unique social structures and doctrines, its interactions with other religions, and finally its confrontation with and accommodation of "modernity." We will use reading materials, lectures, discussions, and audio and video resources. Students will be expected to read selections from Hindu religious literature in translation as well as read modern studies of the various aspects of Hindu beliefs, practices, social systems, et cetera. The overall approach will be more in the direction of a general history of this religion and the people who adhere to it. Students will be graded on the basis of a set of in-class written exams as well as term papers. (Deshpande)

320. Sikh History I (18th-19th Centuries). (3). (Excl).

The aim of this course is to study the historical context of North India which provided the basic impetus for the emergence of a new religious tradition in the beginning of the sixteenth century. The emphasis will be on religio-cultural innovations of Guru Nanak (1469-1539) and his nine successors. We will examine the scripture, the Adi Granth, and other Sikh texts to understand the Sikh religious beliefs, practices and institutions. Particular attention will be paid to understand the evolution of the Sikh community (Panth) in tension with Mughals and Afghans. We will also examine the influence of Banda Bahadur and the Misals on the Khalsa as established by Guru Gobind Singh. The course ends with the analysis of the historical and social processes through which the Khalsa Panth was consolidated in the eighteenth century. An essay of 3,000 words will carry 30% of the course marks. There will be two tests: a midterm worth 20% and a final worth 30%. The remaining 20% of marks will be allotted to the presentation and participation in tutorial discussions. Midterm test: October 21, 1995. Essay due date: November 29, 1995. There will be a final exam in December. Texts: Khushwant Singh, History of the Sikhs, Vol. I, revised edn., Oxford University Press, 1992. J.S. Grewal, The New Cambridge History of India: The Sikhs of the Punjab, Cambridge, 1990. W.H. McLeod, The Sikhs: History, Religion, and Society, Columbia University Press, 1989. (Singh)

461. Southeast Asian Literature. (3). (Excl).

This course will address issues involved in reading Southeast Asian texts in translation. While focusing on the literary cultures of Indonesia, the course may also treat texts from the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The course will examine various forms of "traditional" and "modern" Southeast Asian literature: drama, poetry, novels, and short stories. Among the questions to be addressed: What is "literature" in Southeast Asia? What do the categories "traditional" and "modern" mean (and do) in Southeast Asian contexts? In what ways do Southeast Asian texts and contexts mutually inform one another? How do women figure in these (con)texts? Course requirements include active engagement in class discussion, frequent short papers, and a take-home final. Students will also be expected to keep an on-going journal recording their responses to the readings. (Florida)

Courses in Asian Studies (Division 323)

111/UC 172/Hist. 151. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

See History 151. (Trautmann)

121/Hist. 121. Great Traditions of East Asia. (4). (HU).

See History 121. (Tonomura)

230/Buddhist Studies 230/Phil. 230/Rel. 230. Introduction to Buddhism. (4). (HU).

See Buddhist Studies 230. (Gómez)

428/Pol. Sci. 428/Phil. 428/Soc. 426. China's Evolution Under Communism. Upperclass standing or permission of instructor. Not recommended for Asian Studies concentrators. (4). (Excl).

See Political Science 428. (Lieberthal)

441. Asia Through Fiction. (3). (Excl).

This course deals with selected novels and short stories by Asian writers and Westerners writing about Asia. It attempts to compare different perspectives on the Asian scene and particularly focuses on East/West interactions. Course readings center on India, Southeast Asia, Japan, and China. Four short essays are required which take the place of an examination. The class is usually small enough to function as a group discussion, which considers also the Asian context, but regular attendance is necessary, and careful attention ON SCHEDULE to the readings. Writers dealt with include Narayan, Greene, Mishima, Forster, Kipling, Conrad, Tanizaki, Orwell, Markandaya, Buck, Lu Hsun, and others. (Murphey)

476/RC Hums. 476/Chinese 476. Writer and Society in Modern China. (4). (HU).

See Chinese 476. (Y. Feuerwerker)


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