University Courses (Division 495)

The University Courses Division sponsors a number of First Year Seminars (UC 150, 151, 152, 153) which provide a unique small class educational experience to first-year students. (A complete list of First Year Seminars offered by the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts can be found in the first section of this Course Guide.) These seminars, open to all first-year students, are small-group classes (approximately 15-25 students) taught by outstanding regular and emeritus faculty from many different departments on a variety of topics. They provide a stimulating introduction to the intellectual life of the University by exposing new students to engaging subject matter and by offering the opportunity for active participation that a small class can afford. It is hoped that students who take a seminar will find in it a sense of intellectual and social community that will make the transition to a large university easier. Some may discover a subject to pursue in further courses.

All First Year Seminars can be used to complete part of the College's general requirements. UC 153 fulfills the Introductory Composition requirement. Other seminars count toward satisfying the Area Distribution requirement in one of three major divisions: Humanities (UC 150), Social Sciences (UC 151), or Natural Sciences (UC 152). We strongly recommend that each student take at least one seminar during the four years at Michigan.

The University Courses Division also offers Collegiate Seminars, which are open to any student who has completed the Introductory Composition requirement. Intended especially for lower-division students and taught by regular professorial faculty members, Collegiate Seminars provide additional opportunities for first and second year students to personalize their education through a small-group course. Interaction between student and teacher, made possible by the small size of the class, facilitates deeper learning and encourages the development of a learning community where dialogue among students as well as between student and teacher takes place.

All Collegiate Seminars count toward satisfaction of the College's distribution requirements in one of the three major divisions: Humanities (UC 250), Social Sciences (UC 251), or Natural Sciences (UC 252). All emphasize critical thinking about important and central topics, and feature further instruction in writing.

150. First-Year Humanities Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 The Age of Moses and Ramesses.
The culture of ancient Israel formed one of the essential building blocks of Western civilization and spawned the three great religions of the West Judaism, Christianity, Islam. We will explore the origins of this unique intellectual culture in its historical setting: the age of Ramesses II, king of Egypt, and his contemporary Moses, the formidable leader of Israel. We will also compare the history of this period as written by the Israelites with records by their Egyptian contemporaries, with special focus on the current debate as to whether the biblical accounts are factually accurate or a literary fabrication. Our principal textbook will be Exploring Exodus: the Heritage of Biblical Israel by Nahum Sarna and the excellent collection of essays in The Rise of Ancient Israel. For the Egyptian perspective, we will use K.A. Kitchen's Pharaoh Triumphant: the Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. There will be one examination (a midterm) and one seminar paper, which will substitute for a final examination; the seminar paper will be presented by the student for class discussion. (Krahmalkov)

Section 002 Technology and the Good Life. Your grandparents lived quite differently from how you live now, partly because their world was technologically inferior to yours. While they wrote letters, you use e-mail, and so on. But has technology made your life better than theirs? In this seminar we will explore the profound and subtle ways technology has changed our lives as human beings. We will also wrestle with the complex and rarely asked question of what we mean by "progress." To decide whether some technologies actually improve our lives we must explore some basic questions about human welfare and progress. For example, is Thoreau's pre-industrial Walden a better world than Huxley's post-industrial Brave New World ? Or should we aim for somewhere in between? Readings will include Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents, Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, Thoreau's Walden, Marquez' One Hundred Years of Solitude, various Native American authors, and a plethora of contemporary champions and critics of technology. Requirements will include a series of short essays, a journal, and some field requirements. (Demetriades)

Section 003- Masterpieces of English Literature. This course attempts to sample the rich quality and variety of English literature. The reading list comprises a few master works chosen from across the centuries, exemplifying plays, novels, poems, and biographies. The emphasis is placed on reading and discussing individual works in some depth. The reading list includes the following writers: Shakespeare, Herrick, Congreve, Fielding, Blake, Austen, Shelley, Thackeray, and Tennyson. Since reading and writing are so closely linked there will be ample opportunity for short papers, at least two longer papers, and a final examination. (Steinhoff)

Section 004 Papa Hemingway. The works of Ernest Hemingway, one of the most effective storytellers of the 20th century, reveal a basic pessimism regarding the human condition. If life ends in nothingness, with no hope of an afterlife or belief in God, how should man conduct himself on that journey from birth to death in order to give it meaning? For Hemingway the answer was the Code "what we have instead of God," as Lady Brett Ashley comments in The Sun Also Rises. This Code, however, is tied directly to life itself and not to some notion of universal morality. It rests on the courage of the individual, on the inner strength necessary to avoid being defeated by pain and suffering and loss, often unexpected, that each of us will experience. We will read about twenty short stories, a novelette, The Old Man and the Sea; and a novel, A Farewell To Arms. Students will be assigned short, critical papers and an essay final exam. (Shafter)

Section 005 Visions of the Past. History is constructed for us in many forms, both verbal and visual, and works of the imagination, like a painting or a novel, provide most of us with most of the history we know. Many more Americans have read or seen Gone With the Wind than have perused a history of the Civil War; Emmanuel Leutze's Washington Crossing the Delaware has for generations fixed school-children's sense of the heroic general. This course will examine the various forms, from the traditional narrative to the TV documentary, with the aim of understanding their value and persuasiveness. Episodes in European and American history will provide the contexts. Ultimately in discussing how history is represented we will reach the question of why, and why each generation must write its own version. Some introductory commentary on texts and contexts will be provided, but discussion will be the primary way we handle the individual works. Several short papers (5pp.) and participation in class discussion will determine the final grade. (Marwil)

Section 006 College: Intellectual Self-Realization. Each year students come to college for a variety of reasons. This course will be an examination of these reasons as they relate to one's own intellectual development. Our inquiry will be an attempt to answer the following question: Why are we here? - in college, that is. We will begin our inquiry by considering LS&A as a paradigm of liberal arts education. We will investigate the nature of education in order to determine why liberal arts is "higher education." Our quest will be founded on the Socratic dictum: "The unexamined life is not worth living." Therefore we will examine the life of a college student as an attempt to define one's goals in order to realize one's career ambition. In the process college will be explicated as an attempt to realize one's intellect to the fullest. The course format will be lecture/discussion with a heavy emphasis on discussion. Course requirements will entail three short essays and a midterm and final. (Knight)

Section 007 Apocalypse Now. More and more Christians in the 1990's are coming to believe that the world is on the verge of ending. Belief in an imminent apocalypse is not new to the 1990's but can be traced back to Jewish literature in the second century B.C. and continues throughout the Christian era. The types of questions we will be addressing will include: What causes the rise of apocalyptic hopes within certain circles and eras? How do these expectations influence the sociology and identity of the group? What does the resurgence of such beliefs tell us about our own modern society? We will read and discuss ancient literature from the Judeo-Christian tradition such as Daniel, Enoch, The Essene War Scroll, and Revelation and C.Strozier's The Apocalypse, in which he discusses his research on the causes of the rise of Fundamentalism today. We will also view appropriate movies such as Apocalypse Now and The Seventh Sign. Evaluation will include several short papers, one book review, class participation, and a final project. No prior knowledge required of this topic but be prepared to think critically. (De Conick)

Section 009 Theories of the Self. What is it to be a person? Is there an unchanging human nature? Are we products of our social circumstances? This course will examine some of the answers given to these and other questions. We will explore the evolution of the notion of the self in the Western philosophical tradition, consider some non-Western notions of the self, and look at contemporary critiques of some notions of the self. There will be lots of discussion and encouragement for students to notice how their thinking about themselves and others reflects various notions of the self. There will be several writing assignments, a class presentation, and a final exam. (Crocker)

Section 010 Wrestling with Religion in the Nineteenth Century. The eighteenth-century Enlightenment tended to disparage belief in metaphysical ideals such as divinity. Indeed, one of those philosophers, the Baron d'Holbach, declared that if there is a God, then he must be a tyrant because even in the face of his cruel treatment, he required praise from his subjects. We will read Voltaire's witty Candide to represent a characteristic point of view from the Enlightenment. Nineteenth-century writers tried to restore a sense of divine order in the universe against this onslaught of "rationalism." Schleiermacher's advocacy of sentiments as the truest foundation of religious faith, rather than ideas or principles, proved to be a major response to the challenge of atheism. Carlyle teases the reader into perceiving an absolute spiritual unity underlying the seeming meaninglessness of the world. Nietzsche's confident assertion that God is dead provide two further readings. No more preparation is assumed than a mind eager to learn and to sharpen analytical skills. Among the requirements are several papers critically studying individual texts or problems. Some of these, after correction, will be rewritten and linked to form a discussion of term-paper length. (Hafter)

Section 011 English Literary Treatments of Slavery and Servitude. This course will focus on the treatment of slavery and servitude as an image, idea, and social reality in English literary works ranging from Shakespeare to Toni Morrison. Despite this literary emphasis, other questions will certainly arise. What is the relationship between slavery and race? What is the relationship between slavery, servitude, and gender? Why does the idea of slavery or servitude persist even after the social institutions themselves have disappeared? Questions of this sort will not be treated as tangential to the goals of the course. Rather, students will be encouraged to discuss such issues, read more widely in primary and secondary materials in order to broaden their understanding of the problems involved, and include their thoughts in written work. There will be two written assignments and a final examination. A portion of the grade will be allotted for classroom participation. (Moffat)

Section 012 Ethics, Citizenship, and Life in Electronic Communities. This seminar will focus on ethical and values issues that arise within the new information environment at the university and beyond. It will explore the moral dilemmas faced by individuals and the policy implications for institutions, as they become familiar with, and adjust to, the impact of the new technological capabilities. It will allow participants to identify community standards regarding various uses of information technology. It will expose participants to different points of view about appropriate and ethical uses of the technology, thus providing opportunities to examine dilemmas of life, issues of property, ownership, responsibility, personal privacy, individual rights and boundaries, interpersonal communications, and effects of various styles on relationships and groups. Each week, students will examine one specific incident related to the use of information technology at universities, write a one-page analysis submitted to written critical review by a classmate, and in small teams present their arguments to the class. Grading will emphasize class participation, written analyses, and peer critiques. (Rezmierski)

Section 013 Idea, Form, and Medium. The goal of this course is to help students understand the challenge and value of expressive form for the artist working in theater, motion pictures, and literature. The course will have as its basis the theoretical assumption that "cinematic" structures (time and space manipulation, parallel development, montage, etc.) have served the modern storyteller well in the development of complex characters and engaging narratives. Taught as a lecture-discussion seminar, class materials will include the reading of fiction, the viewing of classic films, and the study of film theory and literary criticism. One exercise, for example, will involve the evolution of Christopher Isherwood's short story "Sally Bowles" to stage play I Am a Camera to film/musical Cabaret. Students will read Roddy Doyle's novel The Commitments and analyze the film adaptation by Alan Parker. Course grading will be based on short written assignments and a term paper/oral report project. (Beaver)

Section 014 Punishment and Social Order. Why do we punish criminals? How have we justified punishment in the maintenance of social order? Many of us think about punishment in the context of the state: lawbreakers violate the public trust and the state sanctions them in order to reinforce its authority. Yet we are aware of the desire for revenge, and disturbed by questions of how the penalty could suitably relate to the offense. In this seminar we will explore the interplay between punishment as recompense for an individual wrong and as sanction for contravening authority. We will consider the origins and development of fundamental attitudes toward punishment from the classical age, to the tribal and decentralized kingdoms of medieval Europe, to the emergence of powerful nation states. Finally, we will examine the continuing debate about capital punishment as an effective deterrent against crime. Readings will include selections from law, philosophy, literature, and the visual arts as well as others. Students will be evaluated on the basis of short essays on the sources and active participation in each class discussion. (McCune)

Section 015 Crime: Real and Fictional. Crime has always been a staple of journalism and fiction. In this course we will examine historical trends and parallels as well as contemporary realities of both. Texts include those by: Edgar Allen Poe, Arthur Conan Doyle, Ed McBain, Sue Grafton, and Truman Capote. The class will visit Aunt Agatha bookstore and talk with local authors. Several relevant videos are planned. Students will present a series of written and oral reports on selected readings and research. Discussion is emphasized. (Stevens)

Section 016 Visual Culture and Art. While many label vision as the dominant sense in the Modern era, our educational process emphasizes the ways in which verbal language works. We generally become adept at reading everyday visual images without learning how they work as language. The same is true for the special class of visual culture we call art. While we may, for instance, be certain that we like a picture and find it moving, we often have difficulty explaining exactly how the picture "works" - how it conveys messages and appeals so directly to our emotions and memories. Because of their material nature, images are often very effective in creating, shaping, and enforcing all kinds of attitudes and beliefs. We will use Rhetoric (the principles of composition and persuasion) as our toolkit for analyzing the production of meaning in images and in the "denser" media of essays and poetry. Several short papers will be assigned in addition to a required term paper and a short oral presentation. (Willette)

Section 017 Picasso and Cubism. This seminar will involve lectures, films, class discussions, and projects, all centered on the extraordinary achievements of Pablo Picasso (1881-1973). During his very long and active career, this Spanish artist not only played a key role in revolutionary redefinitions of "form" and "content" in the visual arts of painting and sculpture, but also produced objects and images that continue to challenge the imagination in spheres ranging from private fantasy to public "policy." The main text will be Hilton's Picasso. Substantial additional readings will be assigned from material on reserve for class discussion, papers, and/or projects. Assignments include two short papers (5-7 pp.) and one longer paper (12-16 pp.) based upon a class presentation project. There will be no examinations. Regular class attendance and participation in discussions is mandatory. (Miesel)

Section 018 An Investigation into Literature and Disease. The feverish pulse, exotic passion, and heightened sensibility associated with certain infectious diseases have held a widespread fascination for Western literature. In this seminar we will study and discuss the contextual role and societal implications of such diseases as TB, Cholera, and the Plague in a number of representative works of fiction, opera, and criticism. Participants will be asked to contribute to the breadth and scope of the seminar by preparing one topic-related independent research project geared to their own academic orientation. These projects may range from the artistic to the clinical. All presentations will be given in conference style during the final weeks of the term. Authors to be read are Nietzsche, Mann, Tolstoi, Chekhov, Gide, Camus, Bumas fils, Pratolini, and others. (Paslick)

Section 019 From Artifact to History in the Ancient Near East. This First-Year Seminar uses archaeological objects as touchstone sources for learning about significant social and cultural features of societies to which they belong. The method is to examine various artifacts from any of the ancient Near Eastern civilizations (for example, Egypt, Babylonia, Assyria, Phoenicia) and "squeeze" from their form and function as much insight as we can into the work and ideas of the people who made them. We may focus on artifacts such as an altar from Syria, a ship's rudder from Phoenicia, an arrowhead from Palestine, a mummy from Egypt, or a clay tablet found in a Babylonian temple. An anthology of articles in a coursepak provides additional background material. This detective work will lead to broader discussions. The seminar is not intended to be a chronological survey of any single civilization, but will allow students to sample aspects of life in the Near East as it was lived thousands of years ago. Method of the class: discussion, several papers, and an individual project for each student. (Orlin)

Section 020 Research to Performance in the Theatre. Research to Performance is a course designed to give the student skills and practical, hands-on experience in the process of creating a written documentary work for the theatre stage starting from raw, topical research. It requires research, analysis, dramatic conceptualization, group collaboration, writing, and performance. Students will perform their collectively written text in a public reading at the end of the term. Readings could include Execution of Justice by Emily Mann, I Am a Man or Dancing on the Brink by Charles (OyamO) Gordon, Miss Evers Boys, The Crucible, Fires in the Mirror, and other texts found during student research. Grades will be based on quality of research, writing, class participation, collaborative skills, and oral presentation. (OyamO)

151. First-Year Social Science Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (3). (SS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Current Issues in Sports Sociology.
In this seminar sport as a social institution will be analyzed from several theoretical perspectives. Areas to be explored include race relations, ethics, values, social roles, as well as the bureaucratic structure of collegiate and professional sport. The hierarchal structure of society is examined as the social changes in sport are traced over time. Other themes include deviance, violence, sexism, ageism, recruiting practices and reward systems, and gender equity. In addition to midterm and final exams, students will be required to do 3 short papers, a research paper, and a research project. (Vaughn)

Section 002 Public Education for Blacks and Other Minorities. The purpose of the seminar will be to trace the development of elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education of Blacks and other minorities in the South from the Emancipation Proclamation to May 17, 1954. Particular emphasis will be focused on watershed judicial litigations, from the Supreme Court decision of Plessy vs. Ferguson, from which the doctrine of "separate but equal" evolved, to the historic Brown vs.Topeka, Kansas, Board of Education 1954. Of special importance will be seminar discussions revealing how Blacks and other minorities were successful in achieving an education in spite of the barriers confronting them. Students will be expected to read a number of writings by authors such as W.E.B. DuBois, E. Franklin Frazier, Booker T. Washington, and John Hope Franklin. The writings of contemporary Blacks and minorities will be explored as well as books about Blacks and minorities such as Gunnar Myrdal's An American Dilemma. Students will be expected to prepare readings, participate in seminar discussions, and develop a research topic preferably centered around one of the southern states under investigation in the seminar. (Palmer)

Section 003 Identity, Alienation, and Freedom. The purpose of this seminar will be to explore the concepts of identity, alienation, and freedom as psychological and philosophical concepts. However, the orientation will be specific and applied to the normal situations and predicaments that college students experience. Questions to be considered: surviving as an individual in a large and often impersonal university; living up to and/or dealing with the expectations of parents and teachers; questioning authority in the context of the classroom; trading-off career pressures and personal goals in setting educational priorities. Of special importance will be the examination of the sometimes frightening loss of a sense of identity that often accompanies significant alterations in lifestyle, such as that experienced by students in the transition from high school to college, or later, in the transition from college to the "real world." In addition to regular class meetings each student will meet individually with the instructor every third week to develop and discuss individual reading and writing. Grades will be determined by the quantity and quality of this reading and writing. (Pachella)

Section 004 Mathematical Modeling and Personal Risk Management: How to Avoid Being Poor. A main goal of this seminar is to explore how mathematics underlies many important individual and societal decisions. At the end of the semester, students should have a better appreciation of how pervasive the insurance industry is in their lives, but more importantly, how important mathematical skills are in making quantitative, informed consumer decisions. For example, students will split into groups to develop a mathematical model to optimize the purchase of an automobile insurance policy, weighing variables such as deductibles and co-insurance versus retail price. Other units will utilize mathematical models from the theory of interest, utility theory, risk theory, credibility theory, and ruin theory to look at other types of coverage such as health and life, home owners, liability, and disability insurance. Prerequisites: high school graduate who has mathematical aptitude, is comfortable with algebra and basic probability, and is interested in developing computer applications to solve problems. (Huntington)

Section 005 Making Meanings: Why and How Humans Do It. This seminar will examine interpretation and communication from the viewpoint of semiotics. Semiotics is a field that studies why and how humans use "signs" to make sense of and share thoughts about life. Signs are things (words and pictures, for example, but also gestures, clothing, possessions, and so on) with which people create meanings with which they define their worlds, convey their experiences, form and express their identities, preserve their past, imagine their future, and direct their behavior. The seminar will be interdisciplinary and cross-cultural in approach. Class discussions and readings will serve two purposes: (1) introduce various biological, psychological, and sociological perspectives on sign-use; and (2) illustrate sign-use with cases drawn from the domains of language, adornment, food, property, ritual, architecture, the arts, myth, politics, and advertising, to name but a few. Requirements include a class presentation and research paper. (Pollack)

Section 006 "Entertainment Tonight" Meets Critical Thinking. This course will hone critical thinking and writing skills through analysis of the treatment of race and sex in some examples of contemporary "entertainment." Our subject matter will include selected feature-length films, best-sellers, television shows, and media events. (A possible list: The Lion King, She's Gotta Have It, Presumed Innocent, The Bell Curve, "In Living Color," "Beverly Hills 90210," the O.J. Simpson trial, and the Anita Hill/Clarence Thomas hearings.) Making liberal use of commentaries and reviews about these works and events, we will engage in "cultural criticism." This task is to engage critically both the subject matter and one's responses, rather than passively absorb or unthinkingly react. The requisite skills will be taught through in-class discussion and numerous, short written exercises. This class provides the opportunity to practice analysis and the cogent presentation and defense of one's interpretation of the works or events. Grades will be based primarily on weekly, short papers and in-class participation. (Hackett)par Section 007 Poetry in the City. This course will study city life and explore how literature reflects the rhythm of cities. Our reading, discussions, and guest speakers will focus on historical views of cities in general and on specific writings about the troubles and promise of contemporary cities. Students will read literature that reflects attitudes and values about cities and examine how different authors have expressed conflicting views about cities. We will analyze specific poetry, novels, plays, and critiques set in or about Detroit, with the possibility of field trips into Detroit. Certainly Detroit's proximity to Ann Arbor and the University of Michigan makes it doubly important from the course's perspective. Students will be expected to keep a log of their readings and to spend 15-20 minutes in individual discussion with the professor sometime during the term. Grades will be based on one shorter paper, one final paper, and an essay, take-home exam at midterm. (Jackson)

Section 008 Presidential Character and Performance. This course will identify the behaviors and experiences, abilities and aptitudes which shape a president's approach to his job. We will now evaluate how personality influences leadership style and ability to govern, and how the White House tries to shape the publics perception of a president's personal qualities and effectiveness once in office. The course also will deal with the organization of the White House, presidential decision-making, and presidential campaigning largely in the context of Gerald R. Ford's presidency, 1974-77. Students will conduct independent and team research projects at the Ford Library on North Campus, with the active support of the Library staff, as well as the instructor. They will use oral histories, memoirs, White House memoranda, audiovisual materials, and campaign documents to assess the relationship between Ford's character and his performance as president, and the public's perception of both. No exams. Formal writing totals about 25 pages. Occasional lectures. Vigorous, collaborative participation is essential. (Mackaman)

Section 010 Psychology of Interpersonal Relationships. This course is designed to assist members toward an understanding of the personal and situational forces that help and hinder persons in their relationships with each other and in their efforts to work and live together. It will also assist members to transform these social, psychological understandings into constructive actions for handling the problems and difficulties which inevitably arise when people are together. There will be opportunities to refine one's competencies at reflective listening, giving and seeking feedback, interpersonal observation, and mindfulness in thinking about issues. The interactive and informal class sessions will utilize interpersonal learning exercises, videotapes, and brief, information-giving, focused discussions. Reading assignments are mainly through course handouts and other suggested sources. To stimulate personal reflection on interpersonal issues, class members will maintain an observation and reading portfolio and do a term paper on a relevant, self-selected topic. (Menlo)

152. First-Year Natural Science Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (3). (NS). (BS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Decision and Uncertainty: Facing the Odds.
The aim of this course is to learn useful ways of analyzing and dealing with uncertainty. We will discuss statistical regularity (the so-called law of averages), inference, and prediction. We will develop some technique in making judgments in the face of incomplete evidence. We will apply these ideas to gambling (the activity that gave rise to the subject of probability), insurance and personal risk-taking, jury trials and social risk benefit analysis. Our approach to the subject will be historical. We will examine the contributions of various writers from Pascal and Fermat up to those of this century: Von Mises, Keynes, DiFinetti, Savage, Neyman, and Pearson. Some technical material will be brought in as it was developed. We will look at probability in nature, communication, and in human affairs. Since probability is at its core a paradoxical and contentious subject, we will examine different points of view, conduct experiments, and debate related issues. Final grade based on four projects involving experiments and a 5 page write-up of the results. (Schwartz)

Section 002- Consumer Chemistry. What's really in that toothpaste or antiperspirant you used this morning? What's a non-alkaline shampoo? Is there such a thing as a chemical-free sunscreen? What's the hype about organically grown food? Is there really a difference between Wisk, Tide, or Cheer? What's an active ingredient? The science of chemistry has become BIG business. How can consumers make better informed choices? This course will provide a unique overview of the chemical information needed to understand the production, efficiency, and safety of everyday products. Since a background in chemistry is not required or presumed, we will begin by introducing the language of chemistry in a qualitative manner. More specific topics such as molecular geometry, hydrophilicity, and pH will be introduced as they relate to various products. Class format will consist of lectures, audiovisual materials, and small group discussions. There will be two multiple choice, short essay exams. A group project resulting in a 5-6 page paper will involve a class presentation. (Paulissen)

Section 003 Environmental Issues: Ecology and Economics. Understanding environmental issues requires an appreciation of not only the physical and biological processes that explain the workings of the biosphere but also the economic and political processes that explain the workings of human society. In this seminar students will be introduced to those areas of ecology - especially population ecology and ecosystems ecology that are most useful in understanding the technical dimensions of environmental problems. Technical aspects of several issues will be considered in detail. Armed with an understanding of cause, we will then turn our attention to the diverse approaches advocated for developing policies to alleviate or solve environmental problems, leading to an introduction to environmental economics. Most class periods will be student-led discussions of assigned readings. Students will be required to write several short papers and to make an oral presentation in class. No background in biology is required. (Martin)

Section 004 Natural Resources: Rights and Responsibilities. "Natural" means occurring in the world or universe but not made by people. "Resource" means an aid in meeting some human need or desire. Virtually everything in the world is a potential resource. Especially vital for our well-being is the natural state of the world, those conditions which enable us to live. As we begin to consider resource use by people, we will first consider the human need for food and the natural resources that provide food. Second, we will consider the human need for shelter and the natural resources that provide shelter, examining the concept that need is a basis for right and applying concepts of responsibility to humanity's use of resources. Third, we will consider our emotional needs and the sources of security and satisfaction. Fourth, we will apply economic and social concepts to the regulation of natural resource use. Students will do assigned readings, interview one another outside of class, participate in class discussion, and write essays. (Estabrook)

Section 006 Chemical Analysis of Historical and Archaeological Artifacts. Tuesday sessions of this seminar will be devoted primarily to viewing and then discussing a series of videos on "Metals and Man" and various documentaries on archaeological topics. Thursday sessions will allow discussion and reports by students on the various methods used by chemists and physicists to examine archaeological artifacts (pottery, bones, obsidian, and flint projectile points), works of art (paint pigments, metal, and ceramic objects), and historical artifacts (printed documents, ancient, and medieval coins). Reports by students will be made on a variety of topics: dating by carbon-14, thermoluminescence, and archaeomagnetism; analysis of samples by x-ray fluorescence, neutron activation, microscopy, radiography, electron-microprobe, and various spectroscopy methods; authentication of documents, artifacts, art, and coins. Each student will also have an opportunity to sample a group of ancient/medieval coins. These very small samples will be irradiated in the University nuclear reactor, which we will tour in addition to the research wings of the Natural Museum and Kelsey Museum. (Gordus)

153. First-Year Seminar. First-year standing; sophomores with permission of instructor. (4). (Introductory Composition). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Mind, Brain, and Perception.
The course introduces first-year students to the seven major issues in Biological Psychology and serves as the equivalent of Psychology 112. We deal with several issues in seminar format. How has "smart" (intelligent) behavior evolved in animals (including humans)? How does the brain work and what is its role in regulating behavior? What part do theory and criticism play in the study of mind and behavior? How do we perceive and process information from our environment? Is the mind a "computer" and is the computer a form of artificial intelligence? How does our intelligence direct our perceptions and behavior? Can we predict and control behavior? This seminar is open only to those who are willing to play an active part in class discussion, write and revise three papers, and read five selected paperbacks. Final exam optional; grade based upon class participation and papers. (Stebbins)

Section 002 The Literate Imagination. Ever since humans began to use the written word, it has been a powerful force. This course explores the role of literacy in our lives, throughout history, and in different cultures. Our aim is to understand how reading and writing affect the mental and social life of people. Taking our own experiences with literacy as a point of departure, we will compare them to autobiographical accounts across the world. This will lead us to an examination of the importance of writing in the world's religions and to reconsider our own religious encounters with writing. Our inquiry will then shift more directly to how the written word is used to achieve political power and technological development. To help us investigate these issues, we will use campus resources at the Kelsey Museum of Archeology and the Clements Library of Early America. Finally, we will take a critical look at the use of literacy at the University. Course includes weekly reading, in-class writing, and a number of short papers. (Keller-Cohen)

Section 003 Gibbon and the Decline of the Roman Empire. Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire remains one of the great works of history in the English language. As such, it invites study both for its own sake and as a persistently powerful interpretation of Roman history and the nature of the empire. The purpose of this class is to examine Gibbon the historian, his self-conscious creation of the image of the ideal historian in his highly literary autobiography, and then to examine the historian at work. We will look at the way that he constructed his narrative, the difficulties he had with his sources, and the problem of folding different topics into a narrative framework. We will also look at some of the controversy generated with the publication of Volume 1 in 1776. In the end, we will try to control three topics: Gibbon's construction of history, the quality of his account of the decline of the Roman empire (still regarded as one of the most penetrating ever written), and Gibbon's place in his intellectual world. There will be two short papers, a longer paper bassd on an oral presentation, and three short, in-class writing exercises. (Potter)

Section 004 Writing about Cultural Communities, Ethnicity, and Imposed Categories. Students will use StorySpace, a hypertext tool, to explore and understand the role of cultural background, ethnicity, and stereotypes and other imposed categories by examining their own cultural, ethnic, and historical backgrounds, assessing their own world views, and setting their own cultural agendas. In pursuit of these topics, students will generate two kinds of constructive hypertext: (1) using structured sequences of trigger questions, students will generate collages of their own written and illustrated stories; and (2) students will have the opportunity to deposit parts or all of their collages into a "public" web-shell, thus creating a more elaborate class resource. Exercises will motivate participants to learn more about particular times and places relevant to their own life adventures. Students will write daily, on paper, in hypertext, and over computer networks, producing a variety of short and medium-length writings, in addition to the three substantial hypertext documents. (Condon)

Section 005 Television Text Analysis and Viewer Response Studies: Research, Interpretation and Criticism. Close analysis of television content must begin with research into what appears on the screen and what is said during broadcasting. Readings offer helpful interpretations of textual devices and meanings and possible influences on viewers. Nevertheless, the actual process of research into the nature and form of the particular programming under study leads to active critical thinking and competence in rethinking the experience of watching television for oneself. This seminar seeks to reverse notions of totalization/generalization about television and its viewers, as though all text could be talked about as a single production or all viewers somehow received the text and responded to it in the same way. Students will develop research questions, formulate hypotheses, summarize and categorize findings, interpret findings, speculate about possible effects upon viewers, and suggest future research. Students will also write brief scripts, conduct viewer response research with focus groups, and undertake a lengthy final research paper. (Morris)

171/German 171/History 171. Coming to Terms with Germany. (4). (HU).

See German 171. (Eley/Amrine)

172/Asian Studies 111/Hist. 151. South Asian Civilization. (4). (HU).

See History 151. (Trautmann)

173/Slavic 225. Arts and Cultures of Central Europe. (3). (HU).

See Slavic Surveys 225. (Toman, Eagle, Carpenter)

174/Russian 231. Russian Culture and Society: An Introduction. (3). (HU).

See Russian 231. (Bartlett)

210. Perspectives on Careers in Medicine and Health Care. (4). (Excl).

This course is for students considering a career in the health professions. It is designed to help them acquire perspectives to facilitate their decision-making process. Health care professionals visit the class and share their educational and professional experiences. Students become acquainted with the prerequisites for professional and graduate schools and spend time with dental, medical, osteopathic, nursing, and public health students. We consider problems facing the health professions in the 90s: problems of health care delivery, the high cost of medicine and its effect on the uninsured and underinsured. We discuss issues relating to malpractice and death and dying. Students are expected to respond in writing and in class to the visitors, to the reading materials, and to films. Two course packs serve as the required texts. All students are responsible for taking definite steps toward the development of their own goals through a self-inventory of their values, skills, and interests and through a term paper exploring a possible career direction. Evaluation is based on class attendance and participation in and completion of all assignments. The class meets Mon. 3-5, 432 West Engineering; Thurs. 7-9:30 p.m. at 2130 Dorset Rd., Ann Arbor. A map showing the location of 2130 Dorset Rd. will be available at 1017 Angell Hall. Cost:2 WL:5 Enrollment by override only: contact Fran Zorn at 1017-H Angell Hall (763-2062) or call 662-0682 and leave a message. (Zorn)

238. Children in Poverty. Introduction to Psychology and/or social science course. (1). (Excl).
Section 001.
Children who grow up in poverty are disproportionately affected by severe problems such as infant mortality, low birthrate, growth failure, nutritional deficiencies, contagious diseases, poor literacy, school drop-out, joblessness, teen pregnancy, chemical dependence, and violence. For many complex reasons, these problems have become greater in recent years. The future well-being of the world depends in large part on how the next generations are nurtured and whether these problems are addressed. The challenge of effecting change to improve conditions for children has become the focus of researchers, policy makers and practitioners. Students will be required to attend the seven lectures given at the Center for Human Growth & Development. All lectures will be focused on international issues of children in poverty. In addition, students will be expected to attend a discussion period immediately after each lecture. There will be an end course paper required. The course meets for seven weeks: September 26, October 10, 24, 31, November 14, 28, and December 12.

250. Collegiate Seminars. Open to any student who has completed the introductory composition requirement. (3). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 The Human Vision of Don Quixote. Don Quixote
is known as the greatest expression of idealism. The knight's absolute commitment to his vision has influenced generations of readers while Cervantes' novelistic techniques have shaped modern Western fiction. This course will discuss not only these issues but will deal also with questions that were hotly debated in the Renaissance: the nature of narrative, the importance of similitude, poetry vs. history, etc. Central to our efforts will be an exploration of the nature and the consequences of the knight's idealism. Was Cervantes writing a critique of misplaced imagination or chronicling the aspirations of the human spirit? Students are expected to be active participants in class discussion and will be asked to write two papers. (Casa)

Section 002 Magic, Religion, and the Bible. What role does "magic" play in modern religious life? What impact has the Bible had on modern views of magic and its relationship to religion? As a means for exploring these and related questions, this seminar offers students the opportunity to engage in a series of studies on magic in ancient Israelite society and in the ancient world more generally. We will study relevant biblical passages, examine artifacts reflective of the broader ancient Near Eastern and ancient Mediterranean magical traditions (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Anatolian, Syro-Palestinian, Jewish, Christian, and Greek), and survey various modern social scientific approaches to the study of magic. Students will investigate such issues and topics as the definition of magic, the vocabulary of magic, magic as a ritual complex, magic's relation to science and religion, the anthropology of magic, and the impact of ideology and cultural bias (or the insider-outsider perspective) on the images of magic rendered by both ancient authors and modern interpreters alike. Course requirements include three papers (10-12 pp.), one presentation, and active class participation. (Schmidt)

251. Collegiate Seminars. Open to any student who has completed the introductory composition requirement. (3). (SS). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Identity: Self, Community, and Power.
How do individuals, across a lifetime, construct a self, absorbing and rejecting elements of the social context? Students will look at particular crucibles: the relation of the individual to the power of the state; the relation of the individual in a stigmatized group to her own culture and to the majority culture; the issue of identity in the successive stages of women's lives; the issue of identity in the corporate organization; the prerequisites for liberation from abusive relationships. The instructor will introduce material from his current research with members and leaders of white racist groups. The course calls for students who have imagination, take their own lives seriously, have a sober interest in the social and political world, wish to stretch themselves, and like adventure. Assignments will include: reading field work, essays, and novels; doing independent field work; and writing every week. (Ezekiel)

280. Undergraduate Research-A (Grade). First or second year standing, and permission of instructor. (1-4). (Excl). (EXPERIENTIAL). A maximum of 8 credits of 280 and 281 may be counted toward graduation.

This course provides academic credit for students engaged in research through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP). To receive credit, the student must be working on a research project under the supervision of a University of Michigan faculty member. Students may elect the course for 1-4 hours of credit. For each hour of credit, it is expected that the student will work three hours per week. The grade for the course will be based on a final project report evaluated by the faculty sponsor and on participation in other required UROP sponsored activities, including bi-monthly research group meetings, and submission of a journal chronicling the research experience. Students will receive a letter grade for this course. This course is open only to students enrolled in the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program.


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