It is possible for LS&A students to elect a concentration program in music, and this program is described in the LS&A Bulletin. In addition, music courses are frequently elected by LS&A students not concentrating in Music. Courses in Music History/Musicology, Composition, and Music Theory are elected for LS&A credit. Some of these courses can be used as part of the humanities requirement in a PATTERN I area distribution plan. LS&A students may elect music PERFORMANCE courses for degree credit, but this credit counts toward the maximum twelve non-LS&A credit hours that can be applied toward an A.B./B.S. degree or twenty non-LS&A credit hours that can be applied toward a B.G.S. degree.

Courses in Music History and Musicology (Division 678)

305. Special Course. Non-music only. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Music and Meaning: Great Composers and the Thought Systems Which Guide Them.
Prerequisites: none, but Music History 341 is highly desirable. MHM 305 is a guided listening course involving repertoire from the Baroque to the 20th century. It is designed for, but not restricted to, students who have completed MHM 341 and wish to take another music elective. For each period to be discussed, a vocal and an instrumental work will be the focal points of study. Included are J.S. Bach's 'Goldberg Variations,' Mozart's The Magic Flute, Beethoven's 'Eroica' Symphony, Johannes Brahms' A German Requiem, Verdi's Aida, and Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker. These works (and others, time permitting) will be presented in the context of the musical ideals and prevailing philosophy and aesthetics which guided their composers. Selected readings will be required, but emphasis will be placed on listening and on hearing the elements of music important to structure and meaning. Course requirements: midterm and final examinations (for two credits), plus an 8-10 page term paper (for three credits). Examinations will be in essay format, and involve comparison and contrast of repertoires. The term paper will be written on a composition of the students choice, approved by the instructor. Cost: less than $35. Since, however, many of the works to be discussed are available on commercial compact disc, students may elect to purchase their own copies, at varying costs. (Wiley)

306. Special Course. Non-music only. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 The Music of Africa.
This course provides an introduction to African musical traditions through an investigation of the sound materials, creative processes, and social contexts of music making. It is designed to develop skills for cross-cultural listening while taking into consideration the role of music as a medium for communication. Three lines of inquiry will be emphasized: an examination of the materials of African music and the roles of musicians, an analysis of the musical processes and structures, and an exploration of the relationship between sound expressions and the African cultural settings from which they emerge. Lectures are supplemented by recorded listening assignments (cassettes available at the language lab listening facilities) and readings from selected books and a course pack. Grades will be determined by exams and papers. WL:4 (AndrÈ)

341. Introduction to the Art of Music. For non-School of Music students only. (3). (HU).

The course is designed for those who wish to sharpen their appreciation of music, whether they have any musical background or not. It begins with the fundamentals of melody, rhythm, harmony, and texture, then presents a survey of the artistic and cultural heritage of Western art music, from the Baroque era to the present. We examine representative examples of opera and concerto, symphony and song, solo and chamber music; but the listening skills developed in class are meant to be applied to virtually any kind of music. Such skills involve understanding conventions of musical expression and form, so that students learn to listen with appropriate expectations. Students attend three lectures and one discussion section per week. Tapes of assigned works are available for private study. Grades are based upon three examinations, concert reports, and participation in discussion sections. This is the first course suggested for the LS&A concentration in music. (Whiting)

342. Introduction to World Music. For non-School of Music students only. (3). (HU).

This course will introduce students to the musical cultures of a few, select musical areas of the world (such as the Caribbean, West Africa, India, and Eastern Europe). Three lectures a week will be supplemented by listening tapes available at the School of Music and the Listening Lab in MLB. Students will be evaluated on the basis of listening quizzes, a midterm, and a final exam. The department regards this course as a companion to MHM 341, Introduction to Music, a course for non-music concentrators that stresses European concert music. Cost:2 WL:1 (McDaniel)

345. The History of Music. For non-School of Music students only. (3). (HU).

A survey of music history for students with interests in music, the humanities, or cultural history. It begins with chant and early secular songs of chivalry. The course traces the development of Western attitudes toward polyphony, notation, performance, and compositional techniques. Cultural history is an important subtheme, and we sample works associated with medieval castles and churches as well as Renaissance courts and controversies involving religions. Studies conclude with Baroque repertoire, culminating in the music of Handel and Bach. No musical background necessary. Lecture format. Assignments consist of readings and listening to prepared cassettes. Rudiments of music will be presented so that students will be able to follow the notation of musical examples. The grade will be determined by two hour exams and a final exam. This course is a logical election for students who want to go on to Music History 346, an historical survey of music from 1750 to the present. It can serve as a two-course cognate requirement with MHM 341, MHM 346, or any of the 300-level MHM courses. Cost:3 WL:4 (D.Crawford)

407. Special Course. (2-3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 History of Jazz.
An explication of the development of the jazz tradition from its African and Afro-American folk origins to contemporary developments. Topics include blues, early jazz ("King" Oliver and Louis Armstrong) and swing bands to Free Jazz and "new" creative music. Lecture material will be supplemented by required readings from books, articles, and recorded music (available from the language lab listening facilities and the School of Music listening lab). Student performance will be evaluated by means of three one-hour exams and a project. Cost:2 WL:4 (R. Crawford)

411. Symphony of the Classic Period. (2). (Excl).
The Symphony.
This course surveys the symphony from its earliest inception through the 20th century. Three basic premises are taken as points of departure: the symphony is a product of its social origin and milieu; it is an expression of contemporaneous aesthetic values; the mutation of symphonic form and style is often a product of other general musical trends and genres of the day. Lectures are supplemented by recorded listening assignments (cassettes available at the language lab listening facilities) and readings from a textbook and course pack. Grades will be determined by exams and brief analytical papers. WL:4 (Andre)

413. History of Opera. (3). (HU).
Section 001 Monteverdi through Mozart.
This course is devoted to the study of opera in the first two centuries of its existence, from its beginnings to nearly the end of the 18th century. Here opera is to be studied critically as music, as theater, as spectacle, as performance medium, and as cultural expression. Special aspects of the course for Fall 1996 will include a consideration of operatic eroticism, a look at opera's arrival in the Americas, and a focus on the staging practices of early operas. While some of the lectures and listening assignments will be organized around excerpts, others will be designed to focus on whole operas, their musical dramaturgy, historical significance, economics, modes of production, and impact and reception in performance. Composers to be studied include Monteverdi, Cavalli, Lully, Purcell, Hidalgo, A. Scarlatti, Handel, Vivaldi, Rameau, Mozart, Haydn, Piccinni. The assignments in this course will be primarily listening assignments, to be supplemented by score study, readings from the course pack or materials on reserve, and some in-class performances. Grades will be based on written work and class participation. Open to upper-level LS&A and non-music students, to graduate students in the performing arts and humanities, and to all students in the School of Music. Cost:2 WL:1 or 3 (Stein)

422. Music of the Nineteenth Century. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Late Nineteenth Century Music.
This lecture course will survey the most important developments in western art music from about 1850 to about 1900, a period comprising the music dramas of Richard Wagner, the mature operas of Guiseppe Verdi, the flourishing of nationalist music in Russia and elsewhere, the principal works of composers like Johannes Brahms, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, and Hugo Wolf, and the early works of Gustav Mahler. Prerequisites: undergraduate surveys of music history and music theory, or lacking, these, permission of the instructor. Grading factors: two hour examinations and a final. (Students may also wish to elect MHM 422, which covers the period 1800-1850 the next time it is offered.) (Wiley)

450. Music in the United States. (3). (HU).

Music in the U.S. is a survey of American musical history, open to undergraduates and graduate students, both music and non-music concentrators. Since listening is an important part of the course, and since technical terminology is not avoided, students in the course should have some musical background, preferably MHM 341 or its equivalent. The course concentrates on "classical" music and jazz. Two textbooks are used: Hitchcock's MUSIC IN THE U.S. (Prentice-Hall) and Charles Ives' ESSAYS BEFORE A SONATA (Norton). There is also a course pack. Required listening tapes for the course are available in both the Shapiro Library and School of Music listening rooms. Tests include two hour exams and a final; papers are required of graduate students. Cost:2 WL:1 (R.Crawford)

461. The Music of Asia. (3). (HU).

This course will survey some of the outstanding genres of music from the Middle East, India, Southeast Asia and the Far East. Middle Eastern MAQAMS, Indian RAGAS, Javanese GAMELAN music, Chinese QIN music and Japanese NOH drama music will be included in this survey of musics, their cultural contexts and their cultural meanings. Listening tapes will supplement the lectures. Evaluation will be based on genre recognition and on essay-type exams. No previous musical background is necessary. Technical language is kept to a minimum with the emphasis on learning to listen to music from other cultures, and coming to an understanding of the cultural values embedded in musical performances. Cost:1 WL:1 (Becker)

Courses in Composition (Division 665)

221. Introduction to Elementary Composition. For non-School of Music students only. (3). (Excl).

Designed for students with limited musical background who wish to gain an understanding of the creative process and acquire a greater appreciation for contemporary music by composing. The course investigates traditional compositional crafts, as well as more current or experimental tendencies, including pop, ethnic and jazz idioms. Directed student creative projects receive individual attention. The prerequisite is the ability to read music.

222. Composition. For non-School of Music students only. Composition 221. (3). (Excl).

Composition 221 and 222 are taught in the same classroom; 222 is a more advanced continuation of 221.

421. Creative Composition. Non-School of Music students must have completed Composition 222 or Theory 238. (3). (Excl).

An introduction to composition for students interested in concentrating on original creative work in contemporary idiom. Student creative projects for which individual instruction is provided, are complemented by bi-weekly lectures, investigating appropriate aspects of musical language and compositional craft.

422. Creative Composition. Composition 421. (3). (Excl).

Composition 421 and 422 are taught in the same classroom; 422 is a more advanced continuation of 421. Cost:1

423. Advanced Composition. Composition 422. (2,4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

For students capable of original creative work. Instead of classwork as in 421-422, individual instruction with course instructor is provided. Participation in a weekly seminar devoted to the examination of a broad range of Twentieth Century literature is required. Cost:1

424. Advanced Composition. Composition 423. (2,4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

See description for Composition 423. Cost:1

425. Advanced Composition. Comp. 424. (2,4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

Stresses the shaping and instrumentation problems involved in composing for the mixed consort and examines differing approaches to musical notation. Weekly seminar participation is required.

426. Advanced Composition. Comp. 425. (2,4). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT).

See description for Composition 425.

Courses in Music Theory (Division 696)

137. Introduction to the Theory of Music. While this course requires no previous formal training in music theory, it is essential that students have a basic understanding of musical notation. (3). (HU).

The course covers basics of music theory and musical notation: scales, keys, intervals, triads, clefs, meter, rhythm, and some basic harmony. The course objectives are development of fluency in reading and writing musical notation, improvement of the musical ear, and the provision of a foundation for music analysis skills. Ideally students should have some basic music reading ability, but students without it can catch up with some extra effort. The course is a prerequisite to Music Theory 238, Introduction to Music Analysis. There are two lectures and one lab per week, devoted to aural skills development. Student evaluation is by assignments and exams.

139. Basic Musicianship: Aural Skills I. Theory 129 or placement by Theory Evaluation Survey Test. Limited to students enrolled in the School of Music unless admission is granted by the Chairman of the Department of Music Theory. (1). (Excl).

Sight-singing, vocal chord arpeggiation, keyboard and dictation exercises, major and minor keys including diatonic sequences, most frequent patterns of modulation and special techniques associated with 5-3 and 6-3 chords.

140. Basic Musicianship: Aural Skills II. Theory 139. (1) . (Excl).

Sight-singing, vocal chord arpeggiation, keyboard and dictation exercises, major and minor keys including diatonic sequences, most frequent patterns of modulation and special techniques associated with 5-3 and 6-3 chords.

149. Basic Musicianship: Writing Skills I. Theory 129 or placement by Theory Evaluation Survey Test. Limited to students enrolled in the School of Music unless admission is granted by the Chairman of the Department of Music Theory. (2). (Excl).

Review of rudiments; introduction to harmony and voice-leading involving triads, seventh chords, figured bass and procedures for four-voice writing; writing activities with diatonic harmony including cadential 6-4, analyses of harmony, phase-structure, texture and elements of configuration in shorter pieces.

239. Basic Musicianship: Aural Skills III. Theory 140 and 150, and concurrent enrollment in Theory 249. (1). (Excl).

Deals with chords to areas other then V; modulation to wider ranges of keys, harmony involving mixture, tonicization in major and minor and Neapolitan and augmented sixth chords.

249. Basic Musicianship: Written Skills III. Theory 140 and 150, and concurrent enrollment in Theory 239. (2). (Excl).

Writing activities involving melodic and rhythmic figuration, leading-tone seventh chords, diatonic modulation and chromatic voice-leading techniques; analysis of period structure, binary form, ternary forms.

351. Analysis of Tonal Music. Theory 238, 240, 334, or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Techniques of analysis and their applications to sonata, rondo, fugue, variation, and related forms and procedures.

371. Instrumentation and Orchestration. Theory 238 or equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Emphasis on original compositions or arrangements for various instruments in string, wind, brass and percussion families. Final project is selecting and orchestrating a short piano composition for chamber orchestra.

430. Analysis of Twentieth-Century Music. Theory 351. (2). (Excl).

Primary emphasis is on the development of analytical and aural skills in significant 20th-C. musics. Varied repertoire; varied aural and analytical approaches.

473. Eighteenth Century Counterpoint. Theory 240 and Theory 351 or the equivalent. (2). (Excl).

Involves analysis and practice of the craft of counterpoint based upon 18th-C. repertoire of Western music and scholarly treatises of both that period and the present. A diet of species counterpoint is emphasized in the first half, then varieties of contrapuntal craft of the difficulty of two- and three-part inventions of J.S. Bach.

Courses in Performing Arts Technology (Division 691)

201. Microcomputers and Music. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Students receive basic instruction in the use of microcomputers, synthesizers, and computer music software for composition, recording, and musical notation. Requires the ability to read music and some musical keyboard proficiency.

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