Residential College Courses

Most RC courses are open to LS&A students and may be used to meet distribution requirements.


Residential College students are given priority in all Residential College courses during the pre-registration and registration periods, and from wait lists. RC courses which fulfill specific Residential College graduation requirement are reserved for RC students only (e.g., RC language courses).

Wait lists of Residential College courses are maintained in the Residential College Counseling Office, 134 Tyler, East Quad. When a course fills, students should contact the RC Counseling Office (747-4359) to be placed on a wait list if one is being maintained.

Core (Division 863)

Written and Verbal Expression

105. Logic and Language. (4). (N.Excl).

Argument is the focus of this course, both in symbols and in language. We deal with the forms of arguments, the application of them, what makes them valid or invalid, weak or strong. We do this in two concurrent ways: (1) Microcosmically, we examine the structure of arguments, what makes them tick. In the deductive sphere we deal with the relations of truth and validity to develop the logic of propositions, and enter the logic of quantification. In the inductive sphere, we deal with argument by analogy, and causal analysis, and with elementary probability theory. (2) Macrocosmically, we do the analysis of real arguments in controversial contexts, as they are presented in classical and contemporary philosophical writing: ethical arguments (in Plato); political arguments (in J.S. Mill); and legal arguments as they appear in Supreme Court decisions. In all cases both substance and form are grist for our mill. (C. Cohen)

334. Special Topics. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 Culture and Environment.
The objectives of this course are to provide students with the opportunity and skills to evaluate how cultural assumptions and biases shape a society's relationship to the environment, assess whether social and cultural values could change to reflect natural processes and ecological principles, and develop knowledge and dialogue for living sustainably. Part of this course involves shaping the community of ourselves at the Biological Station in northern Michigan. We will accomplish these objectives through reading and discussion of literature, reflection and writing, and community service in local communities. One of the longer field trips (to the eastern end of the Upper Peninsula) will focus on the natural history of human cultures, including Native American cultures, and the impact of human activities on the environment of northern Michigan. Activities, readings, and writings are organized around the themes of (1) world views of different cultures in relation to the environment (readings from Aldo Leopold, Wendell Berry, Native Americans, Daniel Quinn), (2) principles of sustainable living (readings from David Orr, Thoreau), and (3) cultivating a knowledge of place (readings from Stephanie Mills, Scott Momaday, and Louise Erdrich). Writing assignments will include papers and journal writing.

The Natural History Writer's Project is an academic program that emphasizes ecology, environmental education, creative writing, and cooperative living and learning at the University of Michigan Biological Station during the fall term. The program involves three courses (Core 331, Core 334 and Humanities 325), each taught by University of Michigan faculty. Students enrolled take all three classes and earn 12 academic credits; the class sizes are limited to about 15 students each. All University of Michigan undergraduates are eligible to participate in this Program. Questions and information regarding application procedures should be directed to Catherine Badgley, 114 Tyler, East Quad. (e-mail address:; office phone number 763-6448).

Foreign Language


Intensive language courses meet in lecture and discussion twice a day four days a week. The language programs have language lunch tables, coffee hours, and other social events. There is a language laboratory in the College, and the language teachers are available for counseling and additional help. If a student begins a new language, proficiency is usually attained in one year through the Residential College program.

Core 190, 191, 194 Intensive French, German, Spanish I. The goal of this course is to provide the student with a basic but solid knowledge of grammatical structures and syntax, a functional vocabulary, familiarity with intonation patterns and native pronunciation, and practice in speaking and writing. Upon completion of this course, the student can understand simple written texts or short spoken passages without the aid of a dictionary, and can carry on a short, elementary conversation.

Core 290, 291, 294 Intensive French, German, Spanish II. The goal of this course is to expand vocabulary and to master grammatical structures and syntax to the level of competency required to pass a proficiency exam. This entails developing the ability to communicate with some ease with a native speaker, in spoken and written language. Students must be able to understand the content of texts and lectures of a non-technical nature, and of general (non-literary) interest.

193/Russian 103. Intensive First-Year Russian. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Russian 101, 102, 111, or 112. (8). (LR).

See Russian 103.

310. Accelerated Review-French. Permission of instructor. (4). (LR).

The goal of this course is to bring students to the level of proficiency defined in the brochure "The French Program at the Residential College," in the four linguistic skills. Students who take 310, typically have not reached this level in two or more skills, but do not need the Intensive course 290 to do so. "Accelerated Review-310" is taught on a semi-tutorial mode with hours arranged to meet the particular needs of the students. In this course, emphasis is placed on correctness and fluidity of expression in speaking and in writing. Speaking skills are developed through weekly conversation sessions on current topics; personalized pronunciation diagnoses are administered and exercises prescribed. Writing skills are refined through a review of deficient grammar points and composition assignments which give students the opportunity to improve the accuracy and expressiveness of their style. In addition, exposure to primary source materials (current magazines or newspapers) and to texts of cultural and literary value develop reading ability and vocabulary. Listening skills are trained in informal conversational exchanges and in lectures with note-taking in French. (Butler-Borruat)

320. Seminaire en français. Proficiency test. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Young People in France.
What are the interests of young people in France? What problems do they perceive as most pressing? We will look at different sources and points of view in order to begin to answer these questions pertaining to personal and societal issues, such as leisure activities: the impact of AIDS; rising unemployment; the opening of Europe; and national identity. Articles; excerpts from contemporary novels; TV programs; movies or movie excerpts, will be used both as sources of information and as examples of different ways of using facts to illustrate and defend or dismiss an opinion. All discussions, readings, writings, and oral presentations will be in French. Part of the students' responsibility will be to carry out their own research on a topic of interest to them. Equal emphasis is given to oral and written work. (Belloni)

Section 002 Existentialism: The Human Condition and the Absurd. Far from being a doctrine, Existentialism is fundamentally a philosophical tendency. Born of a reaction against Hegelian rationalism, the different existentialist tendencies come together in the rehabilitation of freedom, subjectivity and individual existence. In this course, we will attempt, through our readings, to discern the characteristics of various existentialist concepts. After a brief survey of the precursors and the "founders" of existentialism, we will focus on two members of what has been called the Philosophical School of Paris, namely Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir. The study of Albert Camus' conception of the human condition and the absurd will lead us to the "Théâtre de l'Absurde" which we will approach through plays by Eugène Ionesco. Concepts such as, among others, suicide, "engagement", and the Other will be emphasized according to student interests. Assigned works: Jean-Paul Sartre, L'Existentialisme est un humanisme, La Nausée (excerpts), Les Mouches, Le Mur; Albert Camus, Le Myth de Sisyphe (excerpts), Caligula, L'Étranger; Simone de Beauvoir, Les Bouches inutiles, excerpts from Le Sang des autres and from Tous les hommes sont mortels; Eugène Ionesco, La Cantatrice chauve. Film: Luis Puenzo, La Peste. Audio-visual materials: Interviews with Sartre, Camus, and de Beauvoir. Students will be asked to write short essays on the readings and to participate actively in class discussions. (Butler-Borruat)

324. Readings in Spanish. Proficiency test. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 El Movimiento de la Nueva Canción: Musica, Historia y Poesia.
El moviemiento de la Nueva Canción forma parte de los grandes cambios políticos, sociales y artísticos que ocurren en América Latina en la década de kis a os de 1970. El movimiento pretende ofrecer una alternativa musical que favorezca la investigación del folklore auténtico, que le confiera a la canción un contenido expresivo, artistico y poético que refleje más fielmente la cultura latinoamericana. "Una canción sin mensaje bien definido no es un poema y es todavia menos una canció," dice Patricio Manns, integrante del Movimiento. Se pretende, asismismo, ampliar el registro instrumental con la incorporació de una extensa variedad de instrumentos antes no utilizados. En el caso particular de Chile, el Movimiento de la Nueva Canción se convierte en vocero de la realidad social y politica y pasa a ser parte del proceso evolutivo del pais. Aún más, circunstanceias coincidentes en otros países latinoamericanos hicieron de la Nueva Canción chilena parte de un movimiento de carácter continental. Esta clase concentrará la atención en dos aspectos del movimiento: (1) la producción de obras de largo aliento, (Cantos y cantatas) que demuestran un fructífero encuentro entre la música docta de tradición clásica y la música popular; y (2) la conexión música-poesía demostrada en el uso que hace el Movimiento de la Nueva Canción de textos poéticos de Pablo Neruda y Gabriela Mistral, entre otros. La clase estudiará las siguientes obras: La Cantata de Santa Maria de Iquique, música y letra de Luis Advis, grupo Quilapayún; Canto General, Pablo Neruda-Gustavo Becerra, grupo Aparcoa; Canto a Una Semilla, Luis Advis y grupo Inti-Illimani; Cordillera, Gabriela Mistral, grupo Barroco Andino; Alturas de Machu Pichi, Pablo Neruda, grupo Los Jaivas; Cantata de los Derechos Humanos, Alejandro Guarello, grupo Ortiga. (Moya-Raggio)

Section 002 Mujer Jesoritura en Latinoamérica: de la domesticidad al espacio politico. (Olga Lopez-Cotin)

Section 003 Cultura Y Revolucion en Latinoamerica: Canciones, Libros y Sesxo (Gender) en el Siglo XX. Siempre que se habla de una revolucion se piensa en el periodo de destruccion y violencia que la caracterizan. Sin embargo, una de las tareas mas importantes despues del triunfo de una revolucion es la transformacion de la vida cultural de la sociedad. Como logra un gobierno revolucionario cambiar las practicas culturales de una nacion? Concentrandonos en tres revoluciones de este siglo en Latinoamerica, vamos a tratar de analizar como las gobiernos post-revolucionarios de Mexico, Cuba Y Nicaragua reorganizan la vida cultural de sus paises. En terminos generales vamos a analizar la educacion que reciben los ciudadanos, cual es la musica popular que se define como "revolucionaria", cual es el papel que juega la mujer en la "nueva sociedad" y como se comportan los intelectuales que el gobierno considera "de vanguardia". Tambien miraremos hacia los que quedan excluidos: los intelectuales "contra-revolucionarios", las minorias sexuales y ethnicas que son deliberadamento excluidas de los "beneficios" de la revolucion. En la clase se discutiran materiales originales como fragmentos de discursos politicos, musica y letra de canciones, articulos periodisticos, peliculas y otros escritos de intelectuales de dichos paises. Para completar el analisis de estos artefactos culturales se daran estrategias adecuadas. Los estudiantes trabajaran para hacer una presentacion en grupo de alguno de los temas, se haran equipos de debate y se escribira un ensayo final. Tendremos una o dos sesiones en la sala de computadores para navegar en la telarana mundial (worldwideweb) buscando y analizando materiales. Se leeran algunos libros (3 o 4) breves sobre la historia y la sociedad contemporaneas de Mexico, Cuba y Nicaragua. Asi mismo se preparara un course pack y un cassette con las canciones y otros materiales. (Chavez)

Independent Study, Fieldwork, and Tutorials

331. Field Ecology. (4). (Excl).
Section 001.
See Core 334 for general information on the Natural History Writer's Project. This course, taught at the UM Biological Station, introduces students to the physical and biological processes that interact to produce local ecological communities. Students will become familiar with the influence of geological history and climate on landscapes and habitats, the rates of change of physical and biological processes, the history of and threats to biodiversity, the evolutionary response of organisms to local circumstances, and processes of population regulation and the balance of nature. With this background of natural science, we will also evaluate which aspects of the natural world are and which are not vulnerable to human modification. We will also consider the sustainability of various natural-resource policies in relation to the health of human communities and environmental systems. The primary texts will be The Diversity of Life (E.O. Wilson) and After the Ice Age (E.C. Pielou). Additional readings will come from the literature of exploration, of environmental ethics, and creative writing inspired by natural history. Assignments include field projects, journal writing, and papers. In the field, students will learn how to record physical and biological data, identify common elements of the flora and fauna, document the distribution and abundance of plants and animals, measure physical and biological gradients across terrestrial and aquatic habitats, and compare the current landscapes and ecological community to conditions during the last ice age.

Arts (Division 864)

267. Introduction to Holography. (4). (Excl).

An introductory art studio class in basic holography which stresses the visual characteristics of the medium through hands-on production of holograms. The class will cover the technical skills involved in making simple reflection and transmission holograms and the inherent visual problems presented by this new imaging medium. It is essentially a lab oriented class with image production being the students' major responsibility. (Hannum)

269. Elements of Design. (4). (Excl). Materials fee ($30).

This course provides non-art majors with the opportunity to practice, as well as study, visual skills. It attempts to give students a broad experience through (1) exposure to art history, anthropology and art, and the psychology of visual perception, presented in slide lectures; (2) technical mastery of a range of media; (3) development of creative and technical skills; and (4) critical assessment of works of art during class discussions and critiques. During the first part of the course students acquire a visual vocabulary by working with the basic elements of design, including line, shape, tone, texture, perspective, balance, and color. Students complete projects dealing with these visual elements. During the final part of the course students apply their new visual skills to longer, more complex projects. Students are evaluated individually on their progress and the quality of their projects. Class critiques are frequent, and attendance is mandatory. (Savageau)

285. Photography. (4). (Excl). Materials fee ($50).

An introduction to the medium of photography from the perspective of the artist. It includes an overview of photography's role in the arts, the development of an understanding of visual literacy and self-expression as they relate to the photographic medium and the development of basic technical skills in black and white and color photography. A visual emphasis is maintained in both presentation and course work, and the students work with the medium towards a goal of personal expression. There will be a studio fee. (Hannum)

288. Introduction to Drawing. (4). (Excl).

This course will explore traditional and contemporary approaches to drawing. Emphasis will be on the eye (seeing) and the hand (doing). Basic techniques and methods will be covered including work with still-life, the figure and the imagination. There will be a studio lab fee. (Cressman)

289. Ceramics. (4). (Excl). Materials fee ($75).

This course presents basic problems in forming clay, throwing and handbuilding techniques, testing, preparing and applying glazes, stacking and firing kilns, and operating a ceramics studio. Students are required to learn the complete ceramics process, and the assumption of studio responsibilities and regular class attendance are mandatory. The theory, practice, and history of ceramics are integral parts of this study and are used to encourage individual sensitivity to the material. There will be a studio fee.

Humanities (Division 865)

Arts and Ideas

236/Film Video 236. The Art of the Film. (4). (HU). Lab fee ($50).

The Art of the Film examines the dramatic and psychological effects of the elements and techniques used in film making and television, and some of the salient developments in film's artistic and technological history. This course provides students with the basic tools and methods for film appreciation and study. Students write five two-page exercises, a seven-page analysis of a current movie, and a final exam. A lab fee of $50.00 is assessed to pay for the film rentals. (H. Cohen)

290. The Experience of Arts and Ideas in the Twentieth Century. (4). (HU).
It can be argued that the roots of Modernism extend back to the Romantic movement in the nineteenth century and that the branches continue to grow in 1996. But, if the branches of Modernism still grow in the 1990s, they have become creeping vines in a forest of Postmodern culture. Modernist theory, particularly as represented by Clement Greenberg, emphasizes the autonomy of the work of art, its isolation from the vagaries of political and cultural agendas, and often its universal appeal. On the other hand, Postmodernism is often seen as completely embedded in its culture, motivated by and in turn propelling political debate, and at time proclaiming the voice of a single community. The prolifieration of images, the (possible) democratization of culture, and the diminishing boundaries between the media which are characteristic of Postmodernism occur in part because of developments in image making, as exemplified by the following short list of technological innovations: 1839, invention of photography; 1895, invention of the first successful motion picture projector; 1946, television sets go on sale to the public, six stations are on the air; 1950, first commercial dry copier (Xerox Model D) is marketed; 1956, a videotape recording system introduced by Ampex. This interdisciplinary course will explore the paradigm shift from Modernism to Postmodernism in representative works of painting (Jackson Pollack, Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, Robert Rauschenberg, Barbara Kruger, David Salle); photography (Alfred Stieglitz, Cindy Sherman, Lorna Simpson, Clegg and Guttman, The Starn twins); film (Dziga Vertov's MAN WITH A MOVIE CAMERA, Chris Marker's LA JETEE, Dusan Makavejev's W.R. OR THE MYSTERIES OF THE ORGANISM); video (Dara Birnbaum); mixed media (Jeff Koons, Jenny Holzer, Hans Haacke, Krzysztof Wodiczko) and literature (James Joyce, A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN; Yuri Olesha, ENVY; Toni Morrison, BELOVED; Milan Kundera, THE BOOK OF LAUGHTER AND FORGETTING; Lesley Marmon Silko, CEREMONY). In addition to the novels noted above, there will be a course pack of assigned critical readings. You will be asked to write two 5-7 page papers on aspects of the nature of Modernism and Postmodernism. As a final project the class will prepare a group exhibition (working in small groups) and jointly write a catalogue for the exhibition. There will also be in-class presentations based on your contributions to the catalogue. (Eagle/Reister)

310. Medieval Sources of Modern Culture. Sophomore standing or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

During the medieval period, a major revision of the representation of the body took place in Western art. The classical paradigm, in which the body occurs as a mathematical canon, an idea, or an illusion, is subverted, stood on its head, and sometimes repudiated altogether. Instead, the concrete physicality of the body interior space as well as surface, internal organs as well as external appearance becomes the starting point for such literary genres as confession, song, narrative, and meditation. Very often, the body is projected into these genres as the imaginative landscape within which they unfold. Even more, the body and its organic transformations become the site of verbal and visual figuration; they generate a rhetoric. This refigured body does not always observe the syntax assigned to it by classical convention. Instead, it begins to speak an extravagant language: the skin is a book, tongues of fire burst from every side, hearts have ears, bellies have mouths, and genitals flourish an array of musical instruments. Nor are the well-bred hierarchies of classical decorum preserved; humiliation, decay, and collapse of the body under the blows of violence, disease, and time, are all rhetoricalized with the intensity usually reserved for displays of power and invulnerability. In Medieval Sources, we will explore this new representation of the body in both literature and the visual arts. This interdisciplinary approach will involve the close reading of texts and the careful analysis of images. Our goal will be to improve these skills, reading and looking, and to become both more sophisticated and more confident in the way in which we generate our own interpretations from the material. Plato, Phaedo; Classical Sources of early Christian art; Lives and Sayings of the Desert Fathers; The Life of St. Mary the Egyptian; Early Christian art of the Eastern Empire: Egypt, Syria, Constantinople; St. Augustine, Confessions; Byzantine art: Ravenna; Anglo-Saxon poetry; Iro-Celtic book illumination; Hildegard von Bingen: Songs and Sequences; Romanesque portals: Moissac; Romanesque sculpture: Reliquaries; The Throne of Wisdom; Marie de France, Lais; Gothic sculpture: the portal program of Chartres; Julian of Norwich, Revelations of Divine Love; Matthias Grunewald The Isenheim Altarpiece. (Sowers)

313/Slavic Film 313. Russian Cinema. (3). (HU). Laboratory fee ($50) required.

See Slavic Film 313. (Eagle)

333. Art and Culture. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 City of Myth: The Art and Culture of Venice.
This course explores the urban mythology of Venice in the Renaissance and in modern times. Its focus is the "imaginary" city that was created, and is still being created by Venetians and foreigners alike, in powerful works of visual art, music, and literature. The myth and mystery of Venice enfolds a wealth of apparent contradictions: stable aristocratic republicanism and profound cultural contrasts, classical order and carnival disorder, sober masculinity and luxurious femininity, ideal Venereal beauty and earthly venereal disease (as well as plague and cholera). Venice is known both for its strong civic patriotism and for its uneasy embrace of the centuries-old culture of the Jewish Ghetto and of radically foreign peoples from the east Slavs, Greeks, Turks. We will study visual and verbal images as works of art that attempt to make sense of (mythologize) aspects of this complex urban life. The course will emphasize visual culture, especially painting, sculpture, and architecture, along with costume, design, and film. Readings will range widely from Renaissance poetry and art criticism to Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice" (c.1595). Modern fiction will include Henry James' "The Aspern Papers" (1888), and Thomas Mann's "Death in Venice" (1913). The University of Michigan Museum of Art will be hosting a loan exhibition of Venetian paintings during Fall Term, offering a very special opportunity to work directly with objects from the 16th and 18th centuries. We will also take advantage of a wide-ranging scholarly conference on the art, music, theater, and history of Venice that will be held on campus in October. If you have ever been interested in Venice or in the culture of European cities, this is the term to take a course on the topic. (Willette)

Section 002 In the Aftermath of Revolution. The collapse of communism in the years 1989-1991 ended an unprecedented experiment in economic, political, and cultural organization. It also canceled a distinct conception of history: one that was oriented towards an attainable future of social justice, requiring to be realized only the overcoming of reactionary obstacles. The greatest of all obstacles, the repressive past itself, could be swept away. Indeed, history would sweep itself away, by inevitable evolution or revolutionary force. Now, in 1996, we must review the logic of inevitability, the language of revolution, and even the location of history itself. Where is the future? And where was the past? This course will address those questions through the medium of art. Why have artists adopted the language of revolution to account for their practice? How have they inserted that practice into a preconceived pattern of historical unfolding? How have they, in the face of failure, reevaluated that language? How have they struggled to save it? Why are artists engaged in the first place with the problem of history its pattern, shape, and purpose? This course in many respects is an experiment in the application of critical theory the discussion of the implications of the momentous years 1989-1991 is still in its infancy. We will therefore follow a line of inquiry suggested by Czech writer Milan Kundera in his account of the seductive allure of revolution: the longing for an experience of the Sublime. We will also make use of Lacan's notion of the belle ame, the "beautiful soul," in exploring the literary and visual constructions of the subject of revolution. (1) Introduction: Totalitarian Aesthetics. Boris Groys, The Total Art of Stalin. (2) The Gesture of Longing for Immortality: Goethe, The Sorrows of Young Werther; Caspar David Friedrich, paintings; Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origins of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful. (3) The Aftermath of Revolution: Georg Büchner, Danton's Death; Theodore Gericault, paintings; Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France. (4) A Mirror of the Social Order: Henry James, The Portrait of a Lady; Edgar Degas, paintings. (5) Beautiful Souls: Jacques Lacan, The Mirror Stage as Formative of the Function of the I; Milan Kundera, Immorality; Magdalena Abakanowicz, painting and sculpture. (Sowers)

Section 003 From Picasso to Tharp: Collaboration in Art, Dance and Film in the Twentieth Century. This course examines the collaboration of artists, film makers, and dancer-choreographers in this century. The twentieth century has been the century in which multi-media works have been dominant and influential forms works produced not by one individual artist, but by artists working in collaboration. This course examines a selected group of works in which painters sculptors, choreographers, and film makers have collaborated to create some of the most intriguing works of the century. We will begin with the collaborations of early modern artists like Picasso, Henri Matisse, Giorgio de Chirico, Leon Bakst with innovative young dance makers like Georges Balanchine, Vaslav Nijinsky, Leonide Massine and Bronislava Nijinska in Europe and continue with artist-choreographer collaborations in America including Martha Graham and Isamu Noguchi, Jerome Robbins and Oliver Smith, Merce Cunningham, Jasper Johns, Andy Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, Trisha Brown and David Hockney. We will also look at artist, choreographer and film maker collaborations in the works of British film directors Powell and Pressburger and their work with choreographer Leonide Massine and artist Hein Heckroth (The Red Shoes, The Tales of Hoffman), and directors Vincente Minnelli, Gene Kelly and Stanley Donen who worked closely with artists at MGM in their "ballets" and dance sequences for films like An American in Paris, Yolanda and The Thief, Invitation to the Dance, and Singin' in the Rain.

Of Special Note: Twyla Tharp Co U of M Residency: This class will coincide with the residency of choreographer Twyla Tharp and company on campus during part of the fall term. As part of her work, Tharp has been actively involved in film and video to create moving images of special power and potency. Her work descends, in part, from the traditions we will have been studying. A special section of the course will be devoted to Tharp's work in film and video including her collaboration with director Milos Forman on Hair and Amadeus, her television work in the Great Performance Series on PBS and in her multi-media collaboration with David Byrne in the Catherine Wheel. Students will be able to take advantage of the performances, special rehearsals and the symposia associated with this event. (Genné)

Section 004 Michelangelo. For Fall Term, 1996, this section is offered jointly with History of Art 394.002. (Campbell)

Comparative Literature

214. Fundamentals of Narrative Fiction. (4). (HU).

We have human beings in our civilization chosen to present themselves and the stories of their lives? What motivates a person to tell his or her story? This course examines a variety of short narratives and novels from acknowledged classics of historical fiction and the bildungsroman to such popular forms as Westerns and mysteries, romances and children's fables to look at story-telling as a reflection of social values and as a mode of seeing, thinking, being and becoming. What stage of development or type of experience is formative and which provide the most useful lens from which to view the whole? What is the impact of gender, nationality and race on the cultural construction of selfhood? How do writers invent the impossible? Why must they lie to tell the truth, write beyond the ending, and make up stories about stories within stories? How do we decide what these stories mean? Authors to be considered include George MacDonald, Rudyard Kipling, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Henry James, Arthur Conan Doyle, Franz Kafka, Virginia Woolf, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Toni Morrison, Fae Ng, Tim O'Brien and Julia Alvarez. Requirements: active participation, three short papers, "process writing" exercises and a final. (Goodenough)

341. Latin American Literature. (4). (Excl).

From the outside, especially from the perspective of the United States or Europe, Latin America sometimes appears as picturesque or even folkloric; it also appears as an homogeneous entity. Nevertheless, in spite of some commonalities of history and language, each part has its own past as well as its own present, a particular social context and a language that modulates and resonates differently. It is possible to say that the homogenizing factor comes always from the outside. The differences found among the many parts is also the distance beyond the geographical one in language and vision, between a writer of Caribbean Latin America and one from the Southern Cone. Yet, writers in Latin America have expressed considerable concern for the continent as a whole, recognizing its mestizo characteristics not only in relation to race, but also in relation to influences and aspirations. They recognize that although not one of them may represent the whole, all of them contribute to the emergence of common language. To find that common language and concern will be the focus of this class; we will do that through some of the major voices of Latin America. The list might include: Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garciá Márquez, Alejo Carpentier, Augusto Roa Bastos, Marta Traba and Elena Garro and/or others. Course is taught entirely in English; however, a knowledge of Spanish is welcome. (Moya-Raggio)

360. The Existential Quest in the Modern Novel. Junior/senior standing, or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

"God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him." (Nietzsche)

"If there is not God, then everything is permitted." (Dostoevsky)

"Everything that exists is born without reason,
Continues to live out of weakness,
and dies by chance." (Sartre)

Existentialism combines the investigation of major issues in the history of Western philosophy with daily problems of intense personal concern. In this course, existentialism will be viewed as a literary as well as a philosophical movement united by a number of recurrent and loosely related themes. (1) Theological: the disappearance of God; the condition of being "thrown" into an indifferent and ultimately absurd universe; man's encounter with nothingness beneath the floor of everyday reality revealed when familiar objects and language drop away. (2) Psychological: man's imperfection fragility, and loneliness; the feeling of anxiety and despair over the emptiness of life and the terror of death; arguments for and against suicide; human nature as fundamentally ambiguous and hence not explicable in scientific though or in any metaphysical system; the absence of a universally valid morality; and human nature as undetermined and free. (3) Social: man's rebellion against the inhumanity of social institutions that suffocate the "authentic self"; the escape from individual responsibility into the "untruth of the crowd." (4) Finally, man's various attempts to transform nihilistic despair into a creative affirmation of life. Philosophic texts by Pascal, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Buber, Jaspers, and Heidegger; fiction by Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Camus, Sartre, Rilke, and Kafka. Two examinations and one term paper required. (Peters)

410. Upperclass Literature Seminar. (4). (HU). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Psychoanalysis in the Modern European Novel.
First, this course will offer a basic introduction to the Freudian and Jungian theory of human psychology and psychopathology; the nature of the personal interpersonal unconscious; theories of the instincts and their transformation; the development and function of the ego; the mechanisms of defense and repair, and theories and methods for the interpretation of dreams and works of art. Second, this course will conclude with two studies in applied psychoanalysis. (1) Kafka and Freud: Kafka's childhood and his relationship to his father will be examined in light of the trauma of the bourgeois nuclear family as described by Freud. Also, the Freudian theory of dream interpretation will be applied as a technique for the analysis of Kafka's literary fantasies of guilt, punishment and suicide. Texts: Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams; Kafka's short stories and The Trial. (2) Hesse and Jung: "the search for identity" of Hesse's protagonists will be examined in the perspective of Jung's individuation process, the persona, the shadow, archetypes of the Collective Unconscious, and man's quest for mystical illumination. Texts: selections from The Portable June; Hesse's Siddhartha and Steppenwolf. Kafka's and Hesse's lives will also be analyzed from the perspective of theories of neurosis and artistic creativity. Midterm and final exams, and term paper required. (Peters)

451/Russian 451. Survey of Russian Literature. A knowledge of Russian is not required. (3). (HU).

See Russian 451. (Bartlett)

476/Chinese 476/Asian Studies 476. Writer and Society in Modern China. No knowledge of Chinese is required. (4). (HU).

See Chinese 476. (Feuerwerker)

Creative Writing

220. Narration. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

Suggested assignment: 1250 words of prose fiction every two weeks. Rewriting is emphasized. The class meets as a group up to two hours per week. Collections of short fiction by established writers are read. Every student meets privately with the instructor each week. (Hecht)

221. The Writing of Poetry. Permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

The amount of poetry each student is required to submit is determined by the instructor. The class meets three hours per week as a group. In addition, each student receives private criticism from the instructor every week. Contemporary poetry is read and discussed in class for style. Students are organized into small groups that meet weekly. (Mikolowski)

222. Writing for Children and Young Adults. (4). (Excl).

Individualized instruction, group discussion and readings aim at the development of original story ideas and the perfection of narrative techniques relevant to the authorship of children's books. Preliminary assignments picture book, folklore-narrative, and media prepare each student for a self-directed final project. No prerequisites; however, a thorough reading background in children's books or the willingness to compensate for its lack is presumed. Please do not take this course expecting "lectures" about children's books or child development. This is a writing course emphasizing story-writing skills and aesthetics. (Balducci)

320. Advanced Narration. Hums. 220 and permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).

This course is designed for writers of longer fiction who can benefit from instruction and peer feedback. Three 15-20 page short stories or three 20-25 page segments of longer works are due at evenly spaced intervals during the term. Everyone in the class reads everything submitted. The class meets three times a term, as a workshop, to discuss everyone's work. Each student meets with the instructor each week for private discussion of work both completed and in progress. Enrollment is limited to a maximum of six students, usually students who have completed Narration and/or Tutorials. Permission of instructor is required. (Hecht)

Hums 325, 326, 425, 426, Creative Writing Tutorials. Tutorials provide an opportunity for students who want to write, no matter how sophisticated their work, to have their efforts recognized with constructive criticism and academic credit. Reading may or may not be assigned, depending upon the background needs of the individual student. Tutorial students meet privately with the instructor each week. Permission of instructor is required. (Hecht, Mikolowski, Balducci)

325. Creative Writing Tutorial. Hums. 221 or 320, and permission of instructor. (4). (Excl).
Section 004 Natural History Writer's Project Creative Writing Tutorial.
See Core 334 for general information on the Natural History Writer's Project. This course, taught at the UM Biological Station, combines a sampling of "environmental literature" and extensive writing. Readings will include selections from the literature of natural history (e.g., Darwin, Muir, Heinrich), of knowing a place well (e.g., Leopold, Berry, Stegner, Olson, Jewett), and of personal discovery through nature (e.g., Thoreau, including Thoreau's journals, Oliver). Students are expected to write daily in their journals, which will also be used regularly for in-class writing assignments, both creative and analytical. Journals will serve as home base for writing in all three courses of the program. The purpose of the journal is to join in one place all the various kinds of writing that pertain to the term, both academic and personal, viewed in the broadest perspective. Also, students will be required to write a long essay on some matter pertaining to the environment, drawing on materials gathered into the journal over the entire term.


280/English 245/Theatre 211. Introduction to Drama and Theatre. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in RC Hums. 281. (4). (HU).

See Theatre 211. (Brown)

282. Drama Interpretation I: Actor and Text. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 Drama Interpretation I. Actor and Text: Images of the American Family.
This text based performance course will focus on one of the central themes in American Drama the relationship of the family. In doing so we will not only look at some of the major plays of the century by writers like Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller, Eugene and O'Neill, but we will also go on to look at more contemporary playwrights and more current issues in American playwriting the perspectives of women writers, African American, Asian and Hispanic writers, writers from the Gay and Lesbian community. The emphasis will be on the exploration of these texts through extensive scene study. No prerequisite is required but previous acting experience is recommended. Students who have already taken Actor and Text I may enroll and receive credit, as the syllabus is substantially different. (Mendeloff)

381. Shakespeare on the Stage. Hums. 280 or permission of instructor. (4). (HU).

This course involves intensive study of Shakespeare's plays as performed events. Students will read, discuss, analyze, and explore through performance outstanding scenes from nine major plays, representing all genres Shakespeare practiced, in order to discover how Shakespeare's drama communicates it meaning to an audience in a theater. Attention to the conventions and conditions of the Elizabethan stage, the shape of Shakespeare's career as a whole, and modern interpretations of the Bard will supplement this activity. Two prepared scenes, one monologue, short "precept papers," and an end-of-term presentation cum final. No prerequisites. Freshpersons may consider this an entry level course for the RC Drama Concentration and the equivalent of Intro. to Theatre and Drama. For more advanced Theater students there will be ample opportunities for directing scenes and developing Shakespearean/ Elizabethan audition pieces as part of one's requirements. (Walsh/Mendeloff)


250. Chamber Music. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
Instrumental: Chamber Orchestra and Small Ensembles.
No audition required. All students who are interested in participating in instrumental ensembles may enroll for one or two hours of credit. The second hour of credit is at the discretion of the instructor. Every student must elect Section 001 for one hour; those students who will fulfill the requirements for two hours of credit MUST also elect Section 002 (with an override from the instructor) for the additional hour of credit. For one hour of credit students must participate in two ensembles; for two credit hours, students must participate in the large ensemble and two smaller ones. Responsibilities include three to four hours of rehearsal time per week and participation in one or more concerts per term, if appropriate. Course may be used to satisfy the Residential College's Arts Practicum Requirement. Ensembles have included: mixed ensembles of strings and winds; brass quintet and intermediate recorder; string quartet; woodwind quintet, and some other duos and trios, including piano and harpsichord. (Barna)

251. Topics in Music. (4). (HU).
Section 001 Musical Experimentation in Twentieth Century America.
This course is designed to introduce ideas and concepts associated with a specifically American artistic aesthetic which fostered a unique environment for avant-garde experimentation and innovation in various current of popular, jazz, and art music. Among composers to be considered are John Cage, Harry Partch, Steve Reich, Robert Ashley, Laurie Anderson, Meredith Monk, Carla Bley, Frank Zappa, Philip Glass, Charles Mingus, George Russell, Ornette Coleman, Anthony Braxton, and many others. Topics to be covered will include instrumental innovations, indeterminacy and chance, systems of notation, minimalism, performance art and mixed media, experimental jazz, and other contemporary issues. (Beal)

253. Choral Ensemble. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.
Section 001 Women's Choral Ensemble.
Group rehearses twice weekly and prepares a thematic concert of music from the vast Women's Chorus Repertoire. Vocal skills, sight singing, and basic musicianship are stressed. No prerequisites, but a commitment to the group and a dedication to musical growth within the term are required. No audition.

Section 002 Mixed Choral Ensemble. Four-part works from a variety of musical styles are rehearsed and prepared for performance in concert. Meets twice weekly. Vocal skills, sight singing, musicianship, and ensemble singing are stressed. No prerequisites, but a commitment to the group and musical growth within the term are required. No audition.

254. The Human Voice as An Acoustical Instrument. (4). (Excl).
Section 001 Basic Technique for Singer and Actors, Including the Alexander Technique.
This course is open to students who want to develop their voices for speaking and singing, to sing more comfortably, and to maintain vocal health. The course is directed towards singers (with or without previous vocal training), speech and acting students, and those who want to find out if they can sing. Most voices are undeveloped (or under-developed), and we can learn how to develop our vocal equipment for whatever our own purpose. Because our voices are housed within, we must consider the whole voice-body-mind as the subject of our study. Ms. Heirich is a STAT and NASTAT certified teacher of the Alexander Techniques, and this body of work will inform all that we do in the course. The class meets together on Mondays and Fridays from 1-3 P.M. Your schedules should TEMPORARILY remain flexible between 12-5 on Wednesdays for scheduling of small group sessions. This scheduling will be completed by the end of the second class meeting - Friday, September 6. Note: the first day of class will be Wednesday, September 4, from 1-3. This is the only time we will meet all together at the same time on Wednesdays. If you do not attend this first day of class, you will be dropped from the roster, unless you speak with me directly before the class meets on Wednesday, September 4. There will be one required text, some optional readings, daily preparation, and an individual or team project required. LS&A guidelines for 4-credit courses expect 3 hours of work per credit hour, hence, you should be prepared accordingly. With more than 4 hours in "class" (a weekly average of 6.25 hours, which includes the small group and individual lessons), there will be proportionally less expected of you outside of class. The required reading will be Miracles Usually Can't Be Learned, a basic vocal text by Jane Heirich, available as a course pack from Kelly's Kopies. (J. Heirich)

Interdivisional (Division 867)

350. Special Topics. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit. May be repeated for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 The Philosophy of Democracy.
Using classical and modern texts, and some landmark Supreme Court cases, we will examine in this course the fundamental principles of democratic process. Our aim will be a moral critique of democracy not its mechanics, but the arguments and counter arguments concerning its justifiability. This one credit hour mini-course will meet on Tuesday and Thursday for five weeks beginning Tuesday, September 19 and ending Thursday, October 19. (C. Cohen)

Section 002 Racism and Ethnicity in Brazil: History and Historiography. (H. Castro)

Natural Science (Division 875)

214/Physics 214. The Physicists and the Bomb. High school mathematics. (4). (NS). (BS).

In this course we will consider the role played by physicists and others in the development of the Atomic Bomb, its precursors, and its aftermath. It deals with technical, political, and ethical aspects of this episode, and also its impact on literature, language, film, and popular culture. Some of the principal players, including J. Robert Oppenheimer and Edward Teller, continue to interest authors and audiences. Individuals who were themselves involved in some of the events will appear. The story will include: The First World War (introduction of aerial warfare and poison gas); European inter-war developments (rise of fascism); "Modern" physics (from the discoveries of x-rays and radioactivity to nuclear fission and fusion); the refugees; preliminaries to the Manhattan project; building the Bomb, the decision to drop the Bomb; Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the Cold War and McCarthy; Big Science; the decision to build the H-Bomb; "In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer"; the nuclear arms race. Readings are drawn from "The Making of the Atomic Bomb" by Richard Rhodes, "The Advisors" by Herbert York, "Hiroshima" by John Hersey, "Black Rain" by Masuji Ibuse, and original documents, memoirs and biographies of the participants. Film and video presentations. There will be short quizzes, research papers, and student class presentations. (Sanders)

250. Ecology, Development, and Conservation in Latin America. Reading and listening proficiency in Spanish; high school biology or environmental science. (4). (NS).
Section 001 Ecology in Latin America.
This course will address problems of environmental conservation and social development for Third World nations, especially in the Tropics of Latin America. The focus will be on the ecological and socio-political dimensions of conservation, with special attention to the effects of South-North interactions. The course introduces students to the concepts and principles of biogeography and of natural and agricultural ecology. There will be special emphasis on ideas and methods for ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems in the topics. The course lectures will be given primarily in Spanish, with bi-lingual discussions when necessary. Guest lectures will be given in English and Spanish. The Spanish-language component of the course will be designed to fit the average proficiency of the students enrolled. Students will be required to write 2-3 short essays during the course, in the format of a text review, in addition to a final paper, which will involve some research, whether a literature review, a survey, an experiment or a project/simulation design. Prerequisite: Reading proficiency in Spanish: high-school biology or environmental science, or permission of instructor. (de la Cerda)

263/Urban Planning 263. Energy and the Environment. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course introduces the concepts of energy and the environment, which then serve as a basis for discussion of pollution, scarcity of resources, technological impacts and the future of humankind. Topics include a survey of non-renewable and renewable resources and current energy use patterns, nuclear power issues, and the prospects for, and problems with, alternative energy scenarios. Possible energy futures for both the developed and developing worlds will be discussed. In particular, we will consider the implications of energy choices in terms of life styles, policies, and ethical considerations. There are no college prerequisites, but students should have quite a bit of experience beyond ninth grade math. (Clay)

343. Scientific Change. Any introductory science course or permission of instructor. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course examines the development of a major debate about the nature of science that began in the 1960s and continues today. The course begins by examining the empiricist view of science that dominated both philosophy and science before 1960 and remains today deeply embedded in the general culture. According to this traditional conception of science, the purpose of scientific inquiry is to produce an objective account of the natural world that existed independently of the inquiry. The application of scientific method ensures the progressive elimination of error and bias in a movement towards an ever more complete picture of the natural world. (In other words, universal truth will eventually out.) This traditional view of science was strongly challenged in the 1960s most prominently by historian of science Thomas Kuhn who argued, in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962), that observation is irremediably "theory-laden," and that science, far from following a logic of development, progresses through irrational changes in what Kuhn called "paradigms" (thereby launching a new usage in the English language). The course will explore the ways in which the work of Kuhn and others stimulated research in the history and sociology of science purporting to show that science is as much a product of its social and cultural environment as an account of natural phenomena. In the final part of the course, we examine some post-structuralist positions on the nature of knowledge, claims that have been stimulated in part by Kuhn's ideas and that have recently claimed some adherents in the history and sociology of science. These positions are far more radical - some would say nihilistic than the position Kuhn developed. But can they be sustained? And, if not, are there ways to conceptualize scientific knowledge that escape the forms of reductionism that characterize traditional empiricism on the one hand and post-structuralism on the other? The central issues addressed in the course are examined with reference to case studies drawn from the history of physics and biology. There will be guest lectures given by scientists and social scientists. Readings will include selections from the following books: Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (2nd ed., 1970)*; Michael Mulkay, Science and the Sociology of Knowledge (1979)*; Norwood Russell Hanson, Patterns of Discovery (1958); Sandra Harding, The Science Questions in Feminism (1986); Nancy Tuana (ed.) Feminism and Science (1989); Peter Novick, The Noble Dream: The "Objectivity Question" and the American Historical Profession (1989); Michael Foucault, Power/Knowledge (1980); Terry Eagleton, Literary Theory: An Introduction (1983); Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar, Laboratory Life: The Construction of; Scientific Facts (1986); Steve Woolgar, Science, the Very Idea (1989). *In the bookstores. Other readings will be available in a course pack. Prerequisites: An introductory science course or permission of instructor. (Wright)

419/SPP 519/NR&E 574/Physics 419. Energy Demand. Basic college economics and senior standing. (3). (SS).

See Physics 419. (Ross)

Social Science (Division 877)

Note to Seniors concentrators in the Social Science Program: Under the requirements for the Social Science concentration, all seniors must write a graduating essay for which they will receive two credits. They MUST, therefore, register for two credit under RC Core 410 Senior Project during Winter Term. Students will then receive regular guidance and feedback from the faculty. To register, you will need an override from Charlie Bright and a letter of permission from the RC Counseling Office.

230. Alternative Approaches to Economic Development. (4). (SS).

Most of the world consists of "less developed countries" with much lower standards of living, at least by the problematic measure of per capita income, than the United States and other "developed countries." The aim of this course is to investigate the sources of these striking differences in economic development and to examine several competing strategies (attempted or proposed) for alleviating global poverty and enlarging the opportunities for human flourishing of those who are worse off. Several prominent theories of economic development, both conventional and radical, will be critically studied, both as to the adequacy of their assumptions (since the very idea of economic development is contestable) and explanatory structure, and as to what degree they make sense of actual cases studied. (Among other cases, the nations of the Caribbean basin will be a special focus of attention.) A further consideration will be potential implications (political economic and ecological) of global development for the already developed countries. A midterm (take-home) and final exam, and a 12-15 page term paper will be required. Class discussion will be strongly encouraged. A series of Cuban films illustrating aspects of development will accompany the course. (F. Thompson)

360. Social Science Junior Seminar. Upperclass standing. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 From Social Contract to Oedipus Complex: Social Science Theory in Bourgeois Europe.
This course will examine closely theories about society, political economy, religion, and knowledge developed in Europe from the late 18th to the 20th centuries. We will read texts by Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Engels, Mill, Darwin, Weber, Durkheim and Freud, and consider their implications for the representation, analysis, and transformation of societies. Students will write short responses each week to the texts, a detailed analysis of a major theoretical work, and a review essay. Students are expected to participate actively in class discussions. (Burbank)

Section 002 The History of Radicalism and Protest Movements in the 20th Century United States. Through lectures, secondary readings, primary documents, and films, this course will explore the history of American radicalism and the key protest movements that existed in the United States from 1900 up to the present day. The emphasis will be on the post-war period. We will look at the ideology, actions and impact of such organizations as the early Socialist Party of Eugene Debs, the CPUSA, the early feminists and the later Women's Liberation Movement, the Civil Rights Movement, the New Left, the Black Power Movement, the gay/lesbian/bi-sexual movement, Native American Activists, Chicano Activists, trade union dissidents, etc. - all in their larger historical contexts. We will analyze the relationship between American radical dissent and the U.S. government; we will ask what the impact of protest movements has been on the evolution of American politics, culture, and institutions; and we will examine what the internal strengths and weaknesses of these various movements were in terms of strategy, ideology, and the politics of race, gender, and class. Students will explore one movement or strain of radical thought in depth in both a midterm and final paper. (H.Thompson)

Section 003 Culture as Environment: Worldviews and Cultural Agendas of Native American Nations. This course gives you the opportunity to learn intensively about a particular Native American group in the context of the long and continuing struggles of Native communities on Turtle Island (as the Americas were called) to survive during the onslaught of European and Euro-American conquest and settlement. We will investigate various groups' origin stories, spiritual world views, resource ecology, land struggles, and cultural agendas. We will use a comparative geographical research method, that of ethnically-sensitive human ecological analysis framed by world view comparison. We will also employ a writing style which includes writing about the data found, the research process, and one's personal engagement with the research. You will be responsible for writing two research papers about a Native American group of your own choosing as well as for participating effectively in class sessions. The course will be taught using collaborative pedagogical methods. This section satisfies the RC Social Science Concentration research requirement. (Larimore)

Section 004 Sexual Liaisons and Gender Politics in Latin American History. Focusing on diverse ways that sexuality has been defined and regulated in the past, historians have begun to challenge universalizing theories of sexual repression and psychological development in favor of culturally and historically specific analyses of the links between sexuality, gender, and social relations power. In this course we will examine a sample of recent scholarship that deals directly or indirectly with the significance of sexual relations and gender to a number of Latin American societies since the colonial period. The objectives of the course are: (1) to understand how historians have defined sexuality; (2) to evaluate the importance of studying sexuality to our understanding of the historical development of the region's various multi-ethnic societies; (3) to analyze the ways that sexual relations or ideologies and their institutional regulation have been linked to relations of power based on gender, ethnic, and class difference; and (4) to observe how and why social definitions and regulations of sexuality changed over time in Latin American societies. (Caulfield)

460. Social Science Senior Seminar. Senior standing. (4). (Excl). May be repeated for credit.
Section 001 Comparative Systems of Family and Reproduction.
In this course I propose to look at the relationship between family and economic systems in a historical and comparative light. The course will constitute an interdisciplinary blend of sociology, demography, political economy, and some anthropology within a comparative-historical framework. It will focus primarily on exploring old and new scholarship on the relationship between "production" and "reproduction" as well as that between property and family systems, and on studying the many dimensions of these relationships in particular, contrasting historical situations. Some of the older theoreticians we will be looking at are F. Engels, Jack Goody, Claude Meillassoux, and some of the newer ones will be Wally Seccombe, Stephanie Coontz, and Nancy Folbre. The course will make general and specific comparisons between "pre-capitalist," capitalist and colonial situations and will do so at the intersection of anthropology, political economy, and demography. (Green)

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