Courses in Biological Anthropology (Division 318)

161. Introduction to Biological Anthropology. (4). (NS). (BS).

The first two units use evolutionary theory to explore human genetics and cellular biology, primate and human morphological adaptation, and the fossil evidence for human evolution. The third unit uses evolutionary theory to understand the behavior of modern humans, including interactions between the sexes. Cost:2 WL:2 (Strassmann)

364. Nutrition and Evolution. Sophomore standing. (4). (NS). (BS).

Examines: (1) the physiology of nutrient utilization from carbohydrates to fats and proteins; (2) the role of diet on the evolution of the digestive system and brain size of non-human and human primates; (3) the archaeological evidence about the evolutionary roots of human diet; (4) the ecological basis of the hunter-gatherer's diet; (5) the dietary habits of western style societies; (6) cultural variability and dietary preferences; (7) cannibalism; (8) lactose intolerance; and (9) accommodation to dietary restriction during development and adulthood. (Frisancho)

368/Psych. 437. Primate Social Behavior I. (4). (NS). (BS).

An introductory course that will familiarize students with the primate order. The major focus of the course will be the behavior of prosimians, monkeys, and apes in the wild. Special attention will be given to results from long-term field studies. Social organization, kinship systems, sexual behavior, vocal communication, competition, and other topics will be described and analyzed from the perspective of modern evolutionary theory. This course can be taken on its own, and serves as an introduction to Anthropology 369 (Primate Social Relationships) and 568 (Primate Behavioral Ecology). Three lecture hours, and one discussion weekly. One midterm, a term paper, and a final exam. WL:1

461. Genetic Basis of Human Evolution. Anthro. 161 or the equivalent, and junior standing; or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The application of genetic theory and data to the interpretation of the course of human evolution. The data include variation both among human populations and among humans and their close primate relatives. Reconciliation of the genetic data with various views of the fossil record will also be considered. Lectures and course pack. Grade based on midterm and final exam. Cost:1 WL:3/4 (Livingstone)

Courses in Cultural Anthropology (Division 319)

Courses are arranged by groups: Introductory Courses, Ethnology-Regional Courses, Ethnology-Theory/Method, Ethnology-Topical Courses, Linguistics, Archaeology, and Museum and Reading and Research Courses.

Introductory Courses

101. Introduction to Anthropology. Primarily for freshmen and sophomores. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 222 or 426. (4). (SS). (This course meets the Race and Ethnicity Requirement).
Section 001.
This course will introduce students to the four major subfields of anthropology: cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and biological anthropology. In the process, we will focus on how each of these subfields helps to explain the cultural, social, and physical aspects of human diversity. An explicit part of this process is exploring how sociocultural differences like gender, and racial and ethnic identity are constructed, and the roles these differences may play in our lives. The first part of the course is devoted to outlining some basic questions that will be addressed throughout the term: What is "culture"? Is there a distinctively human nature? What is the basis of human social groupings, such as culture, race, ethnicity, and class? What kinds of evidence are useful in addressing issues involving human diversity? The subsequent parts of the course will approach specific topics within the discipline both as subjects in their own right and as means to getting answers to these questions. Cost:3 WL:4

Section 026. This introductory course exposes and explores the structures of inquiry characteristic of anthropology and surveys the field's four subdisciplines (biological, archaeological, cultural, and linguistic anthropology), providing a first glimpse of the field's overall context, history, present status, and importance. The principal aim of the course is to help students develop a coherent view of the essential concepts, structures, and intellectual methods that typify the discipline. It stresses unifying principles that link the subdisciplines and thereby create anthropology's comprehensive, holistic world view. It teaches students various ways of learning and thinking about the world's many designs for living in time and space. It prepares them to integrate and interpret information, to evaluate conflicting claims about human nature and diversity, and to think critically. Topics covered include: the nature of culture, human genetics, evolution and the fossil record, the concept of race, primate (monkey and ape) behavior, language and culture, systems of marriage, kinship and family organization, sex and gender roles, economics, politics, and religion in global perspective, the cultural dimension of economic development and contemporary social change, and the emergence of a world system. Required readings may include an introductory text and various paperbacks. Lectures and discussion. Two objective exams (multiple choice and true or false questions) cover the two halves of the course. The second exam is given on the last day of class. There is no final exam and no term paper. Section leaders require quizzes and, perhaps, a short paper. Cost:2 WL:1,3,4 (Peters-Golden)

222. The Comparative Study of Cultures. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 101 or 426. Students with credit for Anthro. 101 should elect Anthro. 327. (4). (SS).

This course explores non-western and western societies and the methods, poetics, and politics of representing of cultural difference and historical change. We will examine the significance of conceptions of time and space, the role of fieldwork and archives in the formation of knowledge, the procedures that distinguish between factual and fictional accounts, and the effects of power in the formation of societies in the context of colonizing and globalizing processes. Our goal is to develop a historical anthropological perspective that will enable us to appreciate the richness of human diversity and the human potential for transformation. Our texts will include anthropological and historical works, fiction, films, visual art, and travel accounts. Classes will involve lectures and discussions. Course requirements include class participation and presentations, quizzes, and several papers and/or take-home examinations. Cost:3 WL:3 (Coronil)

282. Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology. (4). (SS).

This course will combine a presentation of the techniques, methods, and theories of anthropological archaeology with a general survey of world prehistory. Discussion of method and theory will cover field and laboratory techniques for acquiring information about past cultures, methods for using that information to test ideas about past cultural organization and evolution, and current theoretical developments in anthropological archaeology. The survey of world prehistory will focus on four major topics: (1) the emergence in Africa of the first proto-humans, between two and six million years ago; (2) the appearance of the first anatomically and behaviorally "modern" humans; (3) the origins of domesticated plants and animals and the development of the first village farming communities; and (4) the rise of more complex stratified "state-level" societies. The course will be oriented as much toward students with a general curiosity and interest in the human past as toward students who will become eventual concentrators. There will be three one-hour lectures plus one discussion section per week. Requirements: three in-class hourly exams and a final examination, plus 3-4 take-home exercises that give students firsthand experience with the analysis and interpretation of archaeological data. Required readings: Archaeology, by David Hurst Thomas, and Images of the Past, by G. Feinman and D. Price. Cost:3 WL:2 (Sinopoli)

Ethnology-Regional Courses

315. Native American Peoples of North America. (4). (SS).

Native American communities, often deeply rooted in traditional places and voices despite relocations and losses of native languages - all involve strong family ties and histories of local and regional power struggles. In this course, we look at cross cultural dynamics and tribal identities in political encounters between Native American peoples and various others: developers, environmentalists, educators, other governmental authorities, poets, and social scientists, to name a few. Key issues include land rights, family relations, alcoholism, and freedom of religion. We also look at contemporary Native American fiction, non-fiction, and film documentaries as cultural forces which challenge others' constructions of who Native American peoples are. A recurrent question: what are the limits and possibilities of self-definition for Native American peoples, in what circumstances? WL:1 (Bierwert)

402. Chinese Society and Cultures. Anthro. 101 or 222, or any China course. (3). (Excl).

This is a survey course examining revolution and reform in the People's Republic of China from an anthropological perspective. The readings and lectures are designed to illuminate the connections between state and market forces and the ordinary concerns of daily life, such as family, work and religion. Readings touch on each stage of China's continuing revolution, from the 1940s to the present. Themes include family and gender; ritual and religion; ethnicity and nationality; the effects of revolution and reform on rural and urban work; socialist thought and its reevaluations; state economic policies and market reforms; and socialist culture. Half of class time will be used for lectures, the other half for discussion. Students will be expected to lead one or more discussion sessions, prepare a short paper on several of the readings, and write one longer research paper. (Mueggler)

405. Peoples and Cultures of India. Anthro. 101 or 222. (3). (Excl).

Following a survey of the peoples and cultures of South Asia - which will include the Indian sub-continent and Sri Lanka - the course will focus on six culturally salient phenomena: person, family, caste, religion, language, and ethnicity. A course pack in addition to several monographs will constitute the required reading for the course. A paper, a midterm, and a final examination will be required of all students. The course will be structured on a lecture-seminar format. Cost:3 WL:1 (Daniel)

409. Peoples and Cultures of the Near East and North Africa. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides a survey of cultures in the region extending from Morocco to Iran, with an emphasis on Arabic-speaking, Islamic societies. It is equally a course about a region-focused tradition of anthropological inquiry, one marked by important shifts in topics, theories, and styles of account-making. We will consider changing treatments of recurrent themes, including nomads and tribes, rural and urban lifestyles, saint cultures and popular religion, kinship and gender, and the written tradition of Islamic movements. The course will combine lectures with class discussions and the readings will be primarily from recent monographs. Assessment will be based on two take-home exams, with an additional short paper for graduate students. (Messick)

414/CAAS 444. Introduction to Caribbean Societies and Cultures, I. Junior standing. (3). (Excl).

This course provides an introduction to the peoples and cultures of the Caribbean. Topics covered include: the historical origins of the social structure and social organization of contemporary Caribbean states; family and kinship; religion, race, class, ethnicity, and national identity; Caribbean immigration; politics and policies of socioeconomic change. The course is open to both anthropology concentrators and non-concentrators. Films and videos on the Caribbean will be shown when available. Requirements: FOUR 3-5 page typewritten papers, which ask students to synthesize READING and LECTURE materials; participation in CLASS discussions; regular class attendance. Cost:2 (Owusu)

416/Hist. 476. Latin America: The Colonial Period. (4). (SS).

See History 476.

442/ACABS 413/Hist. 440. Ancient Mesopotamia. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

See ACABS 413. (Yoffee)


447. Culture, Racism, and Human Nature. Two courses in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course examines the possible origins of culture to understand the unique behavior and historical development of Homo sapiens. It reviews the theories of Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, and others who have attempted to comprehend that origin and development. The course will trace the salient features of human history and contemporary modernity to discuss and explain the nature of humans. The understanding of the nature of humans and their development will enable the students to comprehend, explain, and resolve racism, part of a pan-human phenomenon. Is racism fundamental to the character of human culture? Is racism, like modernity and its other social problems, a characteristic of civilization? These are some of the questions with which students will wrestle. The course will suggest that many of our modern social problems have a common generation the nature of human culture. That would suggest that the solutions will require a social transformation in the character of human culture. These examinations of human culture will require us to return to the discussions of Leslie White (culture is autonomous) and Alfred Kroeber (culture is superorganic) to determine the possibilities of social transformations that contemporary society may require. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)

Ethnology-Topical Courses

333. Non-Western Legal Systems I. Sophomore standing. (3). (SS).

The nature, function, and development of law. Law and society. Problems of social control: why is law obeyed in societies without courts and in societies with courts. Dispute settlement procedures and the judicial process; civil and criminal law; principles of liability for legal wrongs; women, class and community; the impact of Western law on customary, tribal, or aboriginal law. Case studies from Africa, Middle East, Asia, Europe, the Americas. A good introduction to comparative law from an anthropological perspective. Requirements: four 3-5 page papers, or three 6-8 page student papers. Lecture/discussion format. Cost:2 WL:2 (Owusu)

356. Topics in Ethnology. Anthro. 101. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of six credits.
Section 001 Cuba and Its Diaspora.
This course examines Cuban history, literature, and culture since the Revolution both on the island and in the United States diaspora. In political and cultural essays, in personal narratives, in fiction, poetry, drama, visual artworks, and film, we will seek a comprehensive and diverse view of how Cubans and Cuban-Americans understand their situation as people of the same nation divided for thirty-five years by an iron wall of political differences. Topics to be considered include Afrocuban culture, changing gender conceptions, everyday life under communism, and the construction of exile identity. We will read works by Alejo Carpentier, Fidel Castro, Roberto Fernandez Retamar, Louis Perez, Oscar Hijuelos, Reinaldo Arenas, Lourdes Casal, Nancy Morejon, Coco Fusco, Margaret Randall, and Cristina Garcia, among others. There are no prerequisites for this course. Students will be expected to participate actively in class discussions and to do independent research for a final essay. (Behar)

451/CAAS 459. African-American Religion. One introductory course in the social sciences. (3). (Excl).

This course will examine the nature of religion in the lives of humans, within the framework of culture, and as a pervasive social institution. It will focus on the special case of the intensive and involved character of religion in the history and the lives of Afro-Americans. These special uses of religion create special problems. We will analyze those problems. The course is open to all students and it requires no special background or preparation. There will be two examinations and two short written assignments. Class participation and attendance are required. The required texts are: Afro-American Religious History, M. Sernett; Community in a Black Pentecostal Church: An Anthropological Study, M.D. Williams; The Human Dilemma, M.D. Williams. The course objectives are to: (1) introduce the subject of religion as a social institution, as a pervasive component of culture, and as a contemporary adjustment and adaptation to peculiar social problems, (2) demonstrate how an anthropological analysis can be used to understand religion in contemporary society, (3) develop skills in critical thinking and analysis, (4) present the relationship between culture, institutions, religion, subculture, and the nature of man (humans), and (5) enable students to understand the religious institutions of humans generally and Afro-Americans specifically. Cost:3 WL:3 (Williams)

458. Topics in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). May be repeated once for a total of 6 credits.
Section 001 Evolution of War and Peace in Unstratified Societies.
This course explores the origins of war and the early evolutionary development of war alliance and peace-making. It examines the conditions under which warfare is initiated in socio-cultural contexts where it did not previously exist and elucidates the origin of war in that sense. The course begins with a delineation of the distinctive characteristics of peaceful (or warless) societies that represent both a prior socio-cultural disposition and the context in which primal warfare arises and takes shape. Consideration of peaceful societies illuminates certain key features of the transition from warlessness to warfare and provides a basis for identifying transitional cases. There socio-cultural systems exemplify the causes, conduct and consequences of nascent and early warfare. The subsequent co-evolution of war and pre-state societies is traced, including the development of alliance and peacemaking. Format: lecture and discussion. Requirements: substantial term paper and presentation. Prerequisites: one or two courses in Cultural Anthropology. Cost:2 WL:2 (Kelly)

Section 002 Environmental Justice and Social Welfare. While current ecological problems are the complex results of globally articulated processes, they are experienced differently in different world regions and by people of different cultures, racial and ethnic backgrounds, classes, sexes, and ages. Many environmental risks are borne disproportionately by those groups already the most socially, politically, and economically vulnerable. The notion of environmental justice has been developed in recent years to describe what some theorists and activists regard as a qualitatively new sort of environmental movement, linking concerns with social justice to concerns with environmental quality. This course explores emerging theories of environmental justice and critically examines both their possibilities and limitations for making sense of and organizing social action. Consideration of specific case studies leads us to ask questions about relations between environmental quality and social welfare, social theory, and political practice. The course will be based on lectures, discussions, and readings (including Hofrichter, Richard, ed., 1993, Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice; Bullard, Robert D., ed., 1993, Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots; and Brown, Phil and Edwin J. Mikkelsen, 1990, No Safe Place: Toxic Waste, Leukemia, and Community Action ). Course requirements: Active class participation and three papers (8-10 pages) on course-related topics. (Stephens)


474/Ling. 410. Language and Discrimination: Language as Social Statement. (3). (SS).

See Linguistics 410. (Lippi-Green)

475. Ethnography of Writing. Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

Writing is a social phenomenon and its forms are changing rapidly. This course samples some of the diverse histories and cultures of the written text, including those such as e-mail in the electronic present. We also reconsider the notion of literacy, and such older forms of writing as the manuscript, together with the watershed in human history associated with the printing press. Ethnographies adapt approaches from literary criticism, anthropology, and other fields and involve case studies on practices of writing and reading in a variety of settings such as schools, courts, or the Internet. Assessment will be based on three short papers. (Messick)

476/Ling. 417/German 417. Principles and Methods of Historical Linguistics. Ling. 411 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 417. (Milroy)

478/Ling. 442. Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Ling. 411 or the equivalent. (3). (Excl).

See Linguistics 442. (Milroy)


491. Prehistory of the Central Andes. Anthro. 101, 282, or junior standing. (3). (Excl).

The development of precolumbian Andean civilization, from the terminal Pleistocene (c. 13,000 years ago) through the European contact period (16th century A.D.). The major emphasis is on how anthropological archaeologists and ethnohistorians have studied the evolution of increasingly complex organization after c. 2500 B.C., from early agricultural village society through the Inca empire in the broad region between central Chile and Colombia. At least one course in introductory anthropology is recommended. Students will be evaluated on the basis of a take-home midterm exam (25%), a take-home final exam (50%), and a 10-page term paper (25%). There is no textbook, but a course pack of journal articles will be assembled. Instruction is primarily lecture, but in-class discussion is encouraged. Cost:2 WL:1 (Parsons)

Museum, Honors, Reading, Research, and Field Courses

398. Honors in Cultural Anthropology. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a total of six credits with permission of concentration advisor.
Section 002 Honors Archaeology.
This Honors course sequence in archaeology is designed for undergraduate anthropology concentrators who are specializing in archaeology and who have applied for senior Honors in the Department of Anthropology. This course is divided into two parts. In the Fall term, the students will meet once a week to define research problems in archaeology, to discuss the construction of analytical and mathematical models appropriate for archaeology, and to analyze methods and procedures for solving problems. This seminar provides background which enables students to define a senior Honors thesis project. The second part of the course sequence begins once a thesis topic is selected. Each student in consultation with the Honors advisor may request any Department of Anthropology faculty member to serve as a thesis advisor. Periodically Honors students convene to discuss together their research progress. At the end of the second term of the Honors sequence, each student writes an Honors thesis and presents a seminar summarizing the project and its conclusions. Original field research, library sources, or collections in the Museum of Anthropology may be used for Honors projects. Prior excavation or archaeological laboratory experience is not required for participation. (Speth)

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