Courses in Biology (DIVISION 328)

100. Biology for Nonscientists. Not open to those with Advanced Placement or "Departmental" credit in biology, nor to those concentrating in the biological sciences. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

Biology 100 is a one term course designed to introduce students to current biological concepts. The course consists of three hours of lecture per week plus a coordinated discussion session which occupies two hours per week. Biology 100 provides an introduction to some general principles of biology and concentrates on the areas of cell biology, genetics, evolution, and environmental biology. A major objective of this course is to point out to students the nature of the scientific process and illustrate the uses and non-uses of science in contemporary life. Wherever possible, the ethical and social implications of contemporary scientific effort will be discussed.

This course is designed for students with a minimal background in the biological sciences but we do assume some exposure to biology at the high school level. Discussion sections enroll 20 students and are taught by graduate student teaching assistants. In the discussion section, students have the opportunity to review material presented in lecture and participate in discussions of issues raised in the lecture segment. Cost:3 WL:1; you MUST attend the first discussion section to claim your place in the course. (Goldberg, Osgood)

102. Practical Botany. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($50) required.

Practical Botany is an introductory course in learning how to grow and use plants. Students will learn how to grow, identify, propagate, and take care of many different useful plants both common and exotic ones. The major topics in lecture and laboratory include wine, mead, and beer making; plant propagation by cuttings, and other vegetative means (runners, bulbs, corms, offsets, divisions, underground stems, and plant micropropagation); breaking seed dormancy, and seed germination; forcing spring corms and bulbs into flower indoors; edible wild plants; natural plant dyes and dyeing wool; fall vegetable gardening, organic gardening and composting; alternative means of pest control; plant pruning, including bonsai; landscaping around the home; how to make hanging baskets and terrariums; drying and use of plants for crafts; flower and fruit types and structure as related to pollination and plant breeding; herbs and their uses. Hands-on work by the students is a major part of this course. There are several field trips which emphasize ecology, edible wild plants, and poisonous and medicinal plants, as well as a visit to Peter and Hazel Kaufman's farm at Dexter, MI to emphasize environmentally-friendly landscaping and organic gardening and farming. One of the highlights of the course is a natural and edible wild foods banquet which the students prepare. There are two lectures and one four-hour discussion/lab period per week. The labs are held at the Botanical Gardens (free bus transportation is provided). Required book is PRACTICAL BOTANY by Peter Kaufman et al., available as a course pack (book now out-of-print). Cost:2 WL:3; sign up at 4103B Nat. Sci. (Kaufman)

110/AOSS 171/UC 110/NR&E 110. Introduction to Global Change I. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

The course will consider the evolution of the universe, the Earth and its environments, and the evolution of living organisms. Consideration will be given to fundamental processes by which organisms grow and reproduce, how they interact with their environments, and the distribution of major groups of organisms on earth.

140. Genetics and Society. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS).

This course is designed for students not concentrating in the sciences. The course will provide students with a background in genetics, (1) to allow them to understand and appreciate some of the latest developments in genetics reported in the local and national press, (2) to discuss the social history of the field of genetics, (3) to introduce students to "the scientific method" as applied to genetics, and finally (4) to discuss aspects of genetics which have a bearing on our everyday lives. Topics to be discussed will include, but not be limited to (in no particular order): genetics, race, and IQ; forensic applications of genetic fingerprinting; gene therapy; recombinant DNA technology and possible environmental concerns, T.D. Lysenko and the communist ideal, the human genome project, genetic diseases and therapeutic abortion. The course will meet three times a week, and two hours will be devoted to discussion. Course evaluation will be based on exams (consisting mainly of questions requiring short essay answers) and one or more term papers. Cost:1 WL:1 (Adams)

150. Introductory Biology Workshop. Freshman or sophomore standing. Recommended for students considering a concentration in Biology. (1). (Excl). Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Small groups of students meet weekly with a faculty member for group discussions on topics selected by the faculty member. Topics may include biological issues in the news, history of biological ideas, and ethical issues in biological sciences. Students will be introduced to biological research through discussion of faculty research projects and tours of active research laboratories and museum collections. Such tours will be coupled with discussion of scientific questions being pursued in the laboratories visited. Introductory students will have the opportunity to interact directly with a faculty member who will introduce them not only to the basic areas of scientific research but also to the structure and opportunities available in biology concentration programs. Evaluation of students will be through class participation and short written assignments.

152. Introduction to Biology: Term A. Chem. 130 or the equivalent, or Chem. 210 placement. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

First term of a two-term introductory sequence (152/154) intended for concentrators in biology, other science programs or preprof studies. Other suitably prepared students wishing detailed coverage of biology are also welcome. The aims of Biology 152/154 are: (1) to provide factual and conceptual knowledge, (2) to afford experience in obtaining and interpreting biological hypotheses, (3) to give an integrated overview of modern biology and (4) to develop thinking and writing skills. Topics in Biology 152 are divided among four areas: (a) cellular and molecular biology, (b) genetics, (c) evolution, and (d) ecology. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule ) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 002 or 004 of Biology 152 and ANY lab/disc, plus Biology 153 (see below). For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem.

153. Introductory Biology Honors: Term A. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 152 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). (BS).

Biology 153 is a one-credit discussion course that is meant to be taken concurrently with Biology 152, a four-credit lecture/lab course. The first part of the course will deal with the nature of science and the scientific method. Science will be viewed as an approach to viewing the universe. Subjects that will be covered are the scientific method, hypothesis testing, the roles of logic, creativity, and serendipity in scientific discoveries. From a more practical point of view, the structure of a scientific paper will be analyzed. The topics covered in the second part of the course will vary depending on the instructor. Topics which may be covered are the genetic code and information theory, the revolution of molecular biology, genetic engineering and its ethical and social implications, the evolution of biochemical pathways, the properties of life and the search for life on other planets, the issue of gender, race, and intelligence. Cost:2 WL:1

154. Introduction to Biology: Term B. Biol. 152. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in 195. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (4). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($32) required.

This course is a continuation of Biology 152, and covers the following topics: (a) plant biology; (b) development; (c) animal structure and function; and (d) animal behavior. The aims and format are the same as those for Biology 152. Students MUST: (1) attend 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab/discussion section each week; (2) ATTEND THEIR ASSIGNED LAB/DISC MEETINGS EACH WEEK STARTING WITH THE FIRST WEEK OR THEIR SPACE MAY BE GIVEN TO SOMEONE ON THE WAITING LIST; and (3) RESERVE the times and dates for the midterm and final exams (as specified in the Time Schedule) before enrolling. Students usually purchase a textbook, lab manual and course pack consisting of a syllabus and lecture notes. No other study guides or supplementary materials need be bought. For Honors credit, register in lecture 031 or 033 of Biology 154 and ANY lab/disc. For further information contact the Biology 152/154 office, 1039 Chem Bldg (764-1430). Cost:3 WL:2, but go to 1039 Chem.

155. Introductory Biology Honors: Term B. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 154 and either admission to the College Honors Program or permission of instructor. Credit is granted for a combined total of 12 credits elected in introductory biology. (1). (Excl). (BS).

Evolution, as the study of origins and change in life forms, is a unifying theme in biology. This readings and discussion course will focus initially on the development of evolutionary thought and its basis in evidence. From there we will consider the importance of an evolutionary approach in understanding topics as diverse as, the relative age and distributions of life forms, animal behavior and culture, and the origins and persistence of diseases. In doing so we will discuss the roles of natural selection, chance, and self-organization. Writing, speaking and critical thinking skills will be honed throughout the term. Weekly reading assignments will provide the basis for discussions.

207. Introductory Microbiology. Biol. 152. (4). (NS). (BS).

The course consists of 3 one-hour lectures and 1 three-hour laboratory session each week. The lectures will trace the history of microbiology, microbial growth and metabolism, microbial diversity, and the importance of microbes in the environment, industry and medicine. The laboratory sessions introduce microscopy, aseptic technique, staining, and the isolation, culture, and identification of microbes from the local environment. Grades are based on two lecture exams, a lab grant proposal, and the identification of unknown bacteria. The course is required for the microbiology concentration program, and is appropriate for concentrations in biology, botany, and cell and molecular biology. Cost:3 WL:1 (Mann)

209. Introductory Plant Physiology Lectures. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); college physics recommended. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is offered for students intending to concentrate in botany and related sciences. It is a required course in the botany concentration program, satisfies the physiology requirement of the biology concentration program, and serves as an elective in other concentrations. The content of the course material falls into three sequential parts: (1) plant cell physiology which covers enzyme action, respiratory and carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, lipid metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism; (2) cellular and internal transport, including plant nutrition, ion uptake, cell water relations, plant water relations, and translocation; and (3) plant growth and development in which a variety of factors that influence plant growth and development, such as hormones, light, photoperiodism, and temperature are discussed. The lectures serve as the major source of information, and are intended to introduce the basic concepts and mechanisms that underlie plant functions. Six exams; two exams per part; take-home format. Students must purchase the assigned textbook and a course pack. Because of the highly empirical nature of plant physiology, students are recommended to take the laboratory (Biol. 210) with this course. This course is offered ONLY in the Fall term. Cost:3 WL:3 (Ikuma)

210. Plant Physiology Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 209. (3). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($65) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This laboratory course is offered to supplement and complement the plant physiology lectures (Biol. 209), and the laboratory exercises are organized to follow closely the three main sequential parts covered in lecture: i.e., (1) plant cell physiology, (2) cellular and internal transport, and (3) plant growth and development. Plant physiology is a highly empirical science. The lab exercises are designed to have students experience representative experiments in each of the three parts and learn a variety of experimental approaches used in modern plant physiology. This course serves as one of the three lab courses required in the biology concentration program. Offered only in the Fall. Cost:1 WL:3 (Ikuma)

222. From Message to Mind: An Introduction to Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195. (3). (Excl). (BS).

An introduction to molecular, cellular, and systems-level neurobiology. Topics include: (1) bioelectricity, (2) intercellular communication, (3) sensory transduction and processing, (4) motor function, and (5) the neural basis of simple behaviors. Students will be evaluated by exams, papers, and participation in discussion. There are two lecture hours and one discussion hour per week. (Easter)

224. Biology of Cancer. One term of introductory biology or permission of instructor. (3). (NS). (BS).

The Biology of Cancer is a lecture/discussion course designed to provide students with a basic understanding of the biological events associated with the development of cancer. This course is organized around three fundamental questions: what is cancer, what are the causes of cancer, and can cancer be cured or prevented? Lectures will include descriptions of classical and recent experiments which address these questions, and will also provide students with the vocabulary and background needed to critically read and evaluate technical literature dealing with the subject of cancer. Although introductory biology is a prerequisite for this course, an attempt will be made to accommodate the needs and interests of students of varying backgrounds, including non-biology concentrators. Student performance will be evaluated by a combination of exams and a term paper based upon library research. In order to provide the time required for this library research, the lecture-discussion meetings will be dismissed for approximately two weeks late in the term. There will be no assigned textbook, but some reading will be assigned from the course pack. The class will meet twice a week for an hour and a half; in general, meetings will consist of a one hour lecture followed by questions and discussion. A weekly hour and a half discussion session will also be held. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kleinsmith)

255. Plant Biology: An Organismic Approach. (5). (NS). (BS). Laboratory fee ($60) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

An introductory botany course covering a broad spectrum of topics including principles of plant systematics, evolution, development, and biogeography. The lectures and laboratories concentrate on a group-by-group treatment of plant diversity, ranging from algae and fungi through primitive vascular plants and culminating in flowering plants. The approach is an evolutionary perspective, treating plants as organisms and emphasizing the innovations and structural adaptations of the various plant groups as well as life history strategies. Such topics as pollination biology, plant speciation, and vegetational biomes are included. The course also includes plant growth and structure. Two field trips are scheduled. Two one-hour lectures and two three-hour labs per week. A total of three lecture tests and three laboratory tests will be scheduled. Text: Raven et al., Biology of Plants, 5th edition. Cost:2 WL:3 (Wynne, Frohlich)

301. Writing for Biologists. Biol. 152-154 or 195, and English 125 or equivalent. (3). (Excl).

Biology 301 has been designed to help biology concentrators to improve their writing AS BIOLOGISTS. Competence in writing in biology requires critical evaluation of one's work. In order to encourage the development of critical thinking, students critique published work as well as write essays, reviews, and reports. The heart of the course lies in the weekly interaction between staff and student through discussion both in class sections and one-on-one. A weekly lecture provides structure and continuity and allows consideration of other topics such as interviewing and resume writing, ethics in biology, and the nature of science and creativity. Cost:1 WL:1 (Martin)

305. Genetics. Biol. 152 or 195 (or the equivalent). Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biology 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem. 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is designed for students who are concentrating in the natural sciences, or who intend to apply for graduate or professional study in basic or applied biological sciences. This introduction to genetics is divided into three segments: nature and properties of genetic material, transmission of genetic material, and function and regulation of genetic material. There are three hours of lecture a week and one discussion section directed by teaching assistants. The discussion sections are used to introduce relevant new material, to expand on and review the lecture material, and to discuss problem assignments. Grading is based on examinations covering the lecture material, discussion material, reading assignments in the text, and problem sets covered in the discussion sections. Cost:2 WL:1 (Schiefelbein)

306. Introductory Genetics Laboratory. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Biol. 305. (3). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($45) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course provides students with laboratory experience on basic genetic principles. Students should have already taken or be concurrently taking Bio 305 Genetics Lecture. Students will analyze gene interaction, linkage relationship and mapping of unknown mutants of Drosophila through a series of crosses. The genetic analysis of Sordaria (a fungus) will be done by ordered tetrad analysis. By using molecular techniques, the students will locate certain genes in C. elegans. The experiments in microbial genetics include mapping by conjugation in E. coli, recombination analysis by transduction using bacteria and phage, and complementation tests on "his" mutants of yeast. Students will do karyotyping of human chromosomes by using their own blood cells. One hour lecture on Mondays 12-1 PM and one three-hour lab are scheduled each week; additional 3-4 hours of lab time per week is expected at irregular times. Students are expected to write four lab reports and to keep a complete and accurate record of all results and analyses in a bound lab notebook. There are two tests given during the term. Cost:1 WL:1 (Jeyabalan)

310. Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Introductory Biochemistry is designed to be a general introduction to the chemistry of biological systems. This course will furnish basic information concerning the organization of chemical reactions in cells and will include information on the enzymes that catalyze these reactions as well as on the interactions between different pathways. Topics covered include: amino acid structure and nomenclature, protein structure and function, enzyme kinetics, nucleic acids, intermediary metabolism, photosynthesis, and regulation of metabolism. This is a lecture based course, the final grade is based on three in-class exams and a final. See
for more information. Cost:2 WL:1 (Ocorr)

311(411). Introductory Biochemistry. Biol. 152 or 195; and organic chemistry. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 311, Biol. Chem. 415, or Chem 451. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is taught by a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. Students interact, according to their own schedules, with undergraduate TA's. The student takes both a written and an oral quiz for each of 12 units which is graded and evaluated by the TA. If mastery is attained, the student may proceed to the next unit. Grades are assigned according to the number of units successfully completed and performance on the midterm and final examinations. This system is designed to take into consideration different rates of individual learning as well as to eliminate competition among students. TA's are available approximately 75-80 hours/week. Cost:3 WL:1 (Osgood)

320. Cellular Physiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; Chem. 215 or equivalent. Not open to students who have completed or are enrolled in Biol. 427 or 428. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This lecture course aims to provide (1) understanding of basic functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, (2) appreciation of the evidence that has established our current understanding, (3) through study of how evidence is used, inferences about how science works, and (4) awareness of how cellular and molecular biology contribute to human affairs. Interdependence of intracellular structure and function is stressed, along with efforts to phrase explanations in molecular and evolutionary terms. Course content includes: introduction to cell functions and diversity; membrane structure and function; organelle function and biogenesis; properties of cell surfaces; intracellular transport; secretion; cell cycle; cytoskeleton; and methods for study of cell function. The aim is to provide a selected background in cellular and molecular biology for biology concentrators and others. Most students enrolling have a foundation in biology, and may have completed either genetics or biochemistry. For more detailed treatment, students should take Biology 427 or 428. There is a textbook; purchase is optional, but recommended. Recommended readings are on reserve in the Shapiro Library. Exams include questions which require interpretation of data, formulation or test of hypotheses, and interpretation of experiments. Students whose introductory biology course lacked contents of Biol. 152 or 195 may have greater difficulty with this course, but any difficulty can be overcome via prior study of biochemistry and genetics. Cost:2 WL:1 (Shappirio, 764-1491)

336. Introductory Immunology. Biol. 152 and 154 or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is intended to introduce pre-professional and biology concentrators to the experimental and theoretical principles of immunology. Topics covered will include a detailed study of the organs, cells and molecules that constitute the immune system; the humoral and cellular immune responses; antibodies as biological and biomedical research tools; and the role of the immune system in organ transplants, cancer and AIDS. Grades are based on weekly quizzes and two exams. The course is appropriate for concentrations in biology, microbiology, and cell and molecular biology. Cost:2 WL:1 (Mann)

355/NR&E 337. Woody Plants I: Biology and Identification. Biol. 152 or 195 or equivalent. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

The identification of trees, shrubs, and vines is the basis for the study of their biology and ecology. Woody plants are studied in their natural ecosystems including upland (oak-hickory, beech-sugar maple, lake plain), wetland (swamp, bog), and floodplain forests. Non-native species and ornamental plants are taught in the Saginaw Forest, Stinchfield Woods, Nichols Arboretum, and main campus. An introduction to the biology and ecology of woody plants is given in lectures. Topics include vegetative and reproductive morphology; woody plant biology, ecology, and diversity; variation and genetics; systematics of woody plants; ornamental plants; and winter conditions. Also discussed are important trees of southern and western U.S., China, and the tropics. Field trips are scheduled from 1:00 to 6:00 once a week. Michigan Trees (Barnes and Wagner) is the required textbook. Lecture material is based on the book, Forest Ecology (Spurr and Barnes). Grading is based on 60% on plant identification (field quizzes and exams and indoor identification exams); 40% on lecture material (two hour-exams). Cost:1 WL:2, at SNRE Office of Academic Programs, 1024 Dana. (Barnes and Wagner)

380. Oceanography: Marine Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or equivalent and at least one term of college chemistry or physics, or permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Marine ecology is a study of the organisms and processes of the ocean, including both pelagic and benthic communities. This course teaches physical and chemical aspects, but concentrates on biological aspects of oceanography, and applies ecological and evolutionary principles to the study of marine life. Lectures introduce the major groups of marine organisms and cover the interrelationships of marine organisms and their environments. Organisms and communities from the following habitats are discussed: estuaries, the rocky intertidal, coral reefs, the coastal zone, the deep sea and the open ocean. The course treats organisms as different as bacteria and whales. Fulfills the undergrad Biology concentration requirements for a course in Biological Evolution and Diversity, and is required for the Marine Biology option of the undergrad Oceanography concentration. Grading is based on two one-hour exams plus a comprehensive final. Cost:2 WL:3 (Lehman)

381. General Ecology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent); and a laboratory course in chemistry. (6). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations and communities of both plants and animals. Course topics include the role of physical and biotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, dynamics of single species populations, competitive, predator-prey, and mutualistic interactions, community organization, ecological succession, evolutionary aspects of ecology, and current applications of ecology to problems of environment and resource management. Biology 381 is a suitable prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in ecology. There are three lectures a week and one discussion period. The laboratory meets one day a week for four hours at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, 1800 Dixboro Road. Field trips to outlying study areas are included. Free bus transportation between the Main Campus and the Botanical Gardens is provided. An independent project, several laboratory reports and two one-hour exams, plus a final examination, constitute the main basis of evaluation. Cost:3 WL:1 (Rathcke)

390. Evolution. Biol. 152-154 or the equivalent. (4 in Ann Arbor; 5 at Biol. Station). (Excl). (BS).

This lecture course covers the fundamentals of evolutionary biology with a focus on living organisms. It includes a historical survey of the development of evolutionary theory from ancient philosophers to the present, and critical examination of phylogenetic systematics, natural selection, population genetics, molecular evolution, microevolution, and macroevolution. Weekly discussions will focus on primary literature. Two midterm tests and one cumulative final exam will test students' knowledge of lecture material. Writing assignment(s) based on readings from the primary scientific literature will be required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Tucker)

406. Molecular Genetics of Plant Development. Biochemistry (Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem 415), and Genetics (Biol. 305). (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is focused on the molecular basis of plant development. Emphasis is placed on the genetic and molecular mechanisms employed by plants to generate regular patterns of cells, tissues and organs, and to modify those patterns in response to internal and external signals. The topics include embryogenesis, meristem function, organ formation, gametogenesis, cell differentiation, plant hormone action, developmental responses to the environment, and signal transduction. These topics will be explored through lecture material and class discussions based on the primary literature. Students will be exposed to the design of experimental approaches and the critical evaluation of research papers. Emphasis is placed on the use of model plant species for the dissection of developmental processes at the molecular and genetic levels. Student evaluation is based on participation in the class discussions, a critical paper on a current research topic, and one midterm and the final exam. Cost:1 WL:1 (Clark)

412. Teaching Biochemistry by the Keller Plan. Biol. 311 and permission of instructor. May not be included in any of the Biological Sciences concentration programs. (3). (Excl). This is a graded course. (EXPERIENTIAL).

Undergraduates who previously have taken an introductory biochemistry course act as TA's for Introductory Biochemistry (Biology 311). TA's meet with the instructor for a two-hour class each week for lectures, presentations, and discussions of teaching and biochemistry. TA's also prepare a report on a recent advance in biochemistry which they present to their peers and the instructor. The major roles of the TA's are to examine the students on their mastery of unit material and to help the students with explanations supplementary to the textbook. At the completion of an instructor-generated written quiz, the student and TA grade the quiz together. TA's learn considerable biochemistry by repeated teachings of unit materials and, in addition, profit from their experience as teachers and evaluators. Cost:1 WL:3 (Osgood)

418. Endocrinology. Biol. 152-154 or 195; a course in physiology (cellular, general or comparative); organic chemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course is a comparative study of animal endocrine functions with emphasis on the cellular origin and chemical nature of hormones, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hormone action, general endocrine control mechanisms, the evolution of hormones and hormonal control and their physiological actions in animals. The course will concentrate on the endocrine systems of vertebrates; there will be limited treatment of human endocrinology. Instruction in Biology 418 assumes a basic familiarity with general and comparative physiology. Training in chemistry through organic is essential and courses in biochemistry and cell and molecular biology are helpful. Cost:2 WL:1 (Denver and Duan)

422/Anatomy 422. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Biol. 152-154 or 195 (or the equivalent), one year of physics, prior or concurrent enrollment in biochemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This course deals primarily with the properties of individual nerve cells, and small groups of nerve cells. This provides the basis for understanding information processing by the nervous system, learning and memory, development of neurons, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. Considerable emphasis will be placed on understanding the molecules that endow the nervous system with these properties. In combination with Biology 425 this course represents a comprehensive introduction to neuroscience. Cost:3 WL:1 (Bodmer, Kuwada)

423. Introduction to Research in Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. Concurrent enrollment in Biol. 422; or completion of Biol. 222 or 422, and permission of instructor. (3). (Excl). (BS).

This lab course provides an introduction to experimental approaches in neurobiology. Emphasis is on molecular, anatomical and physiological approaches for studying neuronal function. Among the molecular topics to be covered are analysis of cDNA clones, PCR amplification of DNA and expression of genes in foreign tissues. Among the anatomical topics to be covered are gross and microscopic anatomy of nervous systems, axonal pathway tracing, and immunocytochemical localization of specific neuronal proteins. Among the physiological topics to be covered are intracellular, extracellular and patch clamp recording, as well as the use of computers in the acquisition and analysis of data. This course is intended for students who plan to engage in research in neurobiology. Cost:1 WL:3 (Hume)

427. Molecular Biology. Biol. 305 and Biol. 310, 311, or Biol. Chem. 415, or equivalents. (4). (Excl). (BS).

Comprehensive coverage of the general principles governing the structures, synthesis, and functions of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the context of the cell. Emphasizes understanding methods and interpretation of data. Topics include DNA replication and transposition, chromosome segregation, transcription and translation, the processing of macromolecules, signal transfer, and regulation at various levels. Three lectures per week are supplemented by a 1.5 hour discussion section. There will be two examinations during the term and a final. Cost:4 WL:1 (Helling and Pichersky)

440/NR&E 422. Biology of Fishes. Introductory biology and one additional biology course. (3). (Excl). (BS).

Lectures cover many aspects of the biology of lower vertebrates known as fishes, including evolution, physiology, functional morphology, phylogeny, biogeography, ecology, and reproduction. The systematic position of fish among vertebrates is discussed and exemplary assemblages examined. Special attention is given to the effect of the physical properties of water on form, function, and modes of life of fishes. Evaluation of students is based on two take-home exams, a cumulative closed-book final exam, and class participation. All exams emphasize essay questions that will require a synthesis of class material, and logic examination of novel problems. Take-home exams may include numerical problems. An optional laboratory course (NR&E 423/Bio 441) examines field methods, classification and identification of Michigan fishes. Cost:3 WL:4

441/NR&E 423. The Biology of Fishes Laboratory. Introductory biology and one additional biology course. (1). (Excl). (BS).

Optional laboratory course accompanying Biology 440, providing an introduction to the field methods used in fish biology and fisheries, and examining the diversity of the Michigan ichthyofauna and major groups of world fishes.

442. Biology of Insects. Any college-level biology course. (5). (Excl). (BS). Laboratory fee ($35) required. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This general course covers four-fifths of the Animal Kingdom, giving perspective on invertebrate systems versus the more usual attention to vertebrates. Emphasis is on the whole animal what it is, what it does, how it does it, how it evolved. Lectures cover information and generalizations about insects concerning functional anatomy and morphology; regulation of activity, nervous organization, development, and molting; ovarian and egg structure; embryology; digestion, nutrition, excretion, and respiration; genetics, sex determination, mimicry, and insecticide resistance; social organization; zoogeography, geographic variation, and species; geological history and evolutionary relationships; and flight. In laboratory, observation and description of behavior of living insects, natural history and ecology, collection and observation of living insects in their natural habitats, brief reviews of morphology and anatomy, and recognition of orders and families are emphasized. There are two one-hour lecture periods and two three-hour laboratory periods per week, plus several optional Saturday morning field trips. Cost:2 WL:4 (Moore)

459. Systematic Botany. Biol. 152-154 or 195, (or the equivalent), or Biol. 255; or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Plant biodiversity taught with lectures, color projection slides, trips, specimens, living plants, and laboratories. Emphasis at level of orders, families, and genera, temperate and tropical, to familiarize students with all parts of the world. Focuses mainly on flowering plants but also gymnosperms and pteridophytes. Phylogeny provides the framework: Hypothetical ancestors and different lines are analyzed, e.g., pinks (Caryophyllidae), roses (Rosidae), trees (Hamamelidae), lilies (Liliidae) etc. Subjects like habitats, endangered species, geography, biosystematics, cladistics, floral biology are given special lectures. Plant biosystematics is essential to botanists but the course is needed also by conservationists, ecologists, zoologists, foresters, and ethnobotanists. Some students take the course simply because they enjoy plants. Two midterms, a final, and lab quizzes. Text: Flowering Plant Families, W.B. Zemlefer, U. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. Cost:1 (Wagner)

480. Computer-Aided Inferences in Evolution and Ecology. Senior natural science concentrator or graduate student. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course is for prospective professional researchers in natural science who want to learn the concepts, techniques, and language skills to formulate hypotheses so that computers (rather than mathematics) can derive predictions with which to compare data. Such hypotheses are less constrained by mathematical needs and so can better meet the needs of natural science. The course will provide instruction (or review) in the fundamentals of PASCAL programming, and most techniques will be provided as PASCAL PROCEDURES already written and ready for you to use. No prior programming experience is required, and a working knowledge of high school algebra is sufficient. The course provides instruction (or review) of probability processes can (and must) be made part of your scientific hypothesis. Predictions take the form of probability distributions that can directly impute significance to your observed data. Students work with the data of their choice, and discuss applications of the concepts in their areas of interest. A term project replaces the final exam. Lectures, discussion, computer lab. Cost:1 (Estabrook)

489/NR&E 430. Soil Properties and Processes. Introductory biology and chemistry. (3). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Soil as a central component of terrestrial ecosystems, with a particular emphasis on physical, chemical, microbiological processes as they are related to plant growth. Quantitative analysis and interpretation of field and laboratory data are stressed throughout the course. Temperate forest ecosystems are the primary focus of the course; however, numerous examples are drawn from boreal, temperate, and tropical ecosystems. Knowledge of plant ecology is beneficial and prerequisites include introductory biology and chemistry. Cost:4 WL:2 (Zak)

491. Principles of Systematics. Biol. 152-154 or 195 or permission of instructor. (4). (Excl). (BS). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Biology 491 focuses on cladistics, the most widely accepted approach used to discover species history. All aspects of phylogenetic inference, the philosophical, theoretical and methodological, are reviewed in lecture. Major topics include parsimony, species concepts and speciation, monophyletic taxonomy, vicariance biogeography and conservation, adaptation, and coevolution. In the laboratory-discussion section of the course, relevant microcomputer algorithms are used to test hypotheses from the original literature. There are three essay (take-home) examinations, five laboratory exercises, a term paper, and an oral presentation of the term paper topic. There is no required text; however, all of the many handouts and the original literature that is reviewed constitute the required course pack. Cost:1 WL:1 (Kluge)

494. Evolution and Human Behavior. Introductory biology and upperclass standing. (4). (Excl). (BS).

This course explores the sense in which human behavior can appropriately be viewed as an outcome of the process of organic evolution, and the consequences of this proposition. The principles of modern evolutionary theory are discussed with special reference to their significance for topics like sexuality, mate choice and pair bonds, parental care, nepotism, social reciprocity, and senescence and the life pattern. Emphasis is on evolutionary process rather than pattern, thus on natural selection and how it works; but the course begins with lectures on the pattern of evolution of hominids and the historical geography of humans. Theories of cultural change and learning are discussed, and efforts are made to relate cultural patterns and findings of the social sciences to the human background in biological evolution. A special effort is made to consider difficult topics such as music, art, humor, ethics, and morality. Discussion sections are oriented toward animal behavior to complement the lectures and broaden the course. Cost:2-4 WL:3, course does not close. (Alexander)

495. Plant Population and Community Ecology. A course in ecology. (3). (Excl). (BS).

The course will cover empirical and theoretical approaches to the ecology of plant populations and communities. Topics include plant life history patterns, breeding systems, ecotypic differentiation, population dynamics, mechanisms and consequences of intraspecific and interspecific competition, interaction of plants with other trophic levels, plant distribution patterns, and community organization. Although the emphasis will be on natural populations, managed systems will also be considered. A course in ecology is required background. Grades will be based primarily on a literature review paper and take-home exams. Although there will be a textbook, emphasis will be placed on reading primary sources. The format of the course will be lecture and discussion. Cost:2 WL:3 (Goldberg)

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