Near Eastern Studies

Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies (ACABS) (Division 314)

100(GNE 100/101)/APTIS 100/HJCS 100. Peoples of the Middle East. (4). (HU).

See APTIS 100. (Babayan)

101(ABS 201). Elementary Biblical Hebrew I. (3). (LR).

The purpose of this and the complementary course, 102 Elementary Biblical Hebrew II (Winter Term), is to equip the beginning student with the tools necessary for reading the Hebrew Bible. The course will introduce the student to the grammar of biblical Hebrew; its phonology (the study of speech sounds), morphology (the study of word formation), and syntax (the study of phrase and sentence formation). In addition to mastering the grammar, the student will need to acquire a sizable working vocabulary of the language, for competency in grammar and lexicon best facilitates the goal of reading the biblical text. The grading will be based on corrected daily assignments (i.e., the exercises), 13-14 announced quizzes (one class day advance notice), a final comprehensive exam, as well as attendance and participation. The daily assignments will comprise 25% of the grade, the ten-best quizzes 25% the final exam 25% and attendance and participation 25%. (Krahmalkov, Schramm)

122(ABS 121)/Rel. 122. Introduction to the New Testament. (4). (HU).

Although it has influenced the Western world more than any other book, the New Testament having originated almost 2,000 years ago in the Eastern Mediterranean world is not easy to understand. The course will, first of all, introduce the student to the historical, religious, and social setting of the New Testament. Then, we shall look at the various New Testament writings. They must be allowed to speak for themselves and not be clouded by any denominational or sectarian program. The student will be introduced to the insights and methods of modern scholarship when dealing with questions such as: What did the various New Testament writings really intend to say? How did they say it? Why did they say it? Finally, the problem of the development of early Christian doctrine will be addressed, albeit briefly. Why were some of the early Christian writings excluded from the New Testament canon? The method of instruction will be recitation. There will be two or three exams and a final paper. Cost:2 WL:1 (Fossum)

200(ABS 200/GNE 201)/Rel. 201/APTIS 200/HJCS 200. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Williams, Knysh, Schmidt, Schramm)

201(ABS 401). Intermediate Biblical Hebrew, I. ACABS 102. (3). (LR).

This course is an introduction to the literature of the Hebrew Bible. Texts representing different literary genres and dating from different periods will be read in the original. Students will be introduced to the history of the text of the Hebrew Bible and the problems of its translation and interpretation. Special emphasis will be placed on refining the student's knowledge of Biblical Hebrew through the study of Hebrew syntax. Required books are (1) a copy of the Biblica Hebraica, and (2) a proper dictionary of classical Hebrew. (Krahmalkov)

281(GNE 260). Ancient Egypt and its World. (4). (HU).

What was the world of the ancient Egyptians? The course is an undergraduate survey of ancient Egyptian culture and history. Through lectures, films, and demonstrations, the student will gain an overview of the main periods and trends in Egyptian political history and material culture, as well as an understanding of Egyptian society, religion, and literature. Other topics will include notions of kingship; the status of women; attitudes towards death and strategies for denying it; contacts and relationships with the outer world; principal types of archaeological sites; and hieroglyphs, the ancient Egyptian writing system. A visit will also be made to the Egyptian collections at the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, to see the material remains of Egyptian culture firsthand. Midterm and final exam; two textbooks and a course pack are required. Cost:2 WL:1 (Krahmalkov)

322(GNE 363)/Hist. 307/Rel. 359. History and Religion of Ancient Judaism. May be elected independently of ACABS 321. (3). (HU).

The course covers the history and religion of ancient Judaism from the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE) to the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism (3rd century CE). The liveliness of the period is testified by its many names. For the Jew, it was the "Second Temple Period" the cradle of Jewish civilization. For the Christian, it was the "inter-testamental period" between the Old and New Testament the age in which Jesus was born and the Church arose. For the historian, it was all that and much more. It was an age of great conflicts, in which the Jewish people had to face powerful neighbors and rulers: the Egyptians and the Babylonians, the Persians, the Greeks, and the Romans. But it was also an age of great creativeness, in which different varieties of Judaism (including early Christian movement) developed sophisticated and lasting theologies and restlessly struggled for supremacy or simply survival. During these centuries, the Jewish people found the resources to define their identity and traditions, and two of the most important world religions of our times, Judaism and Christianity, experienced their formative age. During these centuries, the philosophical West met the religious East, laying the foundations of our civilization. Studying this period is a fascinating voyage of self-understanding into the roots of our different pasts as Jews, Christians, and even Americans all modern children of a history that started many centuries in the Middle East. (Boccaccini)

411(ABS 521). Introduction to Akkadian. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to the literary language of the Babylonians and Assyrians. In the first term (this course) the basics of Akkadian grammar will be rapidly presented. There will be weekly homework exercises and in-class recitation. Individual tutoring may be organized, as needed. There will also be an introduction to the cuneiform signs, the script of the ancient texts. The course grade is based on in-class recitations and a number of exams, including a final exam. (The second term of this course progresses to reading of ancient myths from Mesopotamia in the original language and signs.) Cost:2 WL:3 (Yoffee)

413(ABS 440)/Anthro. 442/Hist. 440. Ancient Mesopotamia: History and Culture. Junior standing. (3). (HU).

This course will survey Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian civilization from the first cuneiform documents (ca. 3100 BC) to the fall of the Neo-Babylonian empire (539 BC). Special attention will be paid to the following topics of social and political organization: the rise and nature of early Mesopotamian states; economy in Mesopotamia (redistribution and markets); rural and urban interrelations; Mesopotamian law; Babylonian and Assyrian relations; Mesopotamia and its neighbors (Israel and Persia); the collapse of the Mesopotamian civilization. One textbook and course pack of readings will be the course's texts. Course grade is based on three hourly exams, short written reports on readings, and a term paper. Cost:2 WL:3 (Yoffee)

483(ABS 403). Aramaic, I. ACABS 102. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to Imperial Aramaic through the reading of the Aramaic portions of the biblical books of Ezra and Daniel. Students will acquire a solid foundation upon which to build a further knowledge of other forms of Aramaic, such as Targumic and Syriac. Books required are (1) a copy of the Biblica Hebraica, and (2) a dictionary of Biblical Hebrew an Aramaic. (Krahmalkov)

485(ABS 523). Introduction to Middle Egyptian, I. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A basic introduction to Egyptian hieroglyphics and Middle Egyptian, the classical form of the ancient Egyptian language. We Will use Alan Gardiner's Egyptian Grammar (3rd edition). (Krahmalkov)

542(Hebrew 545)/HJCS 542. The Literature of the Hebrew Bible. ACABS 202. (3). (Excl).

See HJCS 542. (Schramm)

543(Hebrew 548)/HJCS 543. The Bible in Jewish Tradition. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

See HJCS 543. (Schramm)

544(Hebrew 541)/HJCS 544. Tannaitic Literature. HJCS 302. (3). (Excl).

See HJCS 544. (Schramm)

591. Topics in Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Comparative Semitics.
This course will consist of lectures and presentations providing a linguistic description and analysis of Hebrew. Participant in the course must have a good working knowledge of either Hebrew or some other Semitic language, ancient or modern, for purposes of analysis. Principles of Comparative and Historical linguistics will be presented, and the problems of historical reconstruction will be considered. Students will be required to provide a class presentation and a final written paper. Cost:1 (Michalowski)

Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies (APTIS) (Division 325)

100(GNE 100/101)/ACABS 100/HJCS 100. Peoples of the Middle East. (4). (HU).

As an introduction to the Middle East, this course examines the various elements that contribute to socio-political formations in the Middle East. By studying the region's literature, music, art, and film students can examine the important role that the construction of cultural boundaries has played in the political and economic formations of the region. Rather than examining the issues of ethnic and political strife from the vantage point of diplomatic history alone, this class adapts an interdisciplinary approach. The seemingly rigid basis for ethnic and national identification is called into question through the study of feminism, orientalism, and colonialism in the Middle Eastern setting. Students will take a midterm and a final examination. Cost:2 (Babayan)

101(Arabic 101). Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, I. (4). (LR).

This is the first course of a two-term sequence in elementary Arabic. It is designed for non-concentrators and those who need Arabic to fulfill the language requirement. It provides an introduction to the phonology and script of Modern Standard Arabic and its basic vocabulary and fundamental structures. It offers combined training in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. There will be a focus on simple interactive communicative tasks involving teacher-student, student-student and group interactions. Reading and cultural skills are developed through simple short texts and situational dialogues. There will be daily written assignments involving supplying answers to certain drills and questions on reading comprehension passages, filling out forms, and writing short messages and paragraphs. Evaluation will be based on class participation, weekly achievement tests, monthly comprehensive tests, and a final exam. Regular use of the language laboratory or recorded tapes for home use is required to reinforce class work and also to do the recorded assignments. Textbooks: (1) A Programmed Course in Modern Standard Arabic Phonology and Script by McCarus-Rammuny, (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part One by Abboud et al. (Lessons 1-10), (3) Supplementary Enrichment Vocabulary to accompany EMSA by R. Rammuny, and (4) Standard Achievement Tests to accompany EMSA by R. Rammuny. Cost:2 WL:3 (Rammuny, Staff)

103(Arabic 221/201). Intensive Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, I. (6). (LR). Laboratory fee ($16) required.

The sequence of Arabic 103 and 104 is designed for students concentrating in Arabic or those who expect to use Arabic at an accelerated rate. It is primarily intended for highly-motivated students who want to study Arabic for academic purposes. Arabic 103 starts with an intensive introduction to Arabic phonology and script combined with oral basic communication practice. This is followed by short reading selections and situational dialogues including basic vocabulary and fundamental grammatical structures. The course offers combined training in the four language skills, plus practice in using the Arabic dictionary. Course requirements include daily preparation of the basic texts and grammatical explanations, extensive oral and written practice utilizing newly learned vocabulary and structures, and written assignments. These assignments involve answers to certain drills and reading comprehension questions, filling out short forms, and supplying short messages and biographical information. Course evaluation is based on class participation, daily written assignments, weekly achievement tests, monthly comprehensive tests, and a final examination. Textbooks: (1) Programmed Course in Modern Standard Arabic Phonology and Script by McCarus-Rammuny, (2) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic, Part One by Abboud et al. (Lessons 1-15), (3) Supplementary Enrichment Vocabulary to Accompany EMSA, and (4) Standard Achievement Tests to Accompany EMSA. Cost:2 WL:3

141(Iranian 201). Elementary Persian, I. (4). (LR).

Persian has been called the French of the Near/Middle East. Certainly, Persia/Iran has been in the news. Persian is an Indo-European language, related to English, etc. Its literature, as in other arts, is a major part of Near/Middle Eastern and Muslim tradition. Persian 141 is the first term of a four-term sequence. It takes the student through to the basic mastery of the skills of reading and writing, and of comprehension and speaking. Cultural as well as communicative skills are emphasized. By the end of the term the student should be well versed in these skills. Individual students work with the instructor to polish and improve the student's Persian language skills. The objective is language use. Students who have special needs, such as those acquiring the knowledge of Persian for reading purposes, only, or for communicative skills, only, will be given special attention, and special sessions. Similarly, students of Iranian heritage, who may know some Persian in its colloquial form, will find the linguistic and cultural content of this course stimulating.

151(Turkish 201). Elementary Turkish, I. (4). (LR).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish Language, this course aims at introducing and providing the opportunity to practice the basic structures of Turkish. Although it specifically focuses on enhancing spoken proficiency, reading and writing skills are taught and practiced through special readings and written assignments. Students are evaluated in accordance with the provisional Proficiency Guidelines prepared by the American Association of Teachers of Turkic Languages, class participation, achievements in weekly quizzes, a midterm, and a final examination.

153(Turkish 153). Elementary Uzbek, I. (4). (Excl).

This course will introduce students to spoken and literary Uzbek, a Turkish language which is primarily spoken in the newly independent Republic of Uzbekistan. Instruction will be proficiency-based, and will include components of conversation, grammar and syntax practice, composition, and translation. There are no prerequisites. Cost:2

200(Arabic 200/GNE 201)/Rel. 201/ACABS 200/HJCS 200. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Williams, Knysh, Schmidt, Schramm)

201(Arabic 201/231). Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic, I. APTIS 102. (4). (LR).

Arabic 201 continues the process of acquiring proficiency in Modern Standard Arabic. Reading, listening, writing, and speaking skills are developed through short texts, drill practice and interactive exercise and activities. Required outside homework includes daily written assignments and regular use of the tapes that accompany the course text. Evaluation is based on class participation, quizzes, tests, and a final examination. Textbooks: (1) Elementary Modern Standard Arabic (EMSA), Part One (Lessons 21-30), (2) Supplementary Enrichment Vocabulary to Accompany EMSA, and (3) Standard Achievement Tests to Accompany EMSA. Cost:2 WL:3

241(Iranian 401). Intermediate Persian, I. APTIS 142. (4). (LR).

Persian has been called the French of the Near/Middle East. It is an Indo-European language, related to English. Lack, or partial lack, of the knowledge of the monumental historical achievements of Iran is not only due to inadequate coverage by the media, but also to some first and second generation Iranians' failure to inform their children. This course invites students with an interest in world affairs, and those children, and emphasizes not only language, but culture. APTIS 241 continues 141/142. Its objective is to lead the student to the improved mastery of the four language skills comprehension, reading, speaking, and writing. During the course, the student will learn higher levels of language registers, will be exposed to samples of Persian patterns of communicative skills via dialog, samples of expository prose, and of literature. Emphasis is on the use of Persian in these four skills. In addition, multi-media exposure, including video and news material via SCOLA and other means are utilized. Persian is the language of the class, with occasional discussions of linguistic matters in English. Cost:1 WL:1 (Windfuhr)

251(Turkish 401). Intermediate Turkish, I. APTIS 152. (4). (LR).

Part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish. Those who enroll in the class should have completed APTIS 152 or its equivalent. All participants are tested to ascertain their levels of proficiency in the language and results determine the strategy to be followed by the instructor. Normally the first few weeks are devoted to structures and syntax not covered in the first year. The text used for this is G. Lewis' Teach Yourself Turkish or its new equivalent, M. Galin's Turkish Sampler is used for reading. The learning is done through exercises, compositions, reading, translation, and conversation. Student evaluation is based on class performance, written work, a midterm and final, as well as a text to determine level of proficiency. (Stewart-Robinson)

381(Arabic 440). Introduction to Arab Literature in Translation. Taught in English. (3). (HU).

Materials in English translation will illustrate the progression of Arabic Literary culture from the earliest recorded sources to the present. Lectures and discussion, along with audio-visual materials, will introduce the essentials of the history of the Arabs and the cultural context expressed in their writings. Examination of pre-Islamic poetry will lead to discussion of the religious and historical texts of Islam. The literary legacy of the Caliphal period will be presented. The Arabian Nights will be seen to illustrate the popular culture of the times. Bell-lettrist works and those of the Arab explorers, scientists, and philosophers will be sampled. The contacts between the Arab world and the West in the modern era will be seen to have resulted in new departures in Arabic Literature, with the rise of the play, the short story, and the novel. Particular attention will be given to the works of Naguib Mahfouz, the Egyptian winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. Students will write a series of short papers commenting upon aspects of the works assigned. Credit will also be given for attendance and for class discussion. A professor of Arabic literature, the instructor is a much-published translator and commentator on Arabic literature. (LeGassick)

403(Arabic 421/401). Advanced Intermediate Modern Standard Arabic, I. APTIS 104 or 202. (6). (LR). Laboratory fee ($7) required.

This course emphasizes the use of Arabic language. That is, students will develop the ability to: (1) communicate/speak in Arabic with native speakers of Arabic; (2) understand spoken Arabic; (3) read and understand selected readings taken from various genres of modern prose fiction and non-fiction as well as Arabic newspapers and magazines; and (4) enhance writing skills. Use of Arabic is emphasized throughout the whole course based on communicative approaches to learning. Course grade is based on class attendance and participation, written assignments, weekly quizzes and tests, and a final exam. Required text: Peter Abboud, et al., Elementary Modern Standard Arabic Part II (lessons 30-45), Supplementary Enrichment Vocabulary to Accompany EMSA, and Standard Achievement Tests to Accompany EMSA. Successful completion of Arabic 403 will fulfill the LS&A language requirement.

431(Arabic 430). Introduction to Arabic Linguistics. APTIS 202 or 403. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

Arabic 431 is an introduction to the modern linguistic study of Arabic structure and its historical and social background. It is designed to accommodate both the Arabic concentrator with little training in linguistics and the linguistics concentrator with no knowledge of Arabic. We will cover historical linguistics and dialectology, and the micro linguistic fields of phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. Meetings will consist of lectures and discussions. The approach will be a cooperative investigative one; participants will be encouraged to draw on their varying backgrounds to contribute to class discussions. Student evaluations will be based on preparation and participation, and on a term-long project examining the various aspects of a chosen dialect as these aspects are taken up in class and culminating in a final paper. Readings will be made up of a common core of articles, supplemented with more advanced or Arabic texts according to student demand. Cost:1 WL:1

465(GNE 483). Islamic Mysticism. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

Beginning with the Qur'anic origins of Islamic mysticism and its early Christian and ascetic influences, this course will explore the central themes and institutional forms of Sufism, a stream of Islam which stresses the esoteric (mystical) dimensions of religious faith. It will reflect upon the inward quest and devotions of Muslim mystics as these have been lived and expressed in art, theology, literature, and fellowship since the 8th century CE. Concepts of the self, divine love, self-perfection, the mystical path with its states and stages, and mystical knowledge will be introduced through a study of key philosophical and didactical treatises of Sufism as well as specimens from its rich tradition of ecstatic mystical poetry. Course requirements include three short papers, a class presentation, and a term paper. Format: lectures and discussions. (Knysh)

485(GNE 445). Classical Near Eastern Literature. Taught in English. (3). (HU).

The seventh century AD irruption of the Arabs out of their peninsula had a significant impact on the arts of the rest of the Near East. Armed with a well developed poetic system and fortified by Islam, they blended well with the existing literary systems of the Persians and the Turks. This course surveys the literary creations of the Arabs, Persians, and Turks from the fifth to the eighteenth century and includes a section that focuses on similar developments in Hebrew. Each of the four literatures is taught by a different faculty member. Student evaluation includes a written summation, at the end of each segment, of what was treated in each segment, a one hour examination at the end of the Persian lectures, and a two hour final examination at the end of the term. (Graduate students are expected to write a paper). The required texts are specially selected and either photo-copied and available in course pack form or placed on reserve in the Shapiro Library. There are no prerequisites, but APTIS 100 or some other background course on the Near East is recommended. Cost:2 WL:3 (Stewart-Robinson)

494(GNE 435). Literary Analysis and Theory. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

The study of Near Eastern literatures from the viewpoint of contemporary literary theories is fairly new. This course offers an introduction to that study. The emphasis will be on the practical application of major literary theories. These will be surveyed in the first part of the course, together with analysis done and discussed jointly by the class. In the second half of the course, the major Near Eastern literatures, ancient or modern, will be introduced, and sample texts jointly analyzed, with emphasis on the literatures represented by the participants. Participants will take turns in presenting assigned readings, taking minutes, and analyzing assigned texts and, later, texts of their choice. The latter will form the basis for their term paper. Evaluation will be on these assignments and class participation. (Windfuhr)

501(Arabic 501). Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition. APTIS 404. (3). (Excl).

The objectives of this course are to develop fluency and accuracy in understanding, speaking, and writing modern standard Arabic, and to expand students' awareness of Arab-Islamic culture and civilization. The course is based on a variety of literary texts and authentic cultural audio-visual materials including slides, video cassettes, and films. The course materials reflect not only the literary but also the cultural, social, and political trends of contemporary Arab society. Occasionally, students are required to read outside topics and give brief presentations. Evaluation is based on daily preparations, weekly written compositions, monthly tests, and a final paper in Arabic. Textbook is Advanced Standard Arabic by Raji Rammuny, Parts One and Two. (Rammuny)

541(Iranian 541). Classical Persian Texts. APTIS 242. Taught in English. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for credit with permission of instructor.

This course involves the reading and literary analysis of texts from major authors of the classical period (ca. 950-1500) and includes basic skills in reading aloud and the use of the rules of prosody in scansion and interpretation of poetry texts. It will include shorter or longer passages from such writers as Ferdowsi, Nezami, Rumi, Sa'di, Hafez, Bayhaqi, Nezami-ye Aruzi, and others, according to the interests of the class and the instructor. There are midterm and final exams. The texts are in the form of a photocopied course pack. (Babayan)

551(Turkish 511). Readings in Ottoman Turkish. APTIS 252 and 452. (2). (Excl).

This course is the next stage in the acquisition of proficiency in the reading and interpretation of Ottoman printed or archival material in the Arabic script dealing with the literature and administration of the Ottoman Empire until the early nineteenth century. The texts that are read in this course are photocopied and distributed in class. Evaluation varies. (Stewart-Robinson)

553(Turkish 501). Modern Turkish Readings. APTIS 252. (2). (Excl).

Since this course is part of the departmental sequence in modern Turkish, admission to it is dependent on satisfactory completion of APTIS 252 or its equivalent as determined by the instructor. It is designed to further develop reading and comprehension competence in a variety of modern Turkish styles; newspaper and learned articles, political tracts, government publications, etc. The method of instruction is through recitation including preparation, reading and oral or written translation of texts in class or at home with discussion of grammar, style, and content. Students are evaluated on their class preparation, a midterm, and a final examination. Among the texts used are A. Tietze's Advanced Turkish Reading and a collection of photocopied materials. Cost:1 WL:3 (Stewart-Robinson)

561(Arabic 551). Modern Arabic Fiction, I. APTIS 202 or 403. Taught in English. (2). (Excl).

Selected examples of contemporary imaginative prose writing, such as short and long fiction and drama, will be studied. Readings will be in Arabic, and class discussion will be in English. (LeGassick)

563(Arabic 553). Modern Arabic Nonfictional Prose. APTIS 202 or 403. Taught in English. (2). (Excl).

This course introduces the work of major Arab writers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Variable in focus according to the interests of the class, readings are selected for translation, analysis, and commentary. The course explores the historical progression in the development of political and societal theories in modern times in the Arab world. (LeGassick)

581(Arabic 521). Medieval Arabic, I. APTIS 202 or 403. Taught in English. (3). (Excl).

An elementary introduction to Classical Arabic, the language of the Koran, traditions of the prophet Muhammad, pre-Islamic and later medieval Arabic poetry. The course begins with the alphabet, study of verb paradigms, and the most important syntactic structures. After about six weeks, students will begin to read easy selections from medieval Arabic prose.

591. Topics in Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Islamic Studies. (3). (Excl).
Section 001 Inner Asia: Creating Nations: Central Asia in the Modern Era.
This course will survey Central Asia in the 19th and 20th centuries, from the period of independent khanates to conquest by neighboring empires, from the contestations of the "Great Game" to nationalist movements and communist revolutions, from collectivization to recent independence. Primary emphasis will be given to internal developments and external relations of the lands which are now called Kazakstan, Kirgizstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan (formerly Russian/Soviet Central Asia); the course will also examine China's Xianjian Province (sometimes called East Turkistan). Thematically the course will include discussions of imperialism, colonialism, and orientalism; the development of nationalism in a non-western context; and the impact of modernization and socialism on Islamic and nomadic culture, on social structures, and on women's lives. (Kamp)

Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies (HJCS) (Division 389)

100(GNE 100/101)/APTIS 100/ACABS 100. Peoples of the Middle East. (4). (HU).

See APTIS 100. (Babayan)

101(Hebrew 201). Elementary Modern Hebrew, I. (5). (LR).

The focus of instruction is on the development of basic communication skills in standard modern Hebrew. Speaking, writing, reading, and listening comprehension are emphasized in classroom activities in an appropriate cultural context. Class discussions and activities are exclusively in Hebrew.

200(Hebrew 200/GNE 201)/Rel. 201/ACABS 200/APTIS 200. Introduction to World Religions: Near Eastern. (4). (HU).

See Religion 201. (Williams, Knysh, Schmidt, Schramm)

201(Hebrew 301). Intermediate Modern Hebrew, I. HJCS 102. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in Hebrew 311. (5). (LR).

The focus of instruction is on the four basic communication skills, with a continued emphasis on oral work and writing. A greater emphasis is put on the acquisition of a rich vocabulary in several language domains. In addition to reading texts, there is an extensive use of authentic video materials. Class discussions and activities are exclusively in Hebrew.

296/Judaic Studies 296/Rel. 296. Perspectives on the Holocaust. (4). (HU).

A study of the Holocaust as a historical event and its impact on Jewish thought and culture. We first survey the historical context: the European Jewish community on the eve of the destruction, and the events leading up to and culminating in that destruction. We will then focus on inner Jewish (and Gentile) reactions to the Holocaust, and broader philosophical and ethical implications. We ask: What are the problems (moral, emotional, conceptual) in reading and writing about the Holocaust? What are its implications for those of us who come "after"? The course is also a meditation on visions of the Other, on ethnic-religious hatred, tolerance, and healing. Memoirs, poetry, fiction, psychological literature, as well as theology, music, film, and architecture will be explored; and conversations with survivors. Take-home midterm; final exam; 5-8 page paper; journal option. Cost:3-4 WL:1 (Ginsburg)

301(Hebrew 401). Advanced Hebrew, I. HJCS 202. (3). (Excl).

This course is an introduction to readings in Israeli fiction and non-fiction texts, with an emphasis on discussion of the texts and written assignments. The course includes further advanced work on language structures and enrichment of vocabulary. Class discussions and activities are exclusively in Hebrew.

373(Hebrew 373)/Judaic Studies 373. Israeli Culture and Society. (3). (Excl).

This course offers the opportunity to study Israeli society as a culture in formation. Attention will be focused on the different bases of Israeli identity. The analysis will include a consideration of the ways in which the particular history of the state of Israel are reflected in the national culture. In addition to the reading of both primary and secondary sources, films will be shown. Requirements for the course include a midterm and final exam, compilation of a dialectical journal and a paper. Course taught in English. (Bernstein)

401(Hebrew 403). Hebrew of the Communications Media, I. HJCS 202. (3). (Excl).

The social genre of the communications media (newspaper and television) serve as the basis for discussion of current events, readings and writing tasks. Unedited newspaper selections are read and television news broadcasts will be used in the classroom. Students' special projects, in the form of debates and individual papers, constitute an important part of the course assignments. Class discussions and activities are exclusively in Hebrew. (Coffin)

471(Hebrew 451). Introduction to Modern Hebrew Literature, I. HJCS 302. (3). (Excl).

The course is run on a seminar basis. The reading selections explore various themes in modern Hebrew literature with an emphasis on the beginning of the century to the writers of the '50s and '60s, known as "The New Wave." Student participation is an important aspect of the course. The final grade will be based on class participation, short writing assignments as well as presentation of students and a final research project. An advanced knowledge of Hebrew is required for the course. (Bernstein)

477(GNE 478)/Judaic Studies 478/Rel. 478. Modern Jewish Thought. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 9 credits.

An exploration of selected 20th century Jewish thinkers and their response to the crisis of modernity (and post-modernity): the breakdown of traditional Jewish culture and its system of meaning; the encounter with, and assimilation of, Western culture; the impact of the traumas of World War I and the Holocaust; and the contemporary quest for intimacy and tikkun, or "healing." Authors studied include Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, AJ Heschel, and the radical theologian Richard Rubenstein; the Hebrew authors Bialik and Agnon; the feminist theologian Judith Plaskow; and the mystically inflected work of Arthur Green. Lecture and discussion; take-home midterm; 10-15 page paper; final. Cost:3 WL:1 (Ginsburg)

542(Hebrew 545)/ACABS 542. The Literature of the Hebrew Bible. ACABS 202. (3). (Excl).

Copious selection of readings in the several different genres: narrative, law, prophetic poetry, psalmody. Attention will be concentrated not on philological problems but rather at gaining a control of the text as it is. Grade will be determined by performance in class and two brief examinations, one of which may be replaced by a term paper with an oral presentation in class. (Schramm)

543(Hebrew 548)/ACABS 543. The Bible in Jewish Tradition. Permission of instructor. (3). (Excl).

A lecture with seminar dealing with the development, canonization, transmission, and the reading of the biblical text as a foundation document for Jewish Civilization, with reference to the classical interpretations found in Midrash, the Targumim, and the medieval commentators. Grade will be determined by performance in class, an exam, and a brief research/seminar report. (Schramm)

544(Hebrew 541)/ACABS 544. Tannaitic Literature. HJCS 302. (3). (Excl).

The reading of selections from the Mishna or the Midrash, as determined by student interest, together with the relevant biblical source texts. Grade will be determined by class performance and two brief exams, one of which may be replaced by a term paper with an oral presentation in class. (Schramm)

571(Hebrew 551). Israeli Literature, I. HJCS 302. (3). (Excl). May be repeated for a total of 6 credits

This course is a run on a seminar basis and is based on a selection of contemporary Israeli works of fiction, films, and plays. Emphasis is on readings, discussion, and analyses. Contemporary short stories, novels, poems, and plays serve as the basis for discussion. Grades will be based on written and oral assignments and two examinations. An advanced knowledge of Hebrew is required for the course. (Coffin)

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